The Importance of Micro, Small and Medium Sized Enterprises.

 

A definition of micro and SMEs.

Micros and SMEs defined as follows – micros: 1-9 employees, Small: 10-49 employees and Medium: 50-249 employees.

I include sole operators in the definition of micros.

The key to prosperity.

The importance of micro and SMEs cannot be over emphasised. They are central to the country’s economy and in the future will play an increasingly strategic role in rebuilding and rebalancing the economy. They also could be a much greater player in creating high quality apprenticeships.

The government seems to recognise the importance of apprenticeships and is promoting them as playing a central role in addressing and solving the current skills gaps/shortages and the high levels of youth unemployment. The government also seem to highlight the importance of micros and SMEs but the reality is very different. In spite of statements by successive governments very little has been done to support them. These enterprises are trying to survive in the current hostile financial and competitive market and urgently require long term and meaningful support from the government and not just sound bites, empty rhetoric and tokenistic gestures. To date innumerable initiatives and campaigns extolling the importance of micros and SMEs have come and gone without any lasting impact or improvement. In addition successive governments have launched a number of glossy marketing campaigns extolling the virtues of SMEs and apprenticeships which again have had little positive outcome.

We wait with great anticipation following the appointment of a new Minister for small enterprises in the current government noting she has experience in such enterprises. In addition to this appointment the government has announced “a new industrial strategy” but we have heard this many times before from previous governments with no lasting positive impact.

Overall there have been very few politicians or their advisors who have been involved directly or indirectly in such enterprises and as a result their knowledge and appreciation of such industries is minimal. History also shows that political parties are more supportive towards and involved with the larger and multinationals company’s.

A good example of this indifference is the current development of apprenticeships. Micros and SMEs have to confront a number of challenges when getting involved with apprenticeships many of which could be removed with government support. Factors such as constraints of time, human and financial resources and the poor availability of high quality of broad band on which many micros and SMEs depend. These elements and others make it difficult for them to get involved with apprenticeships and there must be a greater recognition and positive action by the government in recognition of their importance and the strategic role that they could play. Long term financial support is urgently required by from government coupled with a significant reduction in administrative burdens that are imposed on small businesses.

Equally important, the micros and SMEs need to improve their profile by creating a single voice to articulate and hence lobby their role and importance to the national economy and the emerging apprenticeship programmes. This is even more pressing following the EU vote and the Micros and SMEs must be involved and play a significant role in influencing the negotiation of operating terms with the EU if this country is to leave the Union.

Currently the take up of apprenticeships in Micros and SME’s is low and could be much higher if more support is given to them. The last two governments were far more supportive of the larger enterprises like IBM, British Gas, Royal Royce and Sky in developing apprenticeships; it is time to change the emphasis.

Plumbing and heating engineering is a good example of a strategically important profession which has approximately 100,000 SMEs with 60/70% falling within the micro’s definition. This trade would greatly benefit from high quality apprenticeships that would greatly help the current skills gaps and shortages in the profession. Similar problems exist with other strategically important technical and practical occupations.

Summary

  • In order to support Micros and SMEs administrative burdens such inspections, planning and procurement and other bureaucrat procedures must be significantly reduced or removed altogether.
  • They must play a significant role in the proposed new industrial strategy recently announced by the government and work closely with the new Minister and her Ministry.
  • Establish systems to enable them to access finance more easily from banks and other financial organisations.
  • The introduction of financial incentives to increase research and development within Micros and SMEs.
  • Assist micros and SMEs to develop and improve their ITC skills*
  • Introduction of more favourable tax regimes and business rates coupled with a recognition and greater appreciation of the challenges confronting Micros and SMEs.
  • Government to review the level of corporation tax imposed on micros and small enterprises
  • Support them to massively expand apprenticeship programmes by reducing bureaucratic procedures and financial levies that are imposed on them.
  • The enterprises must create a single voice to raise their profile and lobby outside bodies including the government and EU.
  • Micros and SMEs must introduce mechanisms to improve networking and working relationships with other key organisations such as colleges, professional bodies and qualification awarding organisations.

A recent survey showed that the majority of micro/small enter

Memories of Portsmouth College of Technology

Personal Note.

Following the announcement of the reintroduction of grammar schools I thought a personal recollection of my experience of the 11+ and the selection system that resulted in the 1940/50/60s will highlight the real concerns I have on this divisive proposal.

My first memory of Portsmouth College of Technology was in September 1959 climbing the steps at the entrance of the Park Road building. I was about ‘embark’ on a GCE ‘O’ and ‘A’ levels course having just left Hilsea Secondary Modern School. I was one of the millions labelled failures at 11 and have the distinction of failing it twice. This was  as a result of me taking it first in in Malta and then after returning to England experiencing the differing interpretations made by two Local Education Authorities in deciding which date I could  transfer to secondary school namely the 1st September  and by a coincidence this was my birthday!

Even though I have very strong feelings about the 11+, my experience at Hilsea was one I would never regret with great teachers most of whom had been emergency trained after the war. Their lack of pressure preparing for the so-called academic examinations e.g. GCE ‘O’ Level and an enlightened curriculum with plenty of practical classes provided in a relaxed environment. With the support and encouragement of the school staff and wonderful parents I decided to enrol at the college after leaving school. Colleges during the time of the 11+ were among the few places to offer a second chance opportunity to young people who had failed the 11+ examination (and the later exam at 13)  who did not want to go to Grammar or Secondary Technical Schools, the Dockyard school or into employment at the school leaving age at 15.

Portsmouth College had a good reputation and offered a wide range of subjects and examination boards for young people and adults wanting a second chance. My chosen subjects were in science and mathematics. The lecturer was an amazing individual, Mr Tribe – if my memory serves me right his first name was Donald – he actually taught all the ‘A’ level subjects I studied namely Physics, Pure Mathematics and Applied Mathematics!    He was an excellent teacher and a wonderful character and I can still see him tapping to free the magnetic pointer on the dial of a magnetometer with his smoking pipe during practical classes.

His office was off a very narrow spiral staircase at one end of the Park Road building which seemed to complement the general state of the Park Road site with its highly polished woodblock floors with their distinctive smell and the sepia wall tiles that lined the corridors. In time I gradually gained confidence in my abilities as I progressed through the course and towards the end of the ‘A’ levels in 1961 Mr Tribe encouraged me to stay on and enrol on the Physics degree programme which was just starting at the college. Portsmouth College of Technology had been approved to run London external degrees both at the General and Special levels. This accreditation reflected the growing reputation of the institution through both its highly regarded teaching and emerging research activity in a number of disciplines that laid the foundations for its Polytechnic and ultimately University status.

Following Mr Tribe’s encouragement I had an interview with Dr Roger Parker who had moved from University of Wales Bangor to establish a Physics Department at the college. He was another unforgettable character a larger than life individual in many ways but a first rate physicist and teacher. Eccentric and unpredictable he helped to create a very highly regarded department both in terms of research and teaching. After the interview he encouraged me to enrol on the Special Honours Physics Degree programme which I gladly did.

I remember an amusing episode during one of Dr Parker’s subsequent lectures on relativity when he spotted half way through the lessons he was wearing a child’s gun holster. He pointed out in his mid-European accent that he had been playing cowboys and Indians with his children that morning.   Dr Parker was ably supported by a group of very good lecturers including Tony Pointon (a brilliant teacher and tutor), Dennis Elwell, Ruth Gee and Jim Scane; all were very supportive and tuned to our needs.

The external degrees of London University were very challenging both for lecturers and students compared with the advantages experienced by those enrolled on internal degrees but nevertheless gave an excellent preparation for the subjects studied. For example the students were unseen and unknown by those who set and marked the examination papers as they had not taught us. In addition the students were required to sit the practical examinations at Imperial College in London which itself was a somewhat unsettling experience because of the unfamiliar surroundings and facilities (see article of external degrees on this website). But I survived and eventually achieved with a 2 (1) In Special Physics. At that stage I had the confidence to continue my studies in Physics and left Portsmouth and gained a PhD at Essex University in solid state physics and then entered a career in teaching initially in schools then in the FE/HE sector.

One of the major reasons for making a career in FE/HE was to be part of an education sector that had given me my chance to advance after leaving school so in a sense I wanted to repay my debt to the college sector. At this time colleges like Portsmouth really did provide learning opportunities for many labelled failures at 11 and 13. My experience and memories of the college were all positive. I owe a great debt to the college and the staff and am proud to be a past student of the Institution. It was a place where no-one denied what a challenge it was to both succeed and not pretend that the damaging and insensitive 11+ plus system didn’t matter anymore. I was very lucky to live in Portsmouth with the College of Technology many others did not have that advantage because of the massive variations across the country – something that will now be introduced if the number of grammar schools increases. Luck and chance should not be part of the education system and the present post code lottery must not increase further.

One negative consequence of selection by the 11+ examination was that many of my classmates were more intelligent than me but did not have the support of parents or were demotivated as a result of the 11+ experience; left school with little or no qualifications and were subsequently employed in a series of poorly paid jobs. In those days (circa1958/9) lots of jobs existed with little employment security and were poorly paid. Also the 11+ failures did experience a sense of being seen by society and employers as second class when compared with grammar and secondary technical schools pupils– that stigma was very real and manifest to many of us – I have experience of this! Therefore I am irritated and angered when politicians extoll the advantages of selection and grammar schools when they have no direct experience of what it means to be judged at 11.

At present there are 163 grammar schools in England (out of approximately 3,000 state schools) and 69 in northern Ireland while none exist in Scotland and Wales and both these home countries have no intention of changing that situation.

Final views.

The reintroduction of grammar schools will:

  • be a disaster and be very retrogressive and divisive
  • not increase social mobility except for the more wealthy parents and increase the post code lottery.
  • create a more academic curriculum and the schools will not involve vocational , practical or technical programmes to any significant level
  • further increase the complexity of the educational landscape
  • create further confusion in employers, parents and pupils/students when looking at education and training opportunities
  • widen social inequality and will further disadvantage those who will not gain a place at the grammar school
  • penalise late developers and those who have a phobia over examinations just as the original 11+ did.
  • the last thing the country needs at this time when it is already struggling to improve its poor education and training system!

(If any readers are interested in my views on technical and commercial education and training in this country please take a look at this website and www.techedarchive.org

 

Footnote:

It would be great if any of my contemporaries could provide more detail about the staff and Portsmouth College of Technology.

 

A Short History of Technical Education – Chronology

Updated  August 2016.

Some important Education Acts, Command Papers (C./Cd./Cmd./Cmnd./Cm.), Policy Statements, Circulars (Cir./Circ.), Memorandum (Memo), Administrative Memorandum (Admin memo), College Letters. Publications, Pamphlets, Research Reports (RR.), Research Briefs (RB.) and other important publications along with various relevant initiatives related to technical education and related areas to the education in schools and HE. In addition a number of founding dates for societies, institutes that have been associated with technical and scientific education and training are given the list cannot hope to be complete but is meant to illustrate the development of such organisations. I have tried also to include material that also relates to Wales, Scotland and Ireland. In addition I have included information on inventors and their inventions during the Industrial Revolution which highlighted and provided the impetus  to develop technical education and training system.

Note from the author: As this is the fifth version of the chronology errors and omissions will still have occurred so I would be very grateful for any corrections or additions to the list from readers – thanks.

Key:

Command papers acronyms over the years: C. – 1870 to 1899. Cd. – 1900 to 1918. Cmd. – 1919 to 1956. Cmnd. – 1956 to 1986. Cm. – 1986 – present.

Updated and amended – August 2016

1300 – 1799

597 First Grammar School founded in Canterbury.
1180+ Oxford and Cambridge Universities founded. Constituent colleges established over the following centuries – 1180+. For example Oxford University College founded, Balliol 1260 and Merton 1264,
c1250 The Craft Gilds founded.
1411 St Andrew’s University, Scotland, founded. (Bishop Wardlaw).
1450/1 Glasgow University founded.
1494 Aberdeen University founded. (Bishop Elphinstone).
1496 First Scottish Education Act (James IV). 1505 First chair in Chemistry at University of Aberdeen.
1560 250,000 tons of coal produced.
1563 Statute of Artificers (Apprentices) instituted (62?). Apprenticeships became a national system. (Legal apprenticeships 1562/3 to 1814).
1570 Universities of St Andrews and Glasgow reformed.
1571 Scheme established in Norwich to teach techniques associated with the manufacture of clothing.
1581 Gresham College founded (see biography)
1582/3 University of Edinburgh founded.
1589 Scheme established in Bristol to teach techniques associated with worsted hose
1591/2 Trinity College, Dublin, founded initially called the College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Queen Elizabeth – Irelands oldest university and one of the ancient universities of Britain.
1593/4 Marischal College Aberdeen founded.
1597 Gresham College founded. Money bequeathed funds to the Mercers on Thomas Gresham death in 1579 and his intentions were realised following his wife death in 1597.
1601 Poor Law – apprenticing paupers.
1645 Invisible College established – a small group interested in science agreed to meet weekly – this informal and private association was transformed into the Royal Society. (See biography). 1846/1647 Reference by Robert Boyle of the Invisible College – other members John Wilkins. Robert Hooke. John Wallis. John Evelyn and Christopher Wren.
1647 Hartlib proposes a University in London to foster the study of the scientific principles of the trades.
1648 William Petty proposes the shortening of apprenticeships and the establishment of a tradesmen and college of science and literary workshops including the teaching of drawing
1657 Cromwell’s College, Durham founded.
1653 Chetham’s library Manchester opened.
1660 Royal Society founded. (Its first title was ‘A College for the Promoting of Physico-Mathematically Experimentally Learning’. given by the historian J. Sprat was The Royal Society of London for the Improving of Natural Knowledge). The title Royal Society first appeared in 1661 and after the second Royal Charter became known as ‘the Royal Society for Improving Natural Knowledge’. First located at Gresham College and Arundel House between 1660 and 1710 – then at Crane Street 1710 to 1780 then Somerset House 1780 to 1857 then Burlington House 1857 to 1967 and at present located at Carlton House Terrace.
1663 Royal Society incorporated.
1670 Dissenting Academies movement started. Rathnell Academy founded by Richard Frankland closed in 1698. (See biography on this website).
1673 Mathematical School of Christ’s Hospital founded.
1675 Greenwich Observatory founded.
1678 Abraham Darby born 1678 died 1717 key figure and his family in iron production.
1683 Philosophical Society, Dublin, founded.
c1685 Hackney Academy founded by Benjamin Morland discontinued in 1820
1690 Public courses in Chemistry conducted by George Wilson in his own home.
1693 ‘Some Thoughts Concerning Education’ published by Locke.
1694 Bank of England founded.
1698 Thomas Savery (1650-1715)  developed an engine to raise water by fire – called the Miners friend.
1700 Charity Schools established. Development of private academies (1700 to 1800). 2.7 million tons of coal produced.
1704 John Kay born died 1779
1705 Francis Hawksbee delivers science lessons in Giltspur Street London interesting to note that the HQ for the CGLI is currently situated in Giltspur Street.
1707 Society of Antiquaries of London founded.
1709-1712 Gentlemen’s Society founded in Spalding by Maurice Johnson others founded in Doncaster, Stamford, Wisbech, Licoln, Boston and Peterborough – sadly short-lived. Thomas Newcomen (1664-1729) and John Calley erected the first successful steam engine near Dudley Castle.
1710 Mathematical Academy opened in Southwark key figures Samuel Dunn and Thomas Crosby closed c 1750.
1715 Thomas Watts private school established in Abchurch Lane in London
1716 James Brindley born died 1772.
1717       Spitalfields Mathematical Society founded Joseph Middleton a key figure (See biography on this website). Absorbed another mathematical society in 1772 and a historical society in 1783 and in 1845 the Society was absorbed by the Astronomical Society. Soho Academy founded by Martin Clare – subjects included experimental and natural philosophy, astronomy and mathematics.
1718        John Roebuck a brilliant Scottish experimental chemist born 1718 died 1794. Worked with refining metals e.g. gold and silver and improved fuel efficiency in furnaces.
1719 Manchester Academy/Society founded (1718?) (Mathematics – although strictly more like a working men’s club than a learning society). Manchester weavers found a mathematical society similar to that of Spitalfields.
1720 Little Tower Street Academy opened key figures Thomas Watts and Benjamin Worster. c1720 Mathematical School Wapping London founded key figure Thomas Haselden. Baptist Academy, Bristol founded. Carpet manufacture started in Wilton, Wiltshire.
 1721 Botanical Society at the Rainbow Coffee House founded in London.
1723 Society of Improvers of Knowledge of Agriculture in Scotland founded – key figure Robert Maxwell – dissolved in 1745. General Workhouse Act.
 1724/25 John T Desagulies lectures at Gresham College on Mathematics and Natural Philosophy in fact he gave lectures on these subjects between 1712/13 and 1744. Wapping Academy founded by Joshua Kelly. John Smeaton born died 1792.
1727 Board of Trustees for the Encouragement of Manufacturers founded (Scotland)
1729 Daventry Academy founded by Philip Doddridge. Northampton Dissenting Academy founded -continued until 1751.
1730s Welsh Circulating Schools established by John Philipps and Gruffydd Jones. During the 1730s John kays flying Shuttle patented.
1731 Dublin Society created later granted a royal charter. Offered premiums/prizes for the encouragement of drawing and the promotion of art. G. Jones established circulating schools in Wales.
1733 Kendel Dissenting Academy founded by Caleb Rotherham – continued until 1753. John Kay a clockmaker invented the flying shuttle (1737?).
1734 Medical Society of Edinburgh founded. Gentlemen’s Society founded in Peterborough by William Elstob mathematics and mapping the main focus.
1735 Society for the Encouragement of Learning in London founded – Rainbow Coffee House.
1736 Chemistry classes run by William Lewis at Fetter Lane and later after 1747 in Kingston.
1737 Edinburgh Society for Improving Arts and Science split up. John Kay invented his fly shuttle brought about a revolution in textile manufacture.
1739 Edinburgh Philosophical Society founded key figure Allan Ramsay reconstituted in 1783 as the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1783. Jethro Tull (1679-1741) developed a seed drill.
1740 York Academy founded by John Randall located in Heath near Wakefield. Southwark Academy founded at Plaisterer’s Hall by John Hubbard. Henry Cort born died 1800. Thomas Percival born died 1804.
1741 Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, founded. Chemical Society founded. Gentlemen’s Diary first published key figure John Fuller – mathematical focus. Madrigal Society London founded.
1742 Chelsea Porcelain Manufactory founded by Thomas Briand.
1743 Series of peripatetic lectures given by Samuel Kaye in Manchester-topics included Gravitation, Projectiles, Pneumatics, Optics, Theory of Colour, Hydrostatics and Astronomy. Northampton Philosophical Society founded.
1744  Northampton Gentlemen’s Society founded by Philip Doddridge
1745 Chesthurst Academy Halifax founded by Robert Harrow.
1748 Joseph Bramah born died 1814.
1750 Workers and Mutual Improvement Societies founded. Gentlemen’s Society founded in Boston, Lincs. by William Stukeley – mechanics the main focus, Islington Academy founded key figure John Shield closed 1770? William Everard founded a society for literary and scientific discussion in Liverpool. Warwick Academy founded by John Collet Ryland moved to Northampton in 1759 and then to Enfield in 1785 and continued to exist until end of the 18th century. 4.7 million  tons of coal produced. In the 1750s £86,000 worth of cotton produced.
1751 Royal Military Academy founded at Woolwich. Welsh Society of Cymmrodorion founded. Manchester Lit and Phil founded members included B. Franklin, Joseph Priestley, Volta and John Dalton.
1752 Daventry Academy founded (1752-1789). Kendal Academy dissolved the apparatus was acquired by Warrington Academy. The Gentlemen’s and Ladies Palladium published between 1752 and 1779 comprised mathematical and astronomical problems.
1753 British Museum founded.
1754 First meeting of the founders of the Society of Arts at Raethmell’s Coffee House, Covent Garden. Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufacturers and Commerce founded (Society of Arts) and later the Royal Society of Arts – founded by William Shipley. First premiums awarded in 1755 and first Industrial exhibition held in 1761. Mathematical School at Wakefield founded key figure George Gargrave closed  1768.1755 Brecon Agricultural Society founded – oldest in Britain.
1756 Northern Education Society founded. Medico-Philosophical Society founded (Ireland).
1757 Warrington Academy founded (1757-86) by John Seddon. (See biography). Thomas Percival first student to be enrolled at the Warrington Academy – became a member of the Manchester Industrial and Philosophical Society. Helped to establish the Manchester Academy. First free public library opened in Preston – endowed by Dr Shepherd. Thomas Telford born died 1834.
1758 Liverpool Athenaeum founded. Mathematics Academy founded by Samuel Dunn at Chelsea.
1760 Writing and Mathematical School Newcastle founded by Charles Hutton. Edinburgh College of Arts founded by the Board of Fisheries, Manufactures and Improvement to Scotland. Advertisement in Manchester Mercury ‘A course of 20 lectures given by James Ardenn on Natural History, Astronomy, Geography, Optics, Pneumatics and Hydrostatics. John Anderson (1726-1796) held evening classes at Glasgow University which encouraged workmen to attend – the beginning of the Mechanics’ Institution movement (see biography on this website). Between 1760 and 1820 number of waterwheels in England increased from 70,000 to 120,000. The period between 1760 and 1860 is seen as the Industrial Revolution.
1761 Perth Academy founded. (The first in Scotland). John Arden lectures on scientific subjects in Rotherham. John Rennie born died 1821.
1762 Membership of SoA 2,500. Matthew Boulton Soho Manufactory opened.
1763 Kensington Academy founded by James Elphinston
1764 Periodical ‘Wonderful Magazine’ published its purpose to record things ‘out of the common road’. Hibernian Society founded in Dublin – granted a Charter 5 years later. Hargreaves invents the multiple Spinning Jenny.
1765 Commercial and Mathematical School/Salford Academy founded – Henry Clarke the key figure.
1766 Lunar Society founded (1765/66) – active since 1809 and was initially called the Lunar Circle – peaked in 1780 and then declined and ceased around 1800. Soho Manufactory founded on Handsworth Heath Birmingham Boulton and John Fothergill key figures. Henry Cavendish isolates hydrogen. John Dalton born died 1844.
1767 First appointment of Army Schoolmasters. Bridgewater Square Academy  London founded key figure John Seally. Manchester Agricultural Society founded.
1768 Royal Academy of Arts (London) founded. William Cookworthy (1705-1780) patented method for purifying clay using kaolin to manufacture porcelain. Wedgewoods Eturia Factory opened in Stoke on Trent 1769?
1769 James Watt patented his steam engine “for a new invented method of lessening the consumption of Steam and Fuel in Fire Engines”. Etruia Potter Works opened by Joseph Wedgwood. John Roebuck Carron Ironworks opened near Falkirk.
 1770s
1770 Mathematical Schools established in Bury and Oldham. Education Society in Bristol founded. Royal Hibernian School opened in the Phoenix Park (Ireland). Military Academy Little Chelsea founded closed 1788? During the 1770s £248,000 worth of cotton produced.
1771 Physical Society of Edinburgh founded incorporated in 1788 as the Royal Physical Society of Edinburgh. Society of Civil Engineers founded by John Smeaton. (Later known as the Smeaton Society and the forerunner of the Institution of Civil Engineers which was established in 1818). Richard Trevithick born died 1833.
1772 Salford Night School for Mechanics founded key figure Henry Clarke. David Mushet born 1772 died 1847 key figure in furnace technology discovered Titanium.
1773 Medical Society of London founded. John Mole opened mathematics school in Nacton near Ipswich. Liverpool Society for the Encouragement of the Arts and Painting and Design a key figure William Roscoe.
1774 Bryan Higgins School of Practical Chemistry, Greek Street Soho established. Palgrove Academy Suffolk founded. Women’s trade union movement founded by Emma Paterson – later became known as Women’s Trade Union League. Manchester Committee for the ‘protection and encouragement of trade’ founded. Joseph Priestley isolates oxygen.
1775 Lunar Society active from around 1768 and formally established in 1775. Industrial Revolution began. James Watt enters into a working partnership with Matthew Boulton. Between 1775 and 1800 Boulton and Watt sold 164 pumping engines of which 49 went to Cornwell. Carding machines patented for the cotton industry.
 1776  Adam Smith advocates education of apprentices.  Adam Smith published The Wealth of Nations. First Watt steam engine built. John Wilkinson iron-master first used the steam engine for blowing in a blast furnace.
1777 Chelsea Naval Academy founded key figure John Bettesworth. Society instituted in Bath for the Encouragement of Agriculture, Arts, Manufacture and Commerce – mirrored on the Society of Arts.
1778  Jesse Ramsden (1735-1800) developed a screw cutting lathe. Humphry Davy born died 1829.
1779 Liverpool Literary and Philosophical Society founded – (Sadly short lived). ‘Gentleman’s Magazine’ published- to record the discovery of every new invention and improvement in every useful art. Birmingham Library opened. Joseph Clement born 1779 died 1844 invented planning machines and improved machine tools.
1780 Society of Constitutional Information founded – its aims ‘to educate the ordinary free-born Englishmen of his rights and restoring the constitution .’ During the 1780s £756,000 worth of cotton produced. Matthew Wasbrough, John Steed and James Pickard patented a crank and flywheel device for a steam engine.
1781 Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society founded by Thomas Percival and A. Aiken. (Greatly influenced by the Warrington Academy and proved very successful) -to dicuss ‘the subjects of nature’. Mercantile and Mathematical School, Oldham Street, Manchester founded. George Stephenson born died 1859. Robert Raike inaugurated the Sunday School movement – 22 years later 800,000 children in the schools of the union.
1782 Committee of Manufacture founded. Chemical Society founded in the Chapter Coffee House. British Tar Company founded by Dundonald proved unsuccessful.
1783 Manchester College of Arts and Science founded following a lecture by Thomas Barnes and Thomas Henry – first President Thomas Percival. Only survived until 1787/88. (Not to be confused with the Manchester Academy or New College). Leeds Literary and Philosophical Society founded by William Hey. Irish Academy founded (Chartered in 1786). Royal Society of Edinburgh founded replaced The Philosophical Society of Edinbough. Glasgow Chamber of Commerce opened (First in Britain). Birmingham General Commercial Committee founded. Irish Academy founded gained charter in 1786. Oldham Agricultural Society founded. Newport Pagnell Academy (Congregational) founded. Derby Philosophical Society founded. Richard Arkwright built one of the first cotton factories in Manchester.
1784 Derby Philosophical Society founded – Erasmus Darwin a leading figure – amalgamated with Derby Museum in 1857. Newcastle Lit and Phil founded. Literary and Antiquarian Society founded in Perth Scotland. Public library founded in Norwich. Edmund Cartwright invented a power loom.
1785 General Chamber of Manufacture of GB founded. Northowram Dissenting Academy founded. Stirlings Library Glasgow opened -William Stirling. (Royal) Irish Academy founded- incorporated by Royal Charter in 1786. Edmond Cartwright  invented a weaving machine.
1786 Manchester Academy/New College founded. Initiated by the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society – had a number of locations it existed in Manchester for 17 years and then moved to York for 37 years then back to Manchester for another 13 years, then to London for 36 years and finally to Oxford in 1889. Hackney Academy founded – primarily taught philosophy ceased to operate in 1796. First edition of the Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh published.
1788 Linnaean Society founded. Philanthropic Society – Industrial Reform School founded which provided a means of industrial, moral and intellectual instruction for juvenile criminals and the destitute offspring’s of convicted felons.
1789 Soho Night School for Mechanics and Carpenters founded located in Berwick Street. Sunday school teachers in Birmingham formed a society and in 1796 became known as the ‘Birmingham Brotherly Society’ -subsequently became known as the Birmingham Sunday School Society eventually amalgamated with a local scientific association and developed on the same lines as a Mechanics’ Institution. Foundry workers and others in Birmingham established a group called ‘The Cast Iron Philosophers’ discussed mechanics and natural philosophy. Birmingham Library founded. Leeds Phil. and Lit. founded.
1790+ City Commercial School  London founded key figure William Milns
1791 Gosport Naval Academy founded by William Burney. ‘Schools of Industry’ established in England. First one founded in New Forest, Hampshire – others followed including at Lewisham (Kent), Kendal, Banburgh Castle, Birmingham, Cheltenham and Chester. Charles Knight born died 1875.
1792 Literary, Commercial and Mathematical School founded in Liverpool by Henry Clarke – moved back to Manchester in 1794. Manchester Reading Society founded. Newcastle-upon-Tyne Lit. and Phil. founded. “The London Corresponding Society” founded. Mary Wollstonecroft (1757-1797) published ‘A Vindication of the Rights of Women’ – strong advocate for rights for women in work and education. James Beaumont born 1792 key figure in blast furnace development.
1793 “Newcastle Literary and Philosophical Society” founded by William Turner. Board of Agriculture founded. (Arthur Young as secretary). Kent Agricultural Society founded. Board of Agriculture founded – disbanded in 1822. John Dalton elected to the Manchester Lit and Phil. Liverpool Lit. and Phil. founded. John Dalton became tutor in Mathematics and Natural Philosophy at the Manchester Academy. G Stephenson demonstrated miners lamp at the Newcastle Lit and Phil. Woolen mill in West Riding Yorkshire opened at Bean Ing. Thomas Minton founded his pottery in Stoke on Trent.
1794 In Birmingham a small group of artizans known as the ‘cast-iron philosophers’ attended classes run by a Thomas Clarke – in 1796 they merged to create  the Brotherly Society which offered lectures, a newsroom and classes free of charge and in 1795 started the first Artisians Library. Oldham Society (Mathematics) founded – similar to the Manchester Society of 1718. Liverpool Athenaeum founded. Boulton Watt and Son founded (October). London Corresponding Society founded.
 1795 Manchester Spinners’ Society allow women into membership. Rotherham Dissenting Academy founded a key figure Edward Williams. Idle Dissenting Academy founded. Soho Factory founded by Matthew Boulton and James Watt. First Artisans’ library founded in London. Manchester Reading Society founded – a subscription library. Joseph Bramah patented his Hydrostatic or Hydraulic Press.
1796 Anderson’s Institution/University incorporated by Glasgow Council established in 1799 the same year George Birkbeck appointed Professor of Natural Philosophy- the first technical college in Britain. – Thomas Garnett lectures on popular science and its applications (one course attracts 500 students) – re-organised as the Glasgow and West of Scotland Technical college and in 1886 and renamed as the Royal Technical College Glasgow in 1912.  Birmingham Sunday School Society founded. Institute of Wool Workers founded. Manchester. Hackney Academy closed. Artists’ Repository established in Birmingham. (Lancaster, Bell and the Monitorial System -1796 to 1804). Society for the Bettering the Conditions and Increasing the Comfort of the Poor founded. Richard Trevithick built model of a new steam engine.
1797 Journal of Natural philosophy, Chemistry and Arts first published key figure William Nichloson – between 1797 and 1815 41 volumes published -content included mathematics, mechanics and chemistry.
1798 Adult school opened in Nottingham (Singleton and Fox key individuals) – secular in nature – initially for girls later extended for boys to attend. Joseph Lancaster opened a school in the Borough Road, Southwark. Newspaper ions and newspaper taxes increased. McConnel and Kennedy cotton mills at Ancoats Manchester began to be built.
1799       Birkbeck starts lecturing in Glasgow; Royal Institution applied for charter key figure Henry Cavendish first president George Finch. Thomas Garnett moves from Anderson’s University, Glasgow, to become a teacher at the R.Inst. again to teach popular science. Royal Military College, Sandhurst, founded. School of Industry established in Kendal. Artizans’ Library established – developed from the Sunday School movement organised by T and S Carpenter (Birmingham). Yorkshire and Derbyshire Ironmasters’ Association founded by Joseph Dawson. Anderson’s Medical School established. The Combination Act drafted 1799 to 1800.

1800 – 1849

1799/1800 Royal Institution of GB founded. Oxford Public Examination Statue.
1801 Joseph Jacquard introduced the first automated pattern weaving. Joseph Paxton born died 1865.
1802 Health and Morals of Apprentices Act. The Instructive Institution founded in the Minories London. Peel’s Factory Act – the beginning of the State’s responsibility in education.
1803 Joseph Lancaster’s  ‘Improvements to Education’ published. Society for Superseding Climbing Children – attempted to improve conditions for child chimney sweepers. Joseph Paxton born died 1865.
1802 Glasgow Philosophical Society founded. First Factory Act (Peel).’Education’ Pamphlet published by Joseph Lancester. Health and Morals Apprentices Act – required instruction to be given in reading, writing and arithmetic. The Instructive Institution founded in the Minories near Tower Bridge, London. New Institution founded by the Newcastle Society key figure William Turner.
1803 Dissenters’ Academy Manchester moves to York.
1804 Birkbeck moves to London. (Royal) Horticultural Society founded as Horticultural Society. Liverpool Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Science, Trade and Commerce founded – sadly short-lived. Manchester Academy (New College) moves to York.
1805 London Institution founded. London Hiberian Society founded. Society of Millwrights founded at Museum Tavern Bloomsbury. Society for the Promotion of Useful Knowledge founded in Sheffield by Samuel Lucas. Medical and Chirurgical Society founded.
1806 Benevolent Evening Schools’ Society founded – secular in nature. Committee of the Woollen Trade established. Portico Library Manchester opened.
1807 Geological Society founded. London Philomathic Institution founded. Parochial Schools Bill provision for the education of the labouring classes. Whitbread’s Bill for compulsory universal education.
1808 Russell Institution London founded. The Lancastrian Institution founded by Joseph Lancaster – to advance the education of the poor. Some sources cite 18o9/10 as in founding. (From 1814 called the British and Foreign School Society). James Nasmyth born died 1890.
1809 Naval College, Portsmouth, established. The London Institution, Finsbury Circus founded to teach science, literature and the arts – an example of a Lit and Phil. East India Company opened an engineering college at Addiscombe near Croydon. Joseph Lancaster started first teacher’s training college at Borough Road. John Heathcote (1783-1861) invented a lace making machine.
1810 Royal Lancastrian Association founded. Belfast Academical Institution founded. Embryonic Mechanics’ Institution founded in Chester. ‘Edinburgh Reviewer’ notes and praises the Lancaster’s system. Surrey Institution founded. Edinburgh Review highlights and criticises the lack of science teaching at Oxford and Cambridge Universities. Humphy Davy discovered the electrc arc.
1811 National Society for the Education of the Poor founded – Church of England to provide schools in every parish. Between 1811 1nd 1817 Luddism prevailed – a form of proto-unionism. John Blenkinsop (1783-1931) patented the rack and pinion system.
1812 Liverpool Literary and Philosophic Society, (Lit and Phil) founded. Liverpool School of Design founded. Bristol Adult School opened. Bristol Adult School founded. Kildare Place Society founded Dublin.
1813 West London Lancastrian Society founded – ‘motto schools for all’ – key figure Francis Place. Robert Owen published New View of Society.
1814 Statue of Artificers repealed i.e. compulsory/legal apprenticeships abolished. Cornwall Royal Geological Society founded. Liverpool Society for the Promotion of Literature, Science and the Fine Arts founded. An Embryonic Mechanics’ Institution founded in Perth Scotland. Royal Belfast Academical Institution founded. (1st February). Lancaster’s Committee becomes ‘The British and Foreign School Society’.
 1815 Liverpool Marine School founded by Samuel Reid and Adam Hodgson. Ipswich Adult School founded. Literary and Philosophical Society founded in Portsmouth/Portsea/Gosport aimed to increase and diffusion of useful knowledge.
1816 Robert Owen starts his school at the cotton mills at New Lanark initially called Institution for the Formation of Character. Parliamentary inquiry into ‘The Education of the Lower Classes’. Adult Schools founded in York and Leeds. City of London Society founded for the Instruction of Adults. From 1816/17 Hampden Clubs founded in Lancashire key figure M Cartwright.
1817 The Mechanical Institute established by Timothy Claxton a journeyman mechanic – taught arts and sciences closed in 1820 but prepared the way for the London Mechanics’ Institution which opened in 1824 (an embryonic Mechanics’ Institution). Itinerating Libraries established by Samuel Brown of Haddington. East Lothian-strongly advocated and supported by William Lovett – later taken forward and used by the Yorkshire Union of Mechanics’ Institutions and the University Extension movement. William Fairburn establishes his company Fairburn and Lillie in Manchester. Liverpool Royal Institution founded. Public adult school opened in Bristol.
1818 Institution of Civil Engineers founded. Philanthropic Society founded – first attempt to organise Unions of different trades into one Trade Union. Mineralogical Society Nottingham established. Number of Parochial Schools in Scotland 942 with 54,161 pupis and Private (unendowed) Schools 2,222 with 106,627 pupils. Select Parliamentary Committee inquire into ‘the Education of the Lower Orders’. Edgbaston Adult School founded. Total school population in Britain estimated at 478,000. General Union of Trades set up in Manchester. Lyon Playfield born died 1898.
1819 John Pounds opens school in Portsmouth an early example of a Ragged School. Factory Act introduced age limits for the employment of children in factories. Cambridge Philosophical Society founded. The Pottery Philosophical Society instituted at Hanley, North Staffordshire. Liverpool Royal Institution founded mathematics, modern languages and science. David Brewster (1781-1868) invented the kaleidoscope.
1820 Royal Astronomical Society founded as Astronomical Society. Leeds Lit and Phil founded. Phrenological Society founded by George Combe. Select Committee (Henry Brougham reported that only 1 in 14/15 of population being schooled. Plain Englishman newspaper published – short lived. Jacquard Loom introduced. Manchester Chamber of Commerce opened. Friedrich Engels born died 1895.
1821 Edinburgh Mechanics Institution founded, School of Arts of Edinburgh founded with the full title of ‘for the Education of Mechanics in Such Branches of Physical Science as are of Practical Appication in Their Several Trades’. Edinburgh Society of Arts established later became the Watt Institute secretary Leonard Horner – in 1851 it became the Watt Institution and School of Arts.  ‘Glasgow Gas Workmen’s Library instituted by James Beaumont Neilson later developed into a mutual development society, laboratory, library and workshops.The London Co-operative and Economical Society founded by George Mudie. Edinburgh Practical Society founded. Both these were short-lived but attempted to provide adult education and instruction to young people. Yorkshire Philosophical Society founded to promote science in the locality secretary John Phillips. Manchester Mechanics’ Institution joined with Manchester Natural History Society. Labourer’s Friend and Handicrafts Chronicle published – monthly periodical sold at six pence (2.5p). Printers formed a ‘Co-operative and Economic Society’ in London. Address to Men of Science presented by Richard Carlile.
1822 The Sheffield and Hull Lit and Phil Societies founded. Haddington School of Art founded.
1823 Glasgow Mechanics’ Institution founded – succeeded the Anderson’s Institution. London Mechanics’ Institution founded on 2nd December. Birbeck College founded.Durham University founded. Sheffield Mechanics’ and Apprentices’ Library founded (Dec.). Royal Manchester Institution founded promoted literature, science and the arts. Liverpool Mechanics’ and Apprentices’ Library and Reading Room founded by Egerton Smith -triggered the creation of others e.g. Sheffield and Whitby Lit and Phil founded. Mechanics’ Magazine first published edited by Joseph C Robertson and Thomas Hodgskin – issued monthly at three pence two rival publications subsequently appeared namely the London Mechanics’ Register and the Glasgow Mechanics’ Magazine. Liverpool Apprentices and Mechanics’ established. Birmingham Artizans’ Library founded (first of its kind). Manchester Mechanics’ Institution based on the Edinburgh School of Arts. Prison schools established. Charles MacIntosh (1766-1843) patents a rubberised water proof fabric.
1824 Leeds Mechanics’ Institution founded called Leeds Mechanics’ Institution and Literary Society from 1842. The Literary, Scientific and Mechanical Institution, Newcastle-on-Tyne, founded. Aberdeen Mechanics’ Institution founded . Nottingham Lit and Phil founded. Dundee Watt Institution founded. Bristol Lit and Phil Society founded. Manchester Mechanics’ Institution founded on Cooper Street – later became UMIST. By 1824 there were at least 13 Mechanics’ Institutions in Britain. Royal Commission (Ireland) appointed to inquire into schools. (reported in 1825/26/27). 1824/25 Chemistry lectures given by John Murray in Hull.’The Scientific Education of the People.’ published H Brougham. Glasgow Normal School opened by David Stow. London Mechanics’ Institution opened (20th February). Steam Engine Makers (Union) founded. Mechanics’ Institutions founded also in  Aberdeen, Alnwick, Dundee, Dunbar and Lancaster. Dublin Mechanics’ Institution founded – later 28 Mechanics’ Institutions in Ireland. Greengate School Salford founded subjects taught included chemistry and mathematics. Royal School of Medicine and Surgery Manchester founded as a medical school by a group of doctors later incorporated into Owens College in 1872. London Infant School Society founded – first secretary J. P. Greaves. David Stow opened the Glasgow Normal School. Infant School Society founded.
1825 Society of the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge founded. Charles Knight devised a plan for a National Library.The Edinburgh Mechanics’ Subscription Library established.Trade Unions legalised. Birmingham Mechanics’ Institution founded. Warrington Mechanics’ Institution founded.Wigan Mechanics’ Institution founded. Manchester Mechanics’ Institution founded. Liverpool Mechanics’ School of Arts founded. (Liverpool Mechanics’ Institution from 1832), Norwich Mechanics’ Institution founded. Devonport Mechanics’ Institution founded. Portsmouth Mechanics’ Institution founded. Plymouth Mechanics’ Institution founded. Ashton-under -Lyne and Dukinfield Mechanics’ Institution founded. Keighley Mechanics’ Institution founded. Stalybridge Mechanics’ Institution founded. By 1825 there were 70 Mechanics’ Institutions in Britain. City of London and the Western Literary and Scientific Institution founded. University College School (1830), City of London School (1837) and Liverpool College (1840). Traders’ Newspaper and Mechanics’ Weekly Journal published – founded by the Committee of the London Trades Delegates. Liverpool Institute opened – probably the first proprietary school in Britain -day school opened others included King’s College School 1829). Liverpool Philomathic Society founded – a debating society. Huddersfield Scientific and Mechanics’ Institution founded. Universities Act. Appeal of one half of the Human Race by William Thompson – a defence of womens rights. Stockton and Darlington Railway established.
1826 University College London founded opened in 1828 (Later became part of London University) . Bristol Mechanics’ Institution founded. Zoological Society founded by Stamford Raffles. By 1826 there were over 100 Mechanics’ Institutions in Britain. Commercial Institution founded in Liverpool. Journeymen Steam Engine and Machine Makers and Millwright (Union) founded often called the Old Mechanics’ – key figure John White. SDUK founded.
1827 St David’s College, Lampeter, Wales founded first proposed by Thomas Burgess in 1803. SDUK founded first president Henry Brougham. Charles Knight appointed superintendent for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (SDUK) publications. The Library of Useful Knowledge published. (SDUK). Michael Faraday starts the Christmas Lectures at the Royal Institution. The Brighton Society founded. William Thompson advocated the importance of Trade Unions. Brighton Society founded an early co-operative societies and the movement of independent education. General Union of Bricklayers and Carpenters founded – later became known as the Operatives Builders Union in 1832.
1828 University College, London, founded initial student numbers 300 became an independent University in 1836 title University of London  annulled in 1869. Foundation of Kings College London – received charter of incorporation in 1829. St David’s College, Lampeter, Wales founded. Preston Institution for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge founded. Birmingham Co-operative Society established included a library and debating clubs. Belfast Botanic and Horticutural Society founded. Edinburgh Philosophical Journal first published. Andersonian Institute became the Anderson’s University. Institute of Civil Engineering received a royal charter.
1829 Royal Manchester Institution established. King’s College founded for the purpose of giving instruction in the various branches of literature and science-became an independent University in 1836. British Association for the Promotion of Co-operative Knowledge established -William Lovett acted as secretary for a while. Library of Entertaining Knowledge published (SDUK). The first London Co-operative Trading Association founded. The British Association for the Promoting Co-operative Knowledge a key figure William Lovett who was also secretary.  Manchester New Mechanics’ Institution founded. Manchester Geology Society founded. Group of botanists founded a natural history society in January called ‘The Banksian Society’ Rowland Detrosier was a key figure. In February a meeting to establish a ‘Society for the Promotion of Useful Instruction’ held in Manchester Detrosier,  William Edge and W.G. Seed amongst the speakers. Library of the ‘New Mechanics’ Institution opened in Manchester in April. 1829 to 1853 the foundation of proprietary colleges strengthens the movement to modernise studies: e.g. King’s and University College Schools, Cheltenham, Liverpool. Marlborough, Radley and Wellington Colleges. 1829/30 Penzance Literary and Scientific Institution founded (Cornwall). Stephenson’s Rocket wins Liverpool to Manchester competition.
1830 Halifax Lit and Phil Society founded. House of Commons appointed committee on art education. Women admitted for the first time to the London Mechanics’ Institution. ‘Reflections on the Decline of Science in England and on some of its causes.’ C Babbage (see biography). Associated Fraternity of Iron Forgers (Union) founded. Institution of Civil Engineering founded with 191 members and by 1890 the membership stood at 5,872. First public laboratory for teaching Chemistry in Britain opened at the Glasgow Mechanics’ Institution. The National Association of United Trade for the Protection of Labour founded by John Doherty -advocated the importance of Trade Unions. The SDUK started to directly tackle crucial issues associated with the  economy and education. Liverpool Manchester railway opened.
1831 The British Association for the Advancement of Science founded in York partly because of poor track record of the Royal Society – now called British Science Association. National Union of the Working Classes and Others founded- partly as a product of the London Owenite movement by William Lovett. Quarterly Journal of Education published by SDUK. Bristol Association for the Advancement of Science first met . First national census showed manufacturing employed 314,106 (10.4%), agriculture 980,750 (32.6%) and retailing trades and handicrafts 964,177 (32%). Detrosiers lecture On the Advantages of the Intended Mechanics Hall of Science. London workers created the National Union  of the Working Classes and Others.
1832 Durham University founded by Act of Parliament –received charter in 1836. Sheffield Mechanics’ Institution founded. Bradford Mechanics’ Institution founded by James Hanson. University College School founded. First government grants in aid of elementary education (£20,000). Penny Magazine published – a weekly publication (SDUK). ‘Economy of Manufactures’ published by Charles Babbage. Chamber’s Edinburgh Journal published. The British Association for the Advancement of Science comprised four sections namely Physics (including mathematics), Chemistry, Geology and Natural History. National Association Protection of Labour collapsed replaced by the Operative Builders Union (OBU).
1833 Foundation of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. Board of Trade grants to Schools of Design. First Government grants to education (£20,000) – to church schools reached £894,000 in 1870. Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society founded to support and encourage Arts and Industry. Salford Literary and Mechanics’ Institution founded. Durham University opened.Barnsley and Rochdale Lit and Phil Societies founded.Bristol Medical School founded – became the University College in 1876 and finally Bristol University in 1909. Factory Act – half-time schools for factory children. Manchester Statistical Society founded (the first in the country) – William Langton a key figure. Additional grants to elementary schools by Lord Althorp which asssisted the development of the Mechanics’ Institutions. (Royal Entomological Society founded. Between 1833 and 1974 the Welsh Education system was administrated by the same two departments that were responsible for England. From 1974 the education was controlled by the Welsh Office (WO) that was first established in 1964. Lincoln Mechanics’ Institution founded Boole the very famous mathematician attended this institution. Factory schools established. National Consolidated Trade Union founded. Factory Act published. Chairs in Chemistry and Physiology founded at the Royal Institution. Factory schools founded. State took a hand in Primary Education. Builders Union in Birmingham resolved to create a Guild Hall which included schools or children and adults. Operatives Building Union founded.
1834 City of London College founded by the Corporation of the City of London. Royal Statistical Society (London) founded key figure Charles Babbage.The Builders’ Society founded. Literary Society Leeds opened on 9th May. Liverpool Mechanics’ Institution founded. Manchester Medical Society founded. Doncaster Literary and Scientific Society founded. Board of Commissioners of National Education in Ireland founded advocated the teaching of agricultural sciences in schools. Putney House converted into a College of Civil Engineers opened and changed its name in 1857 from the Putney Club to the Society of Engineers. Edinburgh Geological Society founded. Scientific Society founded in Halifax. Cornwall Mechanics’ Institution founded. Workhouse schools established. Miles Platting Institution founded by Benjamin Heywood. Royal Institute of British Architects founded. Workhouse schools founded. Grand National Consolidated Trades Union established (Feb.).
1835 Select Committee Report on Arts and Manufactures. (Parliamentary Paper). ‘Inquiry into the best means of extending knowledge of the Arts and Principles of design.’ (Ewart select committee report). Liverpool Literary and Commercial Institution founded. Schools of Design established by the government under the Board of Trade. Edinburgh School of Arts awarded ‘attestations of proficiency’ certificates. Leicester Lit and Phil founded. Macclesfield Society for Acquiring Useful Knowledge founded.  Chambers Educational Course published. Between 1835 and 1844 6 operative libraries opened in Nottingham for local mechanics and artizans. Geological Society founded. Manchester Athenaeum founded. William Ewart’s Select Committee advocated extended knowledge of Arts and Design. Robert Owen founded The Association of All Classes of All Nations.
1836 University of London founded by Royal Charter (University College and King’s College incorporated to confer degrees). Manchester Athenaeum founded. Gateshead Mechanics’ Institution founded. City of London Mechanics’ Institution founded as the Tower Street Mutual Improvement Society. The Salford Literary and Mechanics’ Institution founded with the title of the Salford Lyceum. The Central Society of Education founded. Home and Colonial Institution founded later called the Society in order to create infant schools. Working Men’s Association founded evolved from the National Union of Working Classes – key players were William Lovett, J Cleave, J. Watson and Henry Hetherington both of whom were skilled craftmen. Penny Cyclopedia published (SDUK). Botanical Society of the British Isles founded. Miles Platting Mechanics’ Institution founded in Manchester. Stamp duty on newspapers reduced to 1 penny per copy. London Working Men’s Association (LWMA) founded. The Provincial Medical and Surgical Association founded. Government granted £1,500 to establish a School of Design. James Nasmyth (1808-1890) built a vertical cylinder boring machine. Manchester founded by Henry Maudslay made locomotives and machine tools.
1837 Department of Science and Art created and was part of the Board of Trade and followed a recommendation of the Ewart report. Normal School of Design founded in London at Somerset House first superintendent William Dyce – first School of Design -became the Royal College of Art and moved to South Kensington in 1857. Nottingham Mechanics Institution founded. Central Society of Education founded. Parkhead, Glasgow, Scientific Association founded. Calton, Glasgow, Mechanics’ Institution founded. Westminster Literary, Scientific and Mechanics’ Institution founded – Edward Baines suggested the establishment of a Union of Mechanics’ and other Literary and Scientific Institutions in West Riding of Yorkshire- to appoint lecturers and to improve their overall management – from 1841 was called the Yorkshire Union and in 1837 institutional membership was 13 and in 1852 was 123. Stockport Institution for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge founded. Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society founded. Manchester Society for National Education- William Langton being one of its founders. Lancashire Public Schools Association founded – Mark Philips a key figure. University of Durham founded. Two agricultural schools founded in Ireland. In Edwinstone near Mansfield Nottinghamshire a hybrid institute was established which included an Artizans’ Library, Mechanics’ Institution and a Working Men’s Club – founded by Christopher Thomson. Museum of Economic Geology founded – suggested by Henry de la Beche. Nottingham Mechanics’ Institution founded, City of London Mechanics’ Institution founded. The Geological and Polytechnic Society founded in the West Riding of Yorkshire. First public grants for elementary schools. Boilermakers (Union) founded. Normal School of Design founded in London. Electrical Society founded key figure William Sturgeon. Isaac Pitman first proposed a system of shorthand. Parkhead Scientific Association Glasgow founded. The Proprietary School for the Town and County of Leicester founded – for businessmen, tradesmen and manufacturers. West Riding Union of Mechanics’ Institutions founded from 1841 known as the Yorkshire Union of Mechanics’ Institutions – started as a federation of 13 institutions. The Whittington Club founded London. Hull Proprietary School founded. Ornithological Society founded. The Factory Inspectorate had registered 4,283 mills following the 1833 Factory Act.
1838 City of London College founded. Liverpool Polytechnic Society founded – ‘For the Encouragement of Useful Arts and Inventions’ – first meeting held in 1839. Mechanics’ Royal Institution in Salford founded. Manchester Lyceum opened – its aims were less ambitious than those of the Mechanics’ Institutions in Ancoats (number of members 735), Salford (1500) and Chorlton (530). King’s College establishes a chair in civil and mechanical engineering. Putney House converted into a College of Civil Engineering opened teachers included Edward Frankland and Samuel Clegg changed its name in 1857 to The Society of Engineers in 1910 it amalgamated with the Civil and Mechanical Society. Royal Navy created training for engineers via dockyard workshops. Committee on Trade Unions held. Agricultural Society founded – chartered in 1840. Ancoat Mechanics’ Institute founded in Manchester. Manchester Geological Society founded. Polytechnic Institution founded by George Cayley received royal charter in 1839/40 and named the Royal Polytechnic Institution. Royal Agricultural Society of England founded. Liverpool Polytechnic Society founded. Manchester Carpenters’ Hall completed at a cost of £4,5000  – built by operative carpenters and joiners Union Chartist movement). Manchester Lyceums established at Ancoats, Salford and Chorlton-on Medlock -3,000 enrolments in first six months. First Annual  Meeting of the Liverpool Mechanics’ Institution. Durham University taught classes in Mining Engineering. Manchester Athenaeum founded. Chartist Halls established.
1839 Metropolitan Association of Mechanics’ Institutions and a Lancashire Union founded. Committee of Council on Education including Scotland established in Whitehall. (Later called Education Department) -James Kay-Shuttleworth appointed first Permanent Secretary. HMI’s created – State Inspectorate established in 1840. Institution of the Education Department established. Royal Botanic Society founded. London Union of Institutions (Metropolitan Association of Mechanics Institutions under its president Dr.Birkbeck established. Museum of Economic Geology founded later became the School of Mining and Science Applied to the Arts in 1851. Liverpool Northern Mechanics’ Institute founded. Manchester Athenaeum founded. Collegiate Institution founded in Liverpool. 1839+ Halls of Science established –  Liverpool 1840, Halifax 1841, Stockport 1841, Sheffield 1839, Bristol 1841, London 1842 and Oldham 1845. Salford Mechanics’ Institution/Social  Institution founded. Union of Lancashire and Cheshire Institutes (ULCI) founded. Liverpool Rational School Society founded – purpose to provide a superior education to children. First Phonetic Institute opened in Bath by Isaac Pitman (See biography on this website). Huddersfield Hall of Science opened. Sheffield Hall of Science opened. Royal Botanical Society founded. Liverpool Rational School Society founded – to give a superior education to children. Peoples Institute founded in Stalybridge.
1840 In the 1840s Ragged Schools established by John Pond. Battersea Training College opened.- with an elementary school attached to it in which education had a practical focus key figures James Kay-Shuttleworth and E. Carleton-Tufnell. Borough Road College established. University Extension Movement established. St Mark’s training College, Chelsea opened. Preston Philosophical Institution founded-comprised a scientific library, a laboratory, a museum and lecture facilities. First teachers’ training college opened. Agricultural Society receives its charter. Government provided funds of £10.000 for schools of design in the large towns and by 1850 there were approximately 20 schools of art in Britain and Ireland. Appointment of Army Schoolmistresses. Aberdeen Philosophical Society founded. Grammar Schools Act -provided grants for introducing modern and commercial subjects. Beaumont Philpsophical Institute founded. First chair in Civil Engineering at Glasgow founded. Manchester Hall of Science opened by Robert Owen – actually called the Temple of Science on Byrom Street. Liverpool hall of Science opened. Glasgow Hall of Science opened. The National Charter Association (NCA) founded.
1841 Chemical Society founded. Royal Institution of South Wales. Pharmaceutical Society of GB founded. Huddersfield Mechanics’ Institution founded. First Chair in Chemistry created at University College London (UCL). Chair in civil engineering created at UCL. Cheltenham college founded later followed by Marlborough ,1843, Rossall, 1844, Radley, 1847, Wellington, 1853.. In 1841 there were over 300 Mechanics’ Institutions mainly in London, Lancashire and Yorkshire. Kennington Agricutural College in South London opened by Anthony Nesbit. Between 1841 and 1852 there were 17 schools of design founded located in industrial districts. New Philosophical Institute founded by J T Barber Beaumont later developed with financial help from the Drapers Company into Queen Mary College (University of London). School Sites Act. Royal Agricultural Society of Ireland founded. London library founded by Thomas Carlyle. Ragged School founded in Aberdeen by Sheriff Watson. Liverpool and Glasgow Halls of Science opened. Stockport Hall of Science opened also Bristol opened one. National Society established St Mark’s College Chelsea. Between 1841 and 1852 a number of School sites acts passed provided grants for the education of the poor. Museum of Economic Geology founded. Liverpool School for Girls opened by Anne Jemina Clough (1820-1892). William Fox Talbot (1800-1877) patented photograph called a calotype. John Benjamin Dancer specialist in microscopy opened a shop in Manchester on Cross Street. Punch first published.
1842 People’s College, Sheffield, opened -R.S. Bayley the leading light – became Firth College in 1879 and finally University of Sheffield (a precursor of Working Men’s Colleges). Leeds Mechanics’ Institution and Literary Society founded. Children’s Employment Commission. The term Ragged School formally adopted. Report on the ‘Sanitary Conditions of the Labouring Poor’. (Chadwick. – women and children prevented from working underground in mines. ‘Journeymen Steam Engine and Machine Making Friendly Society of Manchester’ founded-one of the first trade union and co-operative societies. Agricultural Chemistry Association of Scotland founded. Training College of the British and Foreign School Society obtained its new buildings. Athenaeum Institute found. Mines Association of GB founded ceased in 1848 – at one time it had a membership of 100,000 members. Illustrated London News first published.
1843 Queens College, Birmingham, founded. Royal Dockyard Schools/workshops established at Portsmouth, Devonport, Chatham, Sheerness and Rosyth. Greenwich Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge founded. Lancashire Independent College established in Whalley Range Manchester. From 1843 to 1855 ‘The Artizan’ – a monthly Journal of the Operative Arts published  by the Artizan Club. From 1856 Monthly Record of the Progress of Civil and Mechanical Engineering edited by William Smith. The Children’s Employment Commission. Potters Magazine published? School of Design founded in Sheffield under the Board of Trade. Allan Glen’s School opened Glasgow. New Chartist Hall opened in Leeds.
1844 YMCA founded by George Williams. Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons founded. Rochdale Society founded – now seen as the pioneer of the co-operative movement and included an educational department (see biography on this website). The Ragged School Union created by Lord Ashley and Lord Shaftesbury as its chairman -16 schools initially and by 1861 176 schools in the Union. Pupil-teacher system introduced. Leeds Mutual Improvement Society founded. Norwich Athenaeum founded. London Ragged Schools Union founded. St Mark’s Training College Chelsea founded? – key figure G F Mathison. Huddersfield Mechanics’ Institution established from the Young Men’s Mental Improvement Society. Leeds Mutual Improvement Society founded. Liberation Society founded. National Society took charge of training school in Battersea. Royal Archaeological Society founded.
1845 Royal College of Chemistry founded key figure August Hofmann. People’s Institute founded. The Museums Act. Royal Agricultural College founded in Cirencester. The Royal Dublin Society founded a Museum of Economic Geology which in 1847 resulted in a School of Science focused on Mining and the Arts-this was eventually transferred to the Department of Science and Art. Davy College of Practical Chemistry founded. Spitalfields Mathematical Society dissolved and became part of the Astronomical Society. (See biography). Birmingham and Midlands Institute founded. North London Collegiate School founded. The first of 4 ‘commercial schools’ opened in Manchester. Queens College later University College Cork announced – opened in 1849. The Mathematical and Commercial School established in Leeds -later known as Leeds Modern School. Bristol Athenaeum founded. The Peoples Institution founded in Rochdale. A periodical ‘Magazine of the Grand United Order of Oddfellows’ published Samuel Smiles was editor. Oldham Chartist Hall/Hall of Science opened. William McNaught (1819-1881) invented the compound steam engine.
1846 Corps of Army Schoolmasters formed (45?). College of Preceptors founded – incorporated in 1849. Pupil-teacher system introduced. Peoples Instruction Society established in Birmingham – a subscription of a penny per week gave access to a library/reading room and lectures – for another penny access to classes of instruction on the 3 ‘R’s. People’s College founded by George Gill. People’s College Nottingham opened by George Gill. Chair in mechanical engineering created at UCL. Chair in machinery created at UCL. Queenwood in Hampshire opened as a model community founded by Robert Owen with the help of Hansom the builder of the cab and teachers included John Tyndall. Edward Frankland said it was the first school in England that taught practical or laboratory teaching of science. Government began grants to Schools of Industry. D. Mackintosh started a series of lectures in Edinburgh on Geological and Chemical topics. Thirsk Mechanics’ Institution founded. Peoples Instruction Society founded in Birmingham by a Mr. Brooks. Committee of Council on Education gave grants to schools of industry. National Secular Society founded. Welsh Education Commission. Edinburgh Philosophical Institution founded modelled on the Manchester Athenaeum. SDUK dissolved. Peoples Institute opened in Manchester. John Owen left around £100,000 to found a non-demominational college in Manchester. William Armstrong produced the first hydraulic crane.
1847 ‘Inquiry into the State of Education in Wales’ – Committee of Council on Education. Society of Arts received its Royal Charter. Institution of Mechanical Engineers founded. Huddersfield Female Educational Institute established. Midland Association of Mechanics’ and other Literary Institutions established key figures A. T. Blythe and Mr Baines had a membership of 22  institutions. Lancashire and Cheshire Unions of Mechanics’ Institutions founded-(also started examinations in this year). Artizan’s Institute founded. Leeds School of Art established. Educational Institute of Scotland founded. Kent Union of Literary and Mechanics’ Institutions established. The Lancastrian (later named the National) Public School Association advocated a national system of secular schools, maintained by ‘equal taxation’, free and open to all classes (the Common School concept): the scheme  included infant schools, evening classes and industrial training. College of Preceptors began examinations for teachers. Glasgow Athenaeum founded. Roscoe Club founded in Liverpool. Artizan’s Institution Paisley founded. Paisley Mechanics’ Institution founded. Huddersfield Female Educational Institute established 1846? (January)-it merged with the Mechanics’ Institution to become the Technical School. The Technical School and Mechanics’ Institution was recalled the Technical College in 1896. Friends’ first Day Schools Association founded. Institute of Mechanical Engineers founded. The Whillington Club founded in London. Teachers certificates first instituted.
1848 Queens’ College in Harley Street, London founded by Frederick Maurice for women. Portsea Watt Institute (Portsmouth Dockyard) founded. Scottish Union of Literary and Mechanics’ Institutions established. Northern Union of Literary and Mechanics’ Institutions established. College of Chemistry founded in Liverpool by J. S. Muspratt son of the founder of the alkali industry. Working Men’s Club and Institute founded in Brighton closed in 1851. Rev. Bayley left the People’s College, Sheffield. Scottish Association of Mechanics’ and Other Literary Institutions founded by J.W. Hudson. Woolton Mechanics’ Institution, Liverpool, founded. City of London opened. Gresham Street library/lecture hall opened and by 1850 had 500 members subjects included arithmetic, mathematics amnd book-keeping. Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge wound up – founded in 1826 by Lord Brougham (see biography on this website). Chemical Society was incorporated under Royal Charter. Owen College Manchester announced opened in 1851-incorporated as University of Manchester in 1904. First library supported out of the rates founded. Edinburgh Mechanics’ Institution founded by working people without the aid of patronage. From 1848 to 1867 James Hole was the honorary secretary of the Yorkshire Union. The Union increased for 13 with approximately 1,600 members in 1837 to 143 institutions with over 26,000 members in 1860. Queens College in Harley Street opened for women.
1849 College of Preceptors incorporated. Bedford College, London founded by Mrs. Reid. Report from the Select Committee on the School of Design.  Select Committee on Public Libraries. Red Hill Farm School opened at Reigate, Surrey. Queens College Belfast founded became Queens University in 1908 – chemical laboratories existed at the college prior to 1879. Queen’s College Galway founded. Chair of Practical Chemistry established at University of London. Bedford College founded. Ragged Schools of the Roscoe Club instituted. James Usher of Edinburgh patented his steam plough.

1850-1899

1850 Hartley Institute (later became University College Southampton).Board of Trade examinations for Masters and Mates of Merchantmen. (BoT). College of Preceptors Examinations started. The Ewart Act allowed the creation of free libraries and local museums. By 1850 there were 610 Mechanics’ Institutions with a membership of 600,000. North London Collegiate School for Ladies opened by Miss Buss. The Public Libraries Act. Society for Promoting Working Men’s Association established mainly by tailors. Royal Meteorological Society founded. Between 1850 and 1863 the number of provincial art schools increased from approx 20 to 91 with an increase of pupils from about 3,000 to 15,788.Girls’ Industrial Training proposed by Rev J P Norris. Government inspector’s report on needlework. Devon and Cornwall Union of Mechanics’ Institutions founded. In 1850-51 there were 55 Mechanics’ Institutions in Scotland but comparatively speaking very few in Ireland and Wales. Working Tailors’ Association founded. Central Association for Promoting Industrial and Provident Societies founded. Royal Meteorological Society founded. % of GNP spent on science and technology 0.006%. First Free Muncipal Library in England founded in Manchester. Amalgamated Society of Engineers founded. Frances Mary Buss (1827-1894) became headmistress of North London Collegiate School – a key figure in the education of girls.
1851 Great Exhibition. Government School of Mines and Science founded. (The Royal College of Chemistry and the Government School of Mines and Science were amalgamated for a time but separated in 1890 and were named Royal College of Science and the Royal College of Mines in 1896). The Normal School of Design became the Royal College of Art in 1896. Owens’ College Manchester founded on Quay Street in 1863 there were over 100 students 38 studying 38 chemistry – incorporated in 1871 and received charter in 1880 became an independent University in 1903. Cambridge Tripos in Moral, Natural Sciences etc. established. Amalgamated Society of Engineers founded -created out of a number of existing smaller societies The 1851 Census lists 1,017 literary and scientific institutions in England, 40 in Wales and 221 in Scotland. (Note these figures must be treated with a fair degree of caution). ‘The Exposition of 1851; or views on the Industry, the Sciences and the Government of England.’ published Charles Babbage. The census figures showed that 2.14 million learners with an average of 4 years schooling. Census recorded 1,545 adult schools with approximately 40,000 pupils by 1858 there were 2,036 evening schoolss with 81,000 pupils -55,000 male and 26,000 female the majority were children/adolescents. In Scotland in 1851 there were 438 evening schools. Only 8 universities in Britain and only 2 had schools of engineering. Hall of Association opened Castle Street East, London -science subjects taught – F Maurice a key figure. A few statistics on Science Instruction in schools between 1851 and 1872: Number of schools 0 – 948, Number of classes 38 – 2,803 and Number of pupils 1,330 – 36,783 during that period. College of Medicine founded in Newcastle. Amalgamated Society of Engineers, Machinists, Smiths, Millwrights and Pattern Makers established (10,841  members) a subscription of 1 shilling per week excluded many who were unable to pay this amount. Three key figures for the Great Exhibition -Prince Consort. Henry Cole and Joseph Paxton. 28% of children between ages 10 to 15 were working and 42,000 were under 10. 1100 teachers had obtained teacher certificates. Cripples Home and Industrial School for Girls established at Marylebone. Over 50% of the 14,000 exhibits were British or British Colonists at the Great Exhibition. Chair in Practical Chemistry started at Owens College Manchester.
1852 Society of Arts (SoA) founded a National Union of Mechanics’ Institutions with a clearing house. Working Men’s Union founded. The Normal School of Design became the Department of Practical Art within the Board of Trade. North of England Institute of Mining Engineers established. Department of Practical Art accommodated in Somerset House, moved to Marlborough House in 1857 and as the Department of Science and Art moved to South Kensington until it merged with Board of Trade. In Britain there were 20 Art Schools – 4 in Ireland and 2 in Scotland. Industrial and Provident Societies Act. ‘Popular Educator’ first published (Cassell’s) between 1852 and 1854 – a penny weekly. Ultimately comprised 5 volumes with languages, science and arts as themes. Replaced in 1887 by the New Popular Educator. Between 1852 and 1858 there were 17 rather weak schools of design but increased to 56 flourishing ones and number of pupils grew from 4,800 to 35,000 during that period. Training teachers became the main purpose of the Government School of Design. School of Arts of Edinburgh renamed Watt Institute and School of Arts and in 1855 became Heriot-Watt College and finally became Heriot-Watt University in 1966. North of England Institute of Mining engineers founded. Patent Law Amendment Act passed. Manchester Free Library opened.
1853 Department of Science and Art founded under the Board of Trade-merged with Board of Education in 1899. Report on a Committee of Inquiry into the Department of Practical Sciences and Arts. National Art Training established. Birmingham and Midland Institute founded for the education of miners and artizans-consisted of a General Department and a School of Industrial Science subjects taught included chemistry, mechanics, mineralogy and geology with a specific focus on practical work. Working Men’s College, Sheffield, founded. The Royal School of Mines and Royal College of Science-was begun as the Museum of Economic Geology in 1839. The Royal College of Science was formerly the Royal College of Chemistry established in 1845. College of Preceptors examinations begun. ‘Report of Society of Arts on Technical Education.’ SoA. Cheltenham College opened. People’s College opened in London inspired by the Sheffield People’s College. Leicestershire Union of  Mechanics’ Institutions founded (3rd January). Lambeth School of Art founded CGLI took it over in 1879 and it became the South London School of Technical Art. Church Education Society founded.
1854 ‘Royal Commission on Endowed Schools’ (Ireland) Kildare Report. Birmingham and Midland Institute founded offered literary and scientific curriculum – ultimately became Aston University). London Working Men’s College founded – Frederick Denison Maurice the leading figure involved the Cooperative Movement and the Christian Socialists. From 1855 to 1862 Working men’s Colleges were founded in Cambridge, Halifax, Leicester, Oxford and Wolverhampton). Literary and Scientific Institutions Act promoted the teaching of literature, science and the arts. Society of Engineers founded. Certified Industrial Schools established. T H Huxley appointed to the School of Mines (See biography on this website). Drawing School established by the Rev Gregory – became the Lambeth School of Art. The Ladies Educational Institution Leeds opened – later became Lawnswood High School. Watt Club established at Heriot Watt College the oldest graduate club in Britain. Chair in Commercial Science created at Owens College Manchester.
1855 Wandsworth Trade School – only survived two years. Pitman examination certificates first issued. King’s College, London-instituted an evening class department. Working Men’s College in Cambridge opened – Harvey Goodwin the key figure. By 1855 50 Ragged Schools existed in London offering industrial classes to approximately 2,000 pupils. (Ragged Schools started in the missionary spirit and became certified industrial schools. Royal Military Academy at Woolwich introduced selective examinations for entry. Paris Exhibition showed the decline in British manufacturing – few prizes won. Pure Literature Society founded. Adult school added to the Hall of Association and in 1856 classes for women instigated. Indian Civil Service Examinations opened up to competition. Exeter School of Art founded and enlarged when the Royal Albert memorial Building erected for the study of art, science and literature. Geologists Association founded. First shorthand speed examinations certificates issued by the Phonetics Institution in Bath. Stamp Duty on newspapers abolished. Cornwall School of Mines opened in Truro closed in 1858 and a new School of Mines opened at Pool (mid-way between Redruth and Cambourne at Pool). Kings College London established an evening class department. Manchester Photographic Society opened – key figure John B Dancer.
1856 Society of Arts Examinations (S0A) started – examinations remodelled to include such subjects as mathematics, science, modern languages (extended to provincial centres in 1857. Education Department (ED) announced and that the Department of Science and Art (DSA) would be transferred from the Board of Trade to become part of this new department – formal transfer occurred in 1857. Cambridge Locals instituted. ‘General Education’ published (SoA). Order from Council of Education to inspect Army and Navy Schools. Ancoat Working Men’s College opened in Manchester. Liverpool Mechanics’ Insitution becomes Liverpool Institution. Bristol Trade School opened-taken over by the Society of Merchant Venturers in 1885 first chair in chemistry established in 1894. The Journal Engineer first published. Education Department established (ED) for Scotland. 1856/57 Matthew Arnold inspector of elementary schools. James Harrison patented first commercial refrigeration machine in England.
1857 Working Men’s Colleges founded in Manchester and Wolverhampton. Mason Science College, Birmingham, opened. Department of Science and Art established examinations in science in 1859. ‘Industrial Schools Act for England and Wales’ passed. School of Design opened. Royal Arsenal General School founded. South Kensington Museum opened later developed into the Science Museum (1899) and the Victoria and Albert Museum. Commercial and Scientific Day School founded in Manchester – developed from the Mechanics’ Institution later became the Manchester Technical School and in 1902 became the Manchester School of Technology. Oxford Local Examinations started. National Social Science Association founded – President Henry Brougham. Manchester (Ancoats) Working Men’s College founded. Wolverhampton Working Men’s College founded. The French Chemical Society founded. New Edinburgh Veterinary School opened. Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders in Scotland founded. Henry Roscoe became professor of Chemistry at Owens College. Oxford University Act. Science Museum London opened.
1858 ‘ Commission on the education of the labouring classes.’ Newcastle Report. London Matriculation Examinations. University of London science degrees instigated. Cambridge Local Examinations introduced. (Inspired by the Society of Arts examinations). Working Men’s College, Salford, founded. Second Working Men’s College in Manchester, founded. Wigan Mining College opened. Civil and Mechanical Engineers’ Society founded. ‘Mechanics’ Institutes’ published (SoA). Universities (Scotland) Act. London degrees granted purely on examinations.
1859 Science and Art Department of Board of Trade made grants to classes in technical subjects. Science and Art Department introduced examinations for science teachers. Working Men’s Colleges in Halifax and Oxford founded. Organised Science Schools established in Bristol and Birmingham. Cheltenham Ladies’ College opened. ‘On Girls Industrial Education’ published J. P. Norris. Civil and Mechanical  Engineers Society founded by Alfred Yarrow and W. H. Maw at Radcliffe in Lancashire – this amalgamated with the Young Engineers Scientific Association in 1861. West Riding Board of Education founded to organise examinations (Yorkshire). Samuel Smiles book ‘Self Help’ first published. Total school population in Britain estimate at 2,535,000.
1860 London University institutes science degrees and establishes a Faculty of Science. Science and Arts Department started full scheme of science examinations. Foundation of Bedford College for Women. Army Certificates of Education first issued. Clifton College, Bristol founded-taught classical mathematics and general education later became incorporated. Working Men’s College, Liverpool founded. Institution of Naval Architects founded received Royal Charter in 1959. City of London College founded. Working Men’s College in Liverpool founded.  Science, Navigation and Art Schools subsidised by the Department comprised 8 in Ireland, 12 in Scotland and 67 in England. Chambers of Commerce movement started. Scientific Society offered classes at the Haley Hill Working Men’s College in Halifax. Classes started at Sussex Hall. Nine schools with 500 pupils participated in the then recently introduced Department of Science and Arts science examinations and by 1870 799 schools participated with over 34.000 candidates. Scottish Shipbuilders Association founded. Oxford University Act. 1,500 students at the Birmingham and Midland Institute.
1861 ‘State of Popular Education in England and Wales.’ Cmnd 2794.  (Newcastle Commission). Royal Commission on Children’s Employment established. Gladstone repeals paper duties – assists in making publications cheaper and hence transmission of knowledge easier. Liverpool School of Science founded associated with the Free Library – later became School of Science, Technical and Art in 1892, then Central Technical College in 1935 and in 1949 College of Technology. Merger of Working Men’s College and Owens College evening classes (Manchester). Siemens furnace first used.
1862 Clifton College, Bristol, established. Hartley Institute, Southampton, founded became a University College in 1902 and finally Southampton University in 1952. Second Exhibition held in Britain and again highlighted our decline this trend continued as the 1867 Paris Exhibition showed. Working Men’s Clubs and Institutions Union founded. Leicester Night Schoo/Working Men’s Institutel founded and in 1868 became known as the Vaughan College by Canon Vaughan. City of London College opened? Industrial and Provident Act established – protected stores and workshops. Glasgow Veterinary College opened. Robert Mushet founded the Titanic Steel and Iron Company.
1863 British Association of Gas Managers founded became The Gas Institute and in 1881 and in 1902 amalgamated with the Incorporated Institution of Gas Engineers to form Institution of Gas Engineers. Club and Institute Union created largely driven by Solly and Brougham (1862?). It aimed to help and support working men to establish Clubs and Institutes – not particularly successful. Unofficial use of Local Examinations for girls staged. North of England Cooperative Wholesale Society founded. The Tonic Sol-fa College founded. Children’s Employment Commission founded (1863-64).  1863/04?’X – Club’ founded by a small group of scientists including T. Huxley, J. Lubbock,H. Spencer, J. Tyndall, W. Spottiswoode and E. Frankland-met at various venues including Athenaeum, Royal Society and Royal Institution ceased to operate in 1874.
1864 ‘Revenues and Management of certain Colleges and Schools and the studies pursed and instruction given therein.’ Cmnd 3288. Clarendon Commission. ‘The Schools Inquiry Commission.’  Revised Code – payment by results. London Working Women’s College, founded in Queen Square, Bloomsbury-in1874 changed its name to The College for Men and Women’ as a result a breakaway institution was established in Fitzroy Street and called ‘College for Working Women’ – College for Men and Women closed in 1901 but the College for Working Women continues to exist today. Society of Arts introduces shorthand examinations. Edinburgh Working Men’s Club opened. The beginnings of the London Polytechnic movement when Q. Hogg opened a school in York Place, Charing Cross. International Working Men’s Association founded -Karl Marx a key figure. (Sept.).
1865 Cambridge ‘Locals’ extended for girls. London Mathematical Society founded. Royal Albert Memorial Institute, Exeter, founded. Oldham School of Science opened key figure John Platt, Local Examinations introduced in Scotland – Universities of Edinburgh and St Andrews offered them. Glasgow followed in 1877 and Aberdeen in 1880 – initially very few candidates. Royal Albert Veterinary College opened in London by John Gamgee – closed in 1868. National Reform League founded.
1866 Aeronautical Society of GB founded renamed Royal Aeronautical Society in 1918. Industrial Schools Act in Scotland. British Association of Gas Managers founded became the Institute of Gas Engineers in 1902. Alexandra College, Dublin founded -provided Higher Education for women. Industrial School Act formally established under the authority of the Home Secretary. There were 18,139 students in 102 Schools of Art, 1,140 students in 32 night classes and 80,084 pupils learning drawing in elementary schools. London Mechanics’ Institution becomes Birkbeck Literary and Scientific Institution. Parliament Report on the State of Woollen Manufacture in England.
1867 Paris Exhibition; Report from Select Committee on Scientific Instruction (1867-68) proved a disaster for Britain highlighted its decline relative to other nations. North of England Council for Promoting the Higher Education of Women founded (1867-74). Royal Hibernian College of Science opened (Ireland). Special examination for science teacher’s certificate abolished. Factory Acts – Extension Act – refining and extending the definition of ‘Factory’. The Workshop Regulations Act – further regulating the employment of Children. ‘Report on Provision for Giving Instruction in Theoretical and Applied Science to the Industrial Class.’ Select Committee. HM Government. (1867/68). There were 212 Science schools with 10,230 students – the so-called ‘organised science schools’ began in 1872. St James Working Men’s classes in Soho. Bath College a proprietary school opened others included Bradfield College (1859) and Cheltenham College (1841). The Royal College of Science (Ireland (founded in 1845) reconstituted. 1867 to 1869 Royal Commission on Trade Unions. Between 1867 and 1868 a national enquiry into Chambers of Commerce carried out.
1868 ‘Schools Inquiry Commission.’ (Taunton Commission). Report from the Select Committee on Scientific Instruction.  Endowed Schools Act. London Artisans’ Club established. Trade Union Congress (TUC) created. Select Committee on Scientific Instruction Volume 10 published. Whitworth Scholarships founded – £3,000 for 30 scholarships. ‘Working Men’s Club and Institute Unions.’  (Report of the Proceedings of the Workmen’s Technical Education Committee). Owens College creates first chair in Engineering. House Painters’ and Decorators’ Club and Institution founded in Newman Street, Oxford Street London. The Industrial Schools (Ireland) Act. Educational Association for Women founded at St Andrews University, Scotland. Manchester Building Trades Instute of Technical Education founded. Newcastle Chemical Society founded. South London Working Men’s College, Southwark founded first Principal T H Huxley. Science and Art Department stage summer schools for teachers at School of Mines for teachers receiving their grants. ‘The Industrial Schools Act’ (Ireland) passed – by 1884 there were 5,049 pupils in such schools. Building grants extended to Science Schools continued until 1897. Iron and Steel Institute founded. The German Chemical Society founded. The Press Association founded. Seminal address given by Huxley at London Working Men’s College.
1869 Cambridge Higher Local Examinations instituted. Iron and Steel Institute founded. Royal Commission on Military Education. (Dufferin Report). The National Education League founded in Birmingham. The National Education Union founded. Hitchen College for Women opened later became known as Girton College.  – moved to Cambridge in 1872. Educational Association for Women founded at University of Edinburgh. The Leeds Art and Science Institute opened key figures G H Nussey and A Nussey. Endowed School Act. Portsmouth and Gosport School of Science and the Arts opened. Headmasters established. The science journal Nature founded.
1870 ‘Education Act.’ – established school boards and compulsory school attendance introduced. (Forster).   Higher Grade/Seventh Standard Schools founded following the 1870 Education Act,  National Union of Teachers founded -founded as National Union of Elementary Teachers – renamed NUT in 1889. ‘Municipal Universities’ established. Mason College, Birmingham, founded. University of Dublin held first examinations for women. Organised Science Schools established (1870+). Fustian Manufacturing Cooperative Society (Hebden Bridge), Yorkshire founded. First sandwich courses offered in Bristol 870+. Number of public authorities adopting the Library Act between 1870 and 1979 were 48, between 1880 and 2889 were 65 and between 1890 and 1899 were 153. Keighley Trade School opened.Girls admitted to Oxford examinations. University College London opened classes for women. Institution of Civil Engineers inquired into the education and status of civil engineers in UK and foreign – very critical of the situation in the UK. School Board of London established. London School Board founded. Non-conformists were barred from the Universities until 1870 and were also barred from membership of learned professions throughout the 18th century. There were 15 training colleges for men, 15 for women and 3 for men and women. 12,000 certified teachers in Britain.
1871 Royal Commission on Scientific Instruction established. Devonshire. (1872-75). College of Physical Science founded in Newcastle-on-Tyne Henry Armstrong was a key figure – initially specialising in mining. (Later part of Durham University and became an independent University in 1963. Society of Telegraph Engineers founded – renamed the Society of Telegraph Engineers and Electricians in 1880 and became Institute of Electrical Engineers in 1899. Cavendish Laboratory established. Mathematical Association founded. National Union for the Improvement of the Education of Women of All Classes founded became known as Women’s Education Union. Royal Indian Engineering College founded Coopers Hill.Youths’ Christian Institute for working boys opened in Long Acre by Quintin Hogg. Newnham College, Cambridge founded. Crystal Palace School of Practical Engineering founded (1872?). Association for the Improvement of Geometrical Teaching founded. Manchester Scientific and Mechanical Society founded. ‘Universities Tests Act’. Newcastle College of Science allows entry for both sexes. Population of Wales <1.5 million. Science and Art Department opened in conjunction with the Hartley Institute Southampton. Mathematical Society founded. Society of Telegraph Engineers founded.
1872 ‘Report of the Royal Commission on Scientific Instruction and the Advancement of Science.’ (Devonshire). 1872-75. Aberystwyth opened the first college of the University of Wales with initially 26 students this increased in the first session to 62. ‘Education Act.’ Scotland  made school attendance compulsory for 5-13 year olds. University Extension Movement initiated. Clarendon Laboratory established. The Royal School of Art Needlework founded-Exhibition Road, Kensington. Grants first become available for Organised Science Schools – curriculum consisted mainly of science subjects-regulations amended in 1897 to include more non-science subjects-these developed very slowly in 1885 there were 3, in 1896 125 and by 1901 212-regulations for these schools amended in 1897. Crystal Palace School of Practical Engineering founded. c 1872 St James and Soho Club opened by Hodgson Pratt – included classes on geometry for sheet metal workers. Higher Grade schools established by many School Boards. Scotch Education Department established (formerly (ED) although the administration hierarchy continued to be shared with England and Wales. London School Board began evening classes. Chemical laboratories at University College of Wales Aberystwyth – a constitute college of the University of Wales. Cambridge sets up an Extension Board.
1873 Trades Guild of Learning (TGoL) established key figure Henry Solly-ceased to exist in 1882 (see biography on this website).Royal Naval College, Greenwich founded. Beginning of University Extension Movement in Cambridge later ones opened in London in 1876 and in Oxford in 1878. Society of Arts established technological subject examinations subsequently transferred to CGLI in 1879. Mather and Platt Technical School opened on work premises continued until 1905 in Manchester. Girton College opened. Women admitted to tripos examinations. The Agricultural Children Act. First London Board School opened. Elementary Education (Amendment) Act. Institution of Municipal Engineers founded. SoA offers examination in Carriage Building. SoA offers examinations in Cotton and Silk Manufacture. Endowed School Act. Girls’ Public School Group founded. National Training School of Cookery established South Kensington – became the National Training of Cookery and Other Branches of Domestic Economy in 1902 then in 1931 became the National Training College of Domestic Subjects. Veterinary College Edinburgh opened. Institute of Municipal Engineers founded. National Federation of Associated/Association Employers of Labour founded. Messrs Brunner Mond operated their own technical school until 1905. Owens College rebuilt and relocated to Oxford Road
1874 Artisans’ Institute established in Castle Street, St Martin’s Lane London grows out of the Trades Guild of Learning – Henry Solly was the key figure – pioneered trade classes and strongly promoted the subject. Yorkshire School/College of Physical Science, Leeds, founded initially specialising in textiles part funded by the Clothworkers Company introduced courses in dyeing in 1879, leather, agriculture, a teachers training department and organic chemistry in 1899, metalliferous mining in 1898 and electrical engineering in 1899. From 1880 for a number of years formed the Victoria (Federal) University and finally became Leeds University in 1904. Halifax Scientific Society founded.Society of Analytical Chemists founded as Society of Public Analysts and other Analytical Chemists. ‘Programme of Technological Examinations, 1874-1879.’ published (Soc.of Arts). Oxford and Cambridge Joint Board established. London College for Working Women established in Fitzroy Street. Physical Society founded became the Institute of Physics in 1918. First building trades classes held at the Artizans’ Institute St Martin’s Lane-later transferred to Cowper Street whilst Finsbury Technical College was being built. Also classes for bricklayers at the Artizans’ Instutute started. Carpentry and joinery classes started at the Artizans’ Institute. The Operative Society of Bricklayers formed in Southwark Bridge Road, London-tutor F. Morris, a skilled bricklayer. Factory Act – further extended regulating the hours of employment of children. Womens’ trade union movement founded by Emma Paterson-later became known as Women’s Trade Union League. Society for the Promotion of Scientific Industry founded. Cavendish laboratory-Cambridge opened. Girton College admits women for the National Tripos examinations. London  School of Medicine for Women founded. First technical classes for the Building Trades opened at Artizans’ Institute, St Martin’s Lane-transferred to City Science Classes at Cowper Street Schools pending the opening of Finsbury Technical college in 1883. Goldsmith work classes at Artizans’ Institute. College Working Women founded (Francis Martin). Technical Schools started drill classes. First chair in chemistry founded at University of Wales Aberystwyth. Miss Buss founds the Association of Head Mistresses. Chair in Engineering created at UCL.
1875 ‘Report of the Royal Commission on Scientific Instruction and the Advancement of Science.’  Cmnd. 1279. Education Society founded – ‘for the development of the Science of Education’. Edinburgh School of Cookery founded greatly expanded and extended its provision – now Queen Margaret University (2007). Sheffield University College established. Factory Act further regulated the hours of employment of children. Chair of Applied Mechanism and Applied Mechanics established at Cambridge. Female Apprentices library founded in Liverpool. Science College opened – J. Mason. Tyne Chemical Society founded. Faraday Club founded. The DSA started examinations in agriculture. Liverpool Engineering Society founded (November) – membership grew from 51 to over 600. Royal School of needlework founded. Institution of Royal Engineers founded.
1876 Sandon’s  Act compulsory attendance for 5 to 10 year olds. Yorkshire College founded. College of Science for the West of England, Bristol University College founded and became a University in 1909. Mineralogical Society founded. London Society for the Extension of University Teaching founded. Liverpool Engineering Society founded. Adam Smith advocated education for apprentices. Scientific Institution founded in Liverpool. SoA begin examinations in shorthand. Newnham College founded. Following the Elementary Education Act Day Industrial Schools developed. Examinations of the Science and Art Department (of the BoE) there were 115 chemical laboratories in Britain and Ireland with 2,400 students mostly attending elementary levels (Report of Edward Frankland). Working Men’s Association founded.
1877 Institute of Chemistry founded – incorporated by Royal Charter in 18885. Agricultural Engineers’ Association founded. Portobello Working Men’s Club opened. Metal plate working classes started at the Artizans’ Institute. Goldsmiths’ Company opens a class for silver-smiths’ drawing and modelling at Upper Charles Street, Clerkenwell – closed in 1884. Educational Association for women founded in the University of Glasgow and Aberdeen. Trade Guild of Learning (TGL) founded (see biography). Course at Kings College established classes in Kensington for women to enter examinations and the University. Agricultural Engineers Association founded. Portobello Working Men’s Institute opened- key figures Andrew Balfour, J. Fraser, M. Rhind? and W. Ireland. 146 National Schools in Wales. St. Leonard’s Boarding School founded for girls.
1878 City and Guilds of London Institute (CGLI) established following a meeting of the City of London Livery Companies (16 Companies involved) in 1878 – incorporated in 1880. Livery Companies involved in creating CGLI: Armourers and Braisiers, Carpenters. Clothworkers. Coopers. Cordwainers. Drapers. Dyers. Fishmongers. Goldsmiths. Ironmongers. Leathersellers. Mercers. Needlemakers. Pewterers. Plaisterers. Salters. Higher grade schools appear from about 1878. Formation of Scottish/Scotch Education Department. ‘Report on Technical Education.’ Livery Companies Committee. The Physical Society founded. Carpentry and joinery started at Croyden and Clapham Junction – generous grants from the Drapers Company. ‘Technical Education.’ H. Solly -address to the Trustees of Artizans’ Institute. Long Acre Institute founded by Quintin Hogg – began the London Polytechnic movement. New London charter to grant degrees to women. Maria Grey Training College for women teachers established. Oxford Delegacy for Extension Lectures started. Rev Henry Solly retired as Principal of the Artizans’ Institute. SoA ceases to hold examinations in manufactures in cotton, paper, steel, carriage building, calico bleaching, dyeing and printing, alkali manufacture and blow pipe analysis as the technological examinations are transferred to the CGLI. University College in Bristol founded. Chair in Chemical Technologist created at UCL.
1879 ‘Elementary Education (Industrial Schools)’ Act. Finsbury Technical College established by City and Guilds opened in 1881. CGLI Art School established in Kennington Park Road specialised in arts and the industries of the locality closed in 1932. South London Technical Art School founded. CGLI assumes responsibility for technical subject examinations. CGLI stage first examinations. Firth College, Sheffield, founded evolved from the People’s College – became an independent University in 1904/5.’Technical Education’. Silvanus Thompson. (J of Soc. of Arts).’Technical Education.’. Report by certain Livery Companies of London. Camden Road Girls School opened. Institution of Civil Engineers began to set examinations. Hall of Science founded in Liverpool. British Association for the Advancement of Science membership stood at 3,622. CGLI offers examinations in Cotton and Silk Manufacture. South London Technical Art School founded. ‘The Plumber and Decorator’ first published. Chair in Metallurgy created at KCL. Technical College in Bradford founded. Incandescent light bulb invented.
1880 ‘Mundella  Act.’ – made education compulsory. Owens College Manchester becomes a University (Victoria) – comprised Owens College (1851), Yorkshire College, Leeds (1874) and University College, Liverpool (1881). Regent Street Polytechnic opened. University of London admits adult women to degree courses. Royal University of Ireland founded. Newnham College, Cambridge, opened to women. Mason College, Birmingham, founded became a University in 1900. CGLI for the Advancement of Technical Education incorporated. ‘Committee on Intermediate and Higher Education in Wales.’ Royal Naval Engineering College opened in Keyham. Philip Magnus Appointed as first Director and Secretary of CGLI. Report of the Royal Commission on the London Parochial Charities. Science School renamed Normal School of Science – then altered to the Royal College of Science in 1890 and eventually became Imperial College of Science and Technology. Glasgow Royal Technical College offer sandwich courses for the first time. CGLI offers examinations in Tinplate and Zinc Working in conjunction with plumbing – subjects offered individually later. Over 14,000 voluntary schools and nearly 3,500 board schools existed in 1880. Onslow College of Science and technology opened closed 1898 students transferred to the Polytechnic Institutes. (Royal) Society of Painters, Etchers and Engravers founded. University College Dundee – became affiliated to University of St. Andrews in 1890. Quintin Hogg acquired premises for the Working Lads’ Institute. Interestingly to note that when CGLI examinations were introduced at Manchester Mechanics’ Institution they met with a mixed response. Anderson’s Institution Medical College founded which was incorporated in 1887 as Anderson’s College Medical School. Glasgow Mechanics’ Institution reorganised as a Technical College. Chairs in Engineering and Mathematics created at Firth College/Durham College of Science/Mason Science College/Royal Artillery Institute. Technical College founded in Birmingham.
1881 ‘Committee on Intermediate and Higher Education in Wales.’ (Aberdare Report). ‘Royal Commission on Technical Education.’ (1881-84). CGLI opens Finsbury College. University College Liverpool initially specialising in commerce founded closed 1926. Society of Chemical Industry founded absorbed a number of similar bodies such as Newcastle Chemical Industry Society (f1865), Tyne Chemical Society and the Faraday Club of Widnes (f1875). University College, Nottingham founded became an independent University in 1948.
‘Programme of Technological Examinations’. (1880-1881) published CGLI. Intermediate and Higher Education in Wales. London Chamber  founded became London Chamber of Commerce and in 1971 renamed the London Chamber of Commerce and Industry. Artizans’ Technical Association founded. Normal School of Science opened-later became known as the Royal College of Science. Practical Engineering College opened in Muswell Hill founded by Henry Bessemer, J. Whitworth and Charles Manley. University College Liverpool admits women students. House Painting and Decorating classes at Cowper Street then transferred to Finsbury Technical College in 1883. CGLI offers examinations in Woodworking, Metalworking and Mechanical Engineering. Carriage Building classes at St Marks College Chelsea. First examinations in Framework Knitting at Technical School. Leicester. ‘Departmental Committee on Intermediate and Higher Education in Wales’ Aberdare Committee. Royal Polytechnic Institute closes. Quintin Hogg purchases the premises of the Royal Polytechnic Institute and opens the Regent Street -Polytechnic. Classes at the Artizans Institute transferred to Cowper Street.
1882 Technical Instruction.”  Cmnd. 3981.  4 vols. (1882-84) (Samuelson Commission). First Polytechnic established in London in Regent Street – opened by Quintin Hogg. University College, Liverpool, founded -formed part of the Victoria Federal University with Manchester and Leeds – became an independent University in 1903.Society of Arts concentrates on commercial subject examinations following transfer of technical subjects to CGLI. Metal plate working and carpentry and joinery classes started at Regent Street Polytechnic. Artizans’ Technical Association founded by T. Burt as President. London Evening School movement begun. Union of Institutions dissolved. CGLI offers examinations in plumbing. Number of schools teaching science 1,403 with 4,881 classes and 68,581 pupils. Waifs and Strays Society founded. Bradford Mechanics’ Institution became Bradford Technical College. Westfield College London founded.
1883 City of London Parochial Charities Act – led to the establishment of such polytechnics as Regent Street, Borough, Battersea, Chelsea, Northern, Northampton and City of London College and also created free library (see dates of foundation later). University College Cardiff opened – first Principal J V Jones. Finsbury Technical College opened -inaugural address by P. Magnus (Cost of building £36,000). Classes for painters and house decorators started at Finsbury Technical College. Classes of the Artisans Institute transferred to the Finsbury Technical College.  Printing classes started at Regent Street Polytechnic. Cabinet making and furniture trades started at Regent Street Polytechnic. Fabian Society founded. Manchester Mechanics’ Institution renamed Manchester Technical School and Mechanics’ Institution – comprising School of Applied Science, School of Art and Design and School of Commerce. Carpentry and joinery classes at Titchfield Street Schools. Day and Evening classes in Mechanical and Electrical Engineering started at Finsbury Technical College. Carriage Building classes at Regent Street, Polytechnic. Cabinet Making classes at Regent Street Polytechnic. Teachers’ Guild of GB and Ireland founded (mainly secondary education). First chair in chemistry at University Dundee established. University College of South Wales and Monmouthshire Cardiff founded – first chair in chemistry established in 1883. 1883+ the former Manchester Mechanics’ Institution was functioning as the Manchester Technical School and Mechanics’ Institution comprising Applied Science, School of Art and a School of Commerce – the Applied Science offered day and evening classes to apprentices and artisans. Edinburgh Mathematics Society founded. 139 students from industry attended the Anderson’s Institution , Glasgow. Dundee University College founded by the the Baxter family. Chair in Naval Architecture created at Glasgow University.
1884 ‘Second Report of the Royal Commission on Technical Instruction.’  Cmnd. 3981. (Samuelson). Central Institution in Exhibition Road, South Kensington opened. (CGLI) later called the Central Technical College and in 1901 the Engineering Section of the Imperial College of Science and Technology (under the title of the CGLI (Engineering) College). Account of the CGLI about the opening of the Central Institution June 1884.  Liverpool University College gained University Status as part of the Victoria University finally became Liverpool University in 1903. Institute of Builders’ incorporated and renamed Institute of Builders. University College founded at Bangor -first Principal H R Reiclal. Carpentry and joinery classes started at Manchester Technical School. Leicester Technical School opened with classes in boot and shoe making. Fabian Society founded. Messrs Brunner Mond provided technical education to their employees. CGLI offers examinations in Carpentry and joinery. University of North Wales (Bangor) founded – first chair in chemistry established at the same time. Institution of Incorporated Engineers founded. Charles Parsons patented his steam turbine.
1885 Teachers’ Guild of GB and Ireland incorporated. Building trades classes started at the Manchester Technical School and also at the University College Nottingham. Carpentry and joinery classes started at University College Nottingham. Plumbing classes started at Manchester Technical School, Merchant Venturers’ School Bristol and Leicester Technical School – classes in plumbing had been started earlier at Regent Street Polytechnic and Finsbury Technical College. Builders qualities/quantities classes started at Finsbury Technical College. Boot and shoe making classes started at Northampton. School of Arts (Edinburgh) later renamed the Heriot-Watt College. First classes in Builder’s Quantities held at Finsbury Technical College. Scotch Education Department received a greater degree of independence. Silvanus Thompson became Principal of Finsbury Technical College (see biography on this website). Recreational Evening Schools Association founded. Irish Artizans’ Exhibition staged. Roedean Boarding School founded for girls.
1886 ‘Report of the Royal Commission on the Depression of Trade and Industry.’ Cd. 4715. ‘Industrial Schools Act.’ Cross Report 1886-88 established. East London Apprenticeship fund established. Art and Craft classes started in Municipal School of Art, Birmingham, for silver smithing and other metal workers. Anderson’s Institution and its Mechanics’ Institutions offshoots were grouped with other foundations to become the Glasgow and West of Scotland Technical College. Sheffield Technical School opened. St. Hugh’s Hall, Oxford opened. In 1886/87 session there were 638 students studying at the Central Institution of the CGLI. CGLI offers examinations in Bricklaying and Masonry subjects offered separately later. CGLI offers examinations in Plasterers’ Work. CGLI offers examinations in Painters’ and Decorators’. The Polytechnic Secondary School opens (Q Hogg). Scotch Education Department (SED) reorganised with a separate Scottish Permanent Secretariat. Holloway College London founded.
1887 ‘Third report published– Cross Commission’. People’s Palace opened, Mile End Road, later became East London Technical College and later Queen Mary College. Foundation of National Association for the Promotion of Technical Education. (Later the title Secondary was added) I Dean’s Yard, Westminster. ‘Commercial Education.’ published by Associated Chamber of Commerce (ACC). CGLI stage first international examinations in New South Wales Australia. ‘Act for Technical Schools in Scotland’. The South London Polytechnic Institute Council founded by Edric. Bayley. Royal Holloway College, Egham London founded. The National Association of Colliery Managers founded. Kevin Street Technical School opened (Ireland) – two schools one for science and the arts and one for technical trade subjects. Bootle library committee was renamed the ‘Free Library, Museum and Technical Instruction Committee’ started science classes. The Royal College of Science and Technology founded – formerly called the Glasgow and West of Scotland Technical College this having been formed by the amalgamation of Anderson’s College, The College of Science and Technology, Allan Glen’s Institution and Chair of Technical Chemistry and the Atkinson’s Institution.
1888 Local Government Act -Local authorities established. County Councils Act – County Councils created. Cross Commission final report. Scottish Executive (SE) created. Scottish Leaving Certificate Examination introduced. Oxford Local Examinations Board introduces shorthand examinations. National Association for the Promotion of Technical and Science Education. Printing classes started at the Aldenham Institute. First meeting of the National Association for the Advancement of Art and Its Application to Industry (Liverpool). Victoria University Act (Manchester). National Society of Art Masters (NSAM) founded later named National Society for Art Education (NSAE).
1889 ‘Technical Instruction.’ Act. Local authorities enabled to supply or aid the supply of technical and manual instruction through a rate of up to a penny in the pound. As a result universities and colleges/technical institutions receive grants.  City on Parochial Act recommended funding for education. ‘Welsh Intermediate Education Act. ‘Technical Instruction Act-established system of secondary schools in Wales and technical education outside the schools sector. (This was regarded with envious eyes by England until 1903). Technical Education Board of the County of London established – followed a recommendation of the 1889 Act. Institution of Mining Engineers founded – grew out of a number of various federations of institutions. Institute of Marine Engineering founded. Royal Commission on a University of London. Selborne Report. Leather Trades School opened on Bethnal Green Road joint co-operation of CGLI/Cordwainers’/Leathersellers’ Companies and the London Boot and Shoe Manufacturers Association. Faraday House Engineering College founded by the engineering professions – awarded the Associateship of the Faraday House (AFH) – Mechanical and Electrical Engineering. Union of Working Men’s Club membership in 1889 -329 and in 1899- 683. First Treasury grant to Universities Colleges (£15,000). Board of Agriculture established. 5,000 students at the Birmingham and Midlands Institute and its outposts. 3,328 students (500 full-time) at Manchester Technical School and Mechanics’ Institution.
1890 ‘Local Taxation (‘’Whisky Money’’) Act’ – funds for Technical Education became available.  Whiskey Money provided 12 more Polytechnics and technical institutions in London, 13 in the provinces and more than 100 organised science schools in the country. Beginning of  ‘University Day Training Colleges. Education Code Act – extending the curriculum in Evening Schools.’ ‘Organisation of Secondary and Technical Education” Silvanus Thompson published (J of Soc. of Arts). Incorporated Institution of Gas Engineers founded. Bricklaying and Masonry classes started at Westminister Technical Institute. Carpentry and joinery classes started at the Westminister Technical Institute. Institute of Certified Carpenters formed. Grouped courses of instruction started in the Department of Sanitary Engineers at Manchester Technical Schools – later this approach became more common. Peoples Palace Technical School opened. In 1890s average number of students at the Crystal Palace School of Practical Engineers 100. Chair in Electrical Engineering at KCL.
1891 ‘Free Education Act.’. ‘Schools for Science and Arts Act’. Regent Street Polytechnic founded courses and examinations staged in bricklaying, electrical work, plumbing, printing, watch making. Battersea Polytechnic founded – now the University of Surrey. Woolwich Polytechnic founded first students 1994. Northampton Polytechnic founded. Goldsmiths Technical and Recreation Institute opened – presented by the Company to the University of London in 1904. Carpentry and joinery classes started at the Goldsmiths’ Technical and Recreation Institute. SoA begin examinations in typing. Association of Organising Secretaries and Directors for Secondary and Technical Education founded eventually became Association of Education Officers (((AEOs). CGLI offers examinations in Bookbinding. Army School Act. Manchester Mechanics’ Institution was dissolved as from 1st August – this was in truth a formality as the Institution with all its facilities and resources had been transferred to the Manchester Whitworth Institute on 29th October 1890 – the Manchester Whitworth Institute was more fully called the Whitworth Institute of Art and Industry. Army Schools Act. Newcastle University founds a chair in Engineering.
1892 ‘Technical and Industrial Institutions Act.’ University Extension College, Reading founded became an independent University in 1926. Institution of Mining and Metallurgy founded. Borough Polytechnic Institution founded on the site of the British and Foreign School Society’s Training College on Borough Road. Bricklaying and Masonry classes started at Borough Polytechnic. Carpentry and joinery classes started at the Borough Polytechnic. Printing classes started at Borough Polytechnic. Borough Polytechnic opened classes for women-classes in shorthand, needlework, domestic economy, book-keeping held at Borough Polytechnic. Women admitted to degrees in Scotland. Merit Certificates introduced (Scotland). Chartered Institute of Secretaries founded. Westminister Technical Institute founded created by merging Townshend Endowed School Evening Classes and the Stephens Technical Institute. Bookbinding classes at Peoples Palace, Mile End London. Ordinary Science Examinations abolished. Artisans’ Technical association founded. Boot and Shoemaking part-time courses started at Norwich.
1893 Elementary Education (School Attendance) Act.’ raised the age of exemption to 11 years. Technical Education Board by LCC established by S. Webb. ‘Technical Education’ LCC Committee Report. University of Wales established by Royal Charter Aberystwyth (1872), Cardiff (1883) and Bangor (1884)). Evening Continuation Schools founded – earlier called Night and Evening Schools – comprised Senior and Junior Institutions. Code for Evening Schools’ published. ED. After 1926 became known as Evening Institutes. ‘Technical Education; Its Progress and Prospects.’ published Philip Magnus. (J of Soc. Of Arts.)The Central Institution re-named as Central Technical College and in 1901 become a school of the University of London. ‘Day Industrial Schools (Scotland)’ Act passed. Building Craft College founded. Painting and decorating classes started at Heriot-Watt College and other London Polytechnics. Silver smithing classes started at College of Arts and Craft, Sheffield, along with chasing and engraving classes. Trades Training School established in Great Titchfield Street in the former buildings of the West London School of Art. Royal Albert Memorial College, Exeter founded first known as the Technical and University College. Bookbinding classes at Borough Polytechnic.
1894 Cambridge offers degrees in Engineering for the first time. Battersea Polytechnic opened. Bricklaying and Masonry classes started at Battersea Polytechnic. Carpentry and joinery classes started at Battersea Polytechnic along with painting and decorating classes. Printing classes started at the St Brides Institute. Plasterers’ work classes started at Battersea Polytechnic followed later at Titchfield Street Schools. Carpentry and joinery classes at Manchester Technical School. CGLI offers examinations in Cabinet Making. Agricultural Education Association established. Guild and Technical School opens in Clerkenwell Road. Association of Technical Institutions founded. Manchester Ship Canal opened.
1895 Royal commission on technical education in secondary schools.’  (Bryce Report) Cmnd.7862. London School of Economics founded. Exeter Technical and University Extension College founded-became an independent University in 1955. Union of Educational Institution founded – started examinations 1896. ‘Report on Reformatory and Industrial Schools.’ (G. Lushington Report) -was on the whole critical of the education given particularly to the industrial training. Bricklaying and Masonry classes started at Manchester Technical School and University College Nottingham. Chelsea Polytechnic opened (South West London Polytechnic). Carpentry and joinery classes started at Chelsea Polytechnic. LCC Norwood Technical Institute opened – taking over a building used by the Working Men’s Institute established in 1860. Cardiff Technical School provided 50 different courses in science and arts with 2.600 students. Bookbinding classes at Liverpool. Institute of Sanitary Engineers founded became Institute of Public Health in 1953. University of Durham establishes a Certificate for Secondary Teachers. Durham University admits women to degrees,  National Association of Master Plumbers (NAMP). Guild and Technical School opens in Clerkenwell Road, London. End of the individual examinations upon which ‘payments by results’ was based.
1896 Royal College of Art founded from the National Training School of Art). Institution of Water Engineers founded – became Institution of Water Engineers in 1911. New Department created to include: Educational Establishment of the Privy Council, Establishment for the encouragement of science and art – eventually came under direction of the Board of Trade which was then called the Department of Science and Art. Northern Polytechnic founded funded from City of London Parochial Foundation and Clothworkers Company. Domestic Science School Princes Road Liverpool opened – included cookery, millinery, housewifery and hygiene studies. Domestic Economy School Dallington Northampton opened. Domestic Science School, Princes Road Liverpool, opened. Bricklaying and Masonry classes started at Northern Polytechnic Holloway. Carpentry and joinery classes started at the Northern Polytechnic. LCC School of Arts and Crafts in Regent Street, opposite the Polytechnic, started classes in gold and silver smithing – eventually transferred to Southampton Road and renamed Central School of Art and Craft. Northampton Institute opened – was originally be join Birkbeck Institute and the City of London College to form the City Polytechnic.  Northampton Polytechnic Institute, Clerkenwell, opened an art and craft department with classes in gold/silversmiths working, jewellers work, engraving, chasing and embossing – closed in 1916 and transferred to the Central School of Art and Craft. Central Welsh Board established. University of Oxford instituted an examination in Education and awarded a Diploma in Education. Engineering and Allied Employers National Federation founded. The People’s Palace Technical School became East London Technical College. Diplomas in Science and Practice of Dairying established. Consultative Committee Report on The Registration of Teachers.
1897 Ruskin College opened originally called Ruskin Hall. Apprenticeship and Skilled Employment Committee established. Institution of Heating and Ventilation founded. Carpentry and joinery classes started at Northampton Polytechnic. Regulations for Organised Science Schools amended. Central Welsh Board established. Payment by results abolished. Mathematical Association founded developed from the Association for the Improvement of Geometrical Drawing founded in 1871. Institution of Civil Engineers start examinations. Technical Day Trade School for Boys-Borough Polytechnic Institute opened re-organised in 1906. International Congress held on Technical Education. Sheffield University College founded following mergers with Firth College, the Technical School and the Medical School. Institution of Heating and Ventilation Engineering founded. Regulations for ‘Organised Science Schools’ amended.
1898 Education Department code published for Evening Continuation Schools. University of London Act established a teaching university with a federal constitution. Wye Agricultural College opened. Cycle Engineers Institute founded (Birmingham) – in 1904 became the Automobile and Cycle Engineers Institute. Libraries Offences Act. 11 Polytechnics in London.
1899 ‘Board of Education Act’ –  created the Board of Education (BoE) – replaced three central agencies the Education Department, the Science and Art Department and the educational sections of the Charity Commission. Elementary Education (School Attendance) Act raised the age of exemption to 12 years. School leaving age raised to 12. Ruskin Hall funded – from 1907 called Ruskin College. Institute of Refrigeration founded. National Council of Adult School Union founded – became the National Adult School Union in 1914. ‘Agriculture and Technical Instruction (Ireland) Act.’ passed. Cabinet making and furniture trades started at the LCC Shoreditch Technical Institute. Agriculture and Technical Instruction (Ireland) Act. School leaving age raised to 12. Cockerton Judgement – curtailed the powers of the School Boards impacted resonated for a number of after. national Council of Adult School associations created 350 schools with 45.000 students. LCC Shoreditch Technical Institute established. Sir John Cass Technical Institute founded. Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction (DATI Ireland) Act. Imperial College opens. Evening Continuation Schools Code published.

1900-1939

1900  ‘Intermediate Education Act’ (Ireland) passed. Mason College becomes the University of Birmingham.  Board of Education established. Royal Charter of Incorporation awarded to CGLI. The National Physical Laboratory founded. Trade School for Furniture and Cabinet Making established at the Shoreditch Technical Institute. There were 183 schools of science operating under the auspices of the DSA with 25,000 pupils. CGLI offer examinations in Building Quantities. Institute of Refrigeration founded. 1900+ Day Trade Schools mainly for boys established especially in the London area. London Board of Education recognised higher elementary education. Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction (Ireland) starts to operate. The National Diploma in Agriculture introduced. Royal Veterinary College of Ireland Dublin founded. 62,000 certified teachers in Britain. Around 2,000 graduate scientists working in Britain 400 in universities and colleges and there were approximately 225 chemists. Manchester Museum opened on Oxford Road. John Rylands Library Manchester opened.
1901 ‘Elementary Education (Enabling) Act -indemnifying School Boards for illegal expenditure. Specialised Courses of Industry for Training Colleges. (BoE). University College Exeter founded. Hartley University College Southampton founded. British Academy founded. Code of Regulations for Continuation Classes enacted.  New set of Regulations for Continuation Classes introduced (Scotland). Act of Parliament for Scotland – laid down regulations for employment and attendance of children at school passed. Factory and Workshop  (Consolidation) Act. Engineering Standards Committee established later became the British Standards Institute (BSI in 1930). College for Men and Women closed. Carpentry and joinery classes held at the Technical School, Bath also at Merchant Venturers Technical College, Bristol, Liverpool School of Science and Technology, Manchester Technical School, Technical School, Wolverhampton, Heriot-Watt College, Edinburgh and Robert Gordon College, Aberdeen. 9,902 pupils on registers of 78 Schools of Science. CGLI Technological Examinations held in 380 centres with 34,246 candidates and there were 904 candidates in manual training examinations for teachers. Association of Public School Science Masters founded become the Science Masters Association in 1919 and joined the Association of Women’s Science Teachers (founded 1911) in 1963 when it was renamed the Association for Science (ASE). Trade School for Furniture and Cabinet-Making founded at the Shoreditch Technical Institute. Heriot-Watt College designated a Central Institution in Scotland.
1902 ‘Education Act.’ – established system of secondary schools – which abolished School Boards and the technical instruction committees and placed all forms of national education under the administration of county councils and county borough councils. (Balfour). ‘ Education Act’ placing all Schools Boards on the rates (except London). ‘University of Wales Act. Liverpool University Act.  London University Examination Council founded (1902/5). Education Act-Local authorities made responsible for technical education. (see above). London Day Training College founded and became the Institute of Education in 1932 now part of the University of London. Evening continuation and evening technical schools merged. The Technical Day School for Boys at the LCC Shoreditch Technical Institute opened classes included furniture, wood-working and cabinet making. In 1902 there were approximately 6,000 elementary board schools and over 14,000 elementary church schools. Schools of Science and Day Secondary Schools were renamed Secondary Day Schools A and B respectively. Every local authority in Ireland agreed to raise a rate for Technical Instruction. Irish Technical Association founded. Manchester Municipal School of Technology opened – cost £300,000
1903 ‘Second Report on HE.’ Cd.1738. (BoE). ‘Education Act (London)’ – applying the Education Act of 1902 to London with modifications. Formation of the Association for the Higher Education of Working Men- from 1905 became the Workers’ Educational Association (WEA).Victoria University gives place to independent Universities of Manchester, Liverpool and Leeds. Common Entrance Examinations instituted. Faraday Society founded. Institute of Directors (IoD) founded. Institute of Plumbers founded (IoP). Consultation Committee on Attendance Compulsory or Otherwise at Continuation Schools. Northern Universities Joint Matriculation Board (JMB) founded. Institute of Brewing founded. Board of Agriculture and Fisheries established – formerly Board of Agriculture – became the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries in 1919. Association to Promote the Higher Education of Working Men founded -later became the WEA. Chair n Geology created at Glasgow University.
1904 Secondary Regulations introduced a subject-based curriculum. ‘Regulations for Evening Schools, Technical Institutions and Schools of Art and Art Classes 1904 – 05.’  Cd. 2172   (BoE). ‘Attendance, compulsory or otherwise at continuation schools.’ Acland Report 2 volumes: Cd. 4757 and Cd. 4758. BoE. HMSO. Leeds University Act.  British Foundry men’s Association founded renamed in 1923 as the Institute of Foundry men. First Day Trade School for Girls opened at Borough Polytechnic -classes in shorthand, needlework, domestic economy and book-keeping. Association of Teachers in Technical Institutions (ATTI) founded. National Association of Master Heating and Domestic Engineers founded – a forerunner of the Heating and Ventilation Association. Goldsmiths’ Company hand over the Technical and Recreation Institute to University of London. Association of Applied Biologists founded. Association of Economic Biologists founded. Welsh National Agricultural Society founded. New School of Art established by the Goldsmiths Company. First WEA branch opened in Reading followed by Derby 1905, Rochdale 1905 and Ilford 1905 the WEA then quickly spread across the country. Manchester University Press (MUP) founded.
1905 University College Sheffield becomes a University. Regulations for Junior Technical Schools across England and Wales published. (BoE). First Junior Technical Schools (JTSs) founded. British Science Guild established by Norman Lockyer closed in 1936. ‘Co-operation of Employers and Technical Institutes.’ Association of Technical Institutions (ATI). The following Central Institutions in Scotland recognised: Aberdeen and North of Scotland College of Agriculture. Aberdeen Gordon’s College and Gray’s School of Art. Dundee Technical Institute. Edinburgh Heriot-Watt College. Glasgow and West of Scotland Technical College. Glasgow Athenaeum Commercial College. Glasgow School of Art. Leith Nautical College. The West of Scotland Agricultural College (including the Kilmarnock Diary School). ‘The Organisation of Certain Artizan Evening Schools in East Lancashire.’ published BoE Pamphlet No 2. Goldsmiths College founded. 1905+ Non-selective Junior Technical Schools created initially in thee Northern Cities. Faculty of Technology founded at the Manchester Municipal School of Technology.
1906 ‘Technical Education.’ (Haldane Commission). Departmental Committee on Royal College of Science. Institution of Automotive Engineers founded. Institute of Commerce founded.The Concrete Institute founded renamed in 1922 as the Institution of Structural Engineers. Dyke Report Higher Elementary Schools. LCC Shoreditch Technical Institute founded as a Girls Trade School. There were about 1,200 Adult Schools in England – 850 for men and 350 for women. Cockburn High School Leeds founded – engineering its main focus. Holbeck Day Preparatory Trade School Leeds founded classes included basic manual skills, metal, wood-working, technical drawing and mechanics. Preparatory Trade School for Girls at the Cockburn High School Leeds opened – included the teaching of general education and business methods. The Technical Day School for Boys at the LCC Paddington Technical Institute opened classes included scientific and technical subjects. Day Technical Classes at the LCC Central School of Arts and Crafts,Regent Street London opened  classes included silver smithing and kindred trades. Rowntree Day Continuation School opened in York (for boys only). Pre-Apprenticeship Day School, Bootle, opened at the Technical School. Day Craft School at the Brimscombe Polytechnic, near Stroud, Somerset opened- classes included wood-working, marquatry, inlaying etc. LCC established system of Trade Scholarships and opened Day Trade Schools first at Bloomsbury in 1907 -others followed and the Trade Schools for girls offered subjects such as Dress Making, Ladies Tailoring, Lingerie, Millinery, Embroidery (Hand and Machine), Waistcoat Making, Upholstery, Hairdressing, Laundry-work, Cookery, Domestic service, Tea-room Management and Cookery and Photography. In 1932 there were 11 Trade Schools for Girls in London. The Day Trade School of Dressmaking of the LCC Paddington Technical College for Girls opened classes included industrial training in dressmaking and general education (1906?). Regulations for Technical Schools funded agriculture education at a rate of approximately £30,000 per annum. Durham University founded a chair in Naval Architecture.
1907 ‘Regulations for Secondary Schools, Schools of Art and other Schools and Classes in FE.’ Cd. 3555. (BoE). ‘Elementary Code:improved quality of elementary education. Imperial College of Science and Technology founded comprising the Royal College of Science, the Royal School of Mines and the CGLI Central Technical College. British Association of Chemists founded. Teachers’ Registration Council founded. Stanley Technical Trade School opened classes included foundations of mechanics, science and applied art-the first in England in South Norwood in London-(William Ford Stanley was an engineer who designed precision instruments for use in optics, mathematical and scientifc work). Welsh Department (WD) established. Day Trade School of Dressmaking at Woolwich Polytechnic London founded classes included design and needlework, dressmaking and general education. Day Trade School for Girls at the LCC Shoreditch Technical Institute opened classes included upholstery, dressmaking and designing. Bloomsbury day Trade School for Girls opened. ‘Reports and Statistics relating to Continuation Classes and Central Institutions in Scotland 1905-06.’ Cd 3472 published. Wyman and Sons London-note Wyman and Son at the time were the offical government publishers. First chair in Engineering established at Oxford University. Institute of Plumbers incorporated. Birkbeck Literary and Scientific Institute renamed Birkbeck College. Chair in Mining created at Glasgow University.
1908 ‘Education Act.’ Scotland.  Royal Society of Arts granted its Royal Charter became known as the RSA. Institute of Metals founded. Oxford University appoints first chair in Engineering. Insitution of Structural Engineers founded. Imperial College admitted as a School of University of London.Central Institution (CGLI) integrated into University of London. Rowntree Day Continuation School York opened to girls. School Boards to provide FE provision to over 14 year olds (Education Act Scotland).
1909 ‘Continuation Schools.’ Cd. 4757. (A.H.D. Acland) – creation of Day Continuation Education proposed for school leavers.-(BoE). ‘Attendance, compulsory or otherwise at continuation schools’ Consultative Report BoE. University College Bristol becomes a University. Fircroft Residential College opened. Royal Commission on the Poor Laws. Labour Exchange Act.Textile institute founded. Illuminating Engineering Society founded. Leathersellers’ Company Technical College opened in Bermondsey.
1910 ‘Educational Aims and Effects.’ published (P.Magnus).’The Course System in Evening Schools’. HMSO. Textile Institute founded. ‘Junior Day Commercial Schools.’ ED22/52. Education (Choice of Employment) Act-founded the basis of careers service. Westminister College established a pioneering Hotel School. National Transport Workers Federation founded.
1911 University Grants Committee (UGC) established. ‘Science Examinations and Grouped Courses Certificates’ Cir. 776 (BoE). ‘Report of examinations in secondary school.’ (Acland Report). Cd. 6004. (BoE). Junior Institution of Locomotive Engineers founded.Biochemical Society founded. East Midland Educational Union (EMU) founded. Central School opened in London -provded a general education to 15 to enter trade and industry the curriculum had a commercial or industrial bias without being technical in the narrower sense. British Engineers’ Association (BEA) founded by Douglas Vickers. Coal Mines Act advocated higher quaifications for Mining Engineers.
1912 ‘The Teaching of Mathematics in the UK.’ (Sadley Report),(1911?). British Engineers’ Association founded. The Royal College of Science and Technology becomes the Royal Technical College, Glasgow. Central School opened in Manchester c.f. London Central School 1911.Gas,Light and Coke Company started to provide part-time day release over four years and some classes delivered at Westminster Technical Institute. Institution of Railway Signal Engineers incorporated. In 1912/13 session there were only 1,487 FT engineering/technology students in England and Wales. There were 1,199 advanced FT students in technical institutions.
1913 ‘Regulations for Junior Technical Schools (JTSs)’ first issued. Cd. 6919. (BoE) -came into force 1/8/1913. ‘Practical work in secondary school.’-consultation report by BoE. London Literary Institutes trailed- 9 established in 1919 and 12 were in operation by 1935  with an enrolment of 12,300. Institute of Petroleum (IoP) founded as the Institution of Petroleum Technologists, renamed in 1938. Incorporated Association of Consulting Engineers founded. Institute of Electrical Engineers started examinations. Royal Commission on London University. Cadbury Day Continuation School opened in Bournville, Birmingham. Classes started for employees of Cadbury Brothers and Morland and Impey at a Day Continuation School) Birmingham Education Committee). Consultative Committee Report:Practical work in secondary schools published. 37 Junior Technical Schools existed with 2,900 pupils. British Ecological Society founded. Department of Mining established at Heriot-Watt College. In session average annual salary for: solicitors £568, GPs £395 and for engineers £314. Electrical Power Engineers Association founded.
1914 ‘Trade and Technical Education in Germany and France.’ (J.C. Smail). (LCC). Sheffield University Act. Report on engineering in secondary schools. ED12/211. (G.A. Boxendall). ‘Regulations for JTSs incorporated into the Regulations for Technical Schools, Schools of Art and Other Forms of Provision of FE.’ Association of Supervisory Electrical Engineers founded (March). 72 Instruction Committees in Ireland. Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (DSIR) founded. Food Science laboratory founded in London. Sheffield University Act. % of GNP on science and technology in Britain 0.063%.
1915 Women’s Institutes started. Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (DSIR) (1916) created to sponsor research in universities. Barrett Street Trade School founded by the LCC.
1916 Secondary Schools Examination Council created. Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (DSIR) established.Royal College of Nursing founded. Society of Glass Technology founded. National Industrial Alliance (NIA) established in order to negate the idea that there is an essential antagonism between the interests of employers and employees. Bookbinding classes started at Northampton Polytechnic Clerkenwell. Association of British Chemical Manufacturers (BCM) founded. Federation of British Industry (FBI) established became an economic, educational and political pressure group. Consultative Committee Report on Scholarships for Higher Education.
1917 ‘Juvenile Education in Relation to Employment after the War.’-proposed compulsory school leaving age of 14- followed by at least 8 hours instruction per week or 320 hours per annum at day continuation classes up to 18, Cd. 8512. (J.J. Lewis Report) BoE. HMSO. Secondary School Examinations Council SSEC) established to administer School Certificate and Higher School Certificates examinations.Training schemes for disabled ex-servicemen created. Department of Scientific and Industrial Research founded in Britain. Staff Training College established at Port Sunlight. ‘Relations between Employers and Employed’ published (Whitley Committee). Only 31 Higher Elementary Schools in England and only 14 in Wales. British Association of Chemistry founded.
1918 ‘Education Act.’ – proposed to introduce part-time education, proved ineffective apart from the Rugby area. School-leaving age raised to 14. 50% of LEA if approved to be paid by government. ‘Examinations in Science and Technology.’ Circular 1026. (BoE).’Final Report on Commercial and Industry Policy after the War.’ Cd. 9035. (BoE). ‘Education Act (Scotland.’ ‘Royal Commission on University Education in Wales’ Annual Report of Central Welsh Board. Scottish Education Department reorganised.  YMCA Universities Committee established. University College Leicester founded. ‘Position of Natural Science in the Education System of GB.’ Cd 9011. (Thomson Report) HMSO. Report on the Position of Engineering after the War. Cd. 9073. (BoT). Memo of the relationship of Junior Technical Schools to Central Schools. ED24/1412. Institute of Physics (IoP) named derived from the Physical Society founded in 1874. ‘Position of Engineering Trades After the War.’ Cd. 9073. Board of Trade. W and R Jacob and Co Ltd opened a Day Continuation School (both sexes taught). Institute of  Fire Engineers founded. National Union of Scientific Workers founded later named Association of Scientific Workers.
1919 ‘Ministry of Reconstruction Adult Education Committee Final Report.’ Cmd. 321. HMSO. University Grants Committee (UGC) established. ‘Adult Education.’-recommended creation of university extra-mural departments. (Smith Report). Burnham Committee established. Oxford University admits women to degrees. Institution of Aeronautical Engineers founded. Women’s Engineering Society founded. Advancement of Education in Industry and Commerce (AEIC) founded (28th May)-later joined the British Association for Commercial Education (BACE) to form the British Association for Commercial and Industrial Education (BACIE). National Certificates established – key figure H. S. Hele-Shaw. Report of the Committee on Women in Industry. Cmnd. 167 HMSO. There were just 30 Higher Elementary Schools in England and Wales. British Employers Confederation BEC) founded. ASE became the Amalgamated Engineers Union. Programmes in Physical Chemistry, Fuel Science and Metallurgy introduced at Heriot-Watt College. Workers’ Education Trade Union founded (WEA+TU representatives). Holyoake House opened in Manchester a cooperative college. First full-time school established in London University for post-graduate studies in librarianship – a Diploma.
1920 Army Educational Corps founded-(Received Royal Charter in 1946). Industrial Training (Curriculum) published (RSA).University College Swansea founded. Government Training Centres  GTCs)- Industrial Centres and Junior Industrial Centres established. Northern Counties Technical Examinations Council established.Institute of Motor Industry founded. Society of Consulting Marine Engineers and Ship Surveyors founded. Hillcroft Residential College opened. Opening of the first five Men’s Institutes in Battersea, Bethnal Green, Deptford, Southwark and Stepney. Medical Research Council founded. Rugby Day Continuation School opened (19th April). Day Continuation School held classes in the Falmouth Technical School – engineering, engineering drawing and mathematics taught. Boots Pure Drug Group, Nottingham opened a Day Continuation School. Women’s Engineering Society founded. ‘Unemployment Insurance Act’. Chemical Plant Manufacturers Association founded. Building Research Board founded. Amalgamated Engineers Union founded. Employment of Women, Young Persons and Children Act. Newcomen Society founded. Society of Graphic Artists founded. Unemployment Insurance Act -links grants to training courses. Employment of Women, Young Persons and Children Act.
1921 ‘Education Act’; School leaving age raised from 12 to 14. (BoE). National Certificate Scheme introduced –Ordinary and Higher Certificates and Diplomas initially managed by the BoE/Institute of Chemistry and Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Regulations for Adult Education first issued. National Council of Labour Colleges founded. Institution of Production Engineers founded. Northern Counties Technical Examinations Council founded. Association of Principals in Technical Institutions (APTI) founded. Rural Industries Bureau founded by HM Development Commission. The Plumbers Trades National Apprenticeship Council founded. Westminster Day Continuation School opened. British Manufacturers’ Research Association founded. British Leather Manufacturers Research Association founded.
1922 ‘Universities (Scotland) Act. The Development of Adult Education for Women. HMSO. Institution of Chemical Engineers founded. Engineers’ Joint Council established. Chemical Research Board founded. Association of Public Lighting Engineers founded.
1923 Institute of Welding founded. Labour Party announce education for all. ‘Education (Northern Ireland) Act. Retail courses introduced at Westminster Day Continuation School. Universities of Oxford and Cambridge Act.
1924 Northern Counties Technical Examinations Council reconstituted. Miners’ Welfare Joint Adult Education Committee founded. ‘Report of the Proceedings of the Conference on Science and Labour’. New Department of Education takes over the Technical Instruction Board (TIB Ireland). National Institute of Agricultural Engineering opened Oxford University.
1925 Institution of Electrical and Radio Engineers founded. Avoncroft Residential College opened. From mid 1920s the Unemployed Training Schemes established Government Training Centres, Instructional Centres, Vocational Training Centres, Training Scheme for Women and Junior Instructional Centres established. Universities and College Estates Act.
1926 ‘Education of the Adolescent’.-recommended the division of secondary education into the grammar and the secondary modern schools. (Hadow Report). HMSO. Malcolm Committee (1926/28 focussed on education in industry. Closure of Finsbury Technical College. Joint Examining Boards (JEBs) for training teachers established. Statutory Rules and Orders. Regulations for FE. BoE.  ‘Survey of Technical and FE in England and Wales.’ BoE pamphlet 49. HMSO.University College Reading becomes a University. ‘Enquiry into Apprenticeships.’ (MoL) 7 volumes. Work of Men’s Institutes in London. BoE pamphlet 48.’Day release for Engineering Appentices.’ BoE Education pamphlet 66. Birmingham School of Building Trades Apprenticeship opened. Survey of technical and FE in England and Wales’. BoE. HMSO -very critical of the accommodation.
1927 ‘Report of Committee on Industry and Trade.’ Factors in Industrial and Commercial Effeciency. Committee on Industry and Trade.  (Balfour).  ‘Report on an enquiry into the relationship of technical education to other forms of education and to industry and trade.’ (Emmott Report).Cmnd. 3282. HMSO. ‘Report on an Inquiry into Apprenticeships for the Skilled Occupations.’ (ML). Coleg Harlech Residential College opened. ‘Relationship of Technical Education to Industry and Commerce’ published ATTI. Institute of Fuel founded. ‘Post-primary Schools in Relation to Industry’published NUT. ‘The Education of the Adolescent.’ BoE. HMSO. University College Hull founded. In session 1927/28 there were 4,178 engineering students attending PTD classes.
1928 Committee on Education and Industry England and Wales.’ (1927-28). (D. Malcolm Report). (BoE). ‘Education for Industry and Commerce.’ Pamphlet 64.BoE. ‘Examinations for Part Time Students.’ (Atholl  Report). (BoE). HMSO. Yorkshire Council for FE founded. University College Hull founded.Final Report of the Committee on Industry and Trade. Cmnd.3241. HMSO.  ‘The New Prospect in Education.’ BoE pamphlet 60. ‘Junior Technical Schools.’ BoE pamphlet 63.
1929 ‘Committee on Education and Industry (England and Wales) 2nd report.’ ‘Committee on Education and Training.’ (BoE). ‘Education and Commerce.’ (Balfour Report). Factors in Industrial and Commercial Efficiency in two parts (part 1- 1927 and final part – 1929). (BoE).  ‘ Final Report of the Committee on Industry and Trade.’ Cd. 3282. HMSO.  ‘Education for the Engineering Group of Engineering Industries.’ (Clerk Report).’Trade and Domestic Schools for Girls.’ Pamphlet 72. BoE. HMSO. North Western Polytechnic established included a Printing School. Westminster Day School renamed School of Retail Distribution. The first Industrial Centre opened (May) – by 1933 30,000 men had received instruction and support.
1930 ‘Place of the Junior Technical Schools in the Educational System.’  pamphlet  83 BoE. ‘London Men’s (Junior) Evening Institutes.’ BoE pamphlet 84. Institute of Electronics founded. 1930/31 there were 40 Junior Continuation Schools in existence with over 5,000 students (60% girls). British Standards Committee Institute (BSI) established. In session 1930/31 there were 6,968 students attending PTD classes. In session 1930/31 there were approximately 2,200 students attending commercial courses – majority female. 40 Junior Commercial Schools in existence with approximately 5,000 pupils – 60% females. Society of Industrial Artists founded.
1931 ‘Education for the Engineering Industry.’ (Dugald Clerk Committee). (BoE).’Final Report on Education for Salesmanship.’ (F. Goodenough). BoE. ‘Report of the Committee for Education for Engineering Industry.’ Percy Report. HMSO. Agricultural Research Council founded. British Association for Commercial Education founded (27th April). The approximate numbers of students attending classes under the Regulations for Fe were: Day Continuation Schools-20,600, Junior Technical Schools-21,000, Senior Full-time Courses- 8,000, Technical Day Classes-27,000 =total 76,600 and attending Evening Classes 905,000 giving a grand total of 981,600. Approximately 3.000 teachers involved full-time in technical and commercial schools. Apprenticeship Act (Ireland).
1932 ‘Technical and Art Education and other forms of FE.’ List 111 BoE. ‘Trade Schools on the Continent.’  Pamphlet  91. BoE. ‘Royal Commission on Unemployment Insurance’ attendance at a Junior Instruction Institution or at a course of instruction should everywhere be regulated and enforced as a condition of employment. Parliamentary and Scientific Committee constituted. Universities Scotland Act.
1933 ‘Organisation of Art Education.’ Cir 1432. BoE. CGLI sign Concordat. ‘An Experiment in Management Education.’ Robinson. ATI. ‘Regional Co-ordination of FE.’ by Everett. APTI.
1934 South Wales Regional Council founded (1935?).
1935 50 th. Jubilee of GCLI Imperial College. West Midlands Advisory Council founded. ‘The training of technical and commercial teachers.’ ED 22/155. 53 Day Continuation Schools existed in England and Wales – 46 LEA controlled and 7 provided by private firms. ‘The Entrance to Industry.’ PEP. – an interesting account of Day Continuation Schools. There were 12 universities in England and Wales with 40,392 full-time students. West Midlands Regional Council established. National Association for the Advancement of Education in Commerce founded.
1936 Consultative Committee on the Education of the Adolescent. (Hadow Report). ‘Education Act.’ – proposed school leaving age to be raised to 15 in September 1939 – postponed by outbreak of war. ‘Vocational Education.’  BACIE. ‘Technical Secondary Schools.’ ATI (A.M.Gilson). ‘The Relation between a Secondary and Technical Education.’ ATI. (G.J.R. Potter). ‘Technical Education.’  Weaver. T and Drake. B. New Fabian Research Bureau. ‘Vocational Education.’ Association of Commercial and Industrial Education. ACIE.
1937 ‘Review of Junior Technical Schools in England.’ Pamphlet  111. BoE. ‘Report on an Inquiry into the Relationships of Technical Education to Industry and Commerce.’ (Emmott Report). (BoE). ‘Suggestions in Regard to Teaching in Junior Technical Schools.’ BoE pamphlet 113. ‘Policy in Technical Education.’ Joint report by ATTI and APTI. There were 220 Junior Technical Schools of various kinds and 41 Junior Commercial Departments in schools with 28,879 pupils. ‘Factory  Act’ defined limits on employment of young people.
1938 ‘Secondary Education with Special Reference to Grammar Schools and Technical High Schools.’ -proposed the tripartite system of secondary education namely grammar, technical and secondary modern. Proposed school leaving age raised to 16. (Spens Report). (BOE). HMSO. Engineers’ Guild founded. ‘Education for Distribution’ ATI. (F.J. Stratton). ‘The Place of Production Engineering in Technical Institutions.’ by Berry. J.W. ATI. Number of FT students in FE (excluding Art Schools) 42,000 and number of PT students 1,280,000 compared with 4,000 FT and 750,000 PT in 1904. Number of teachers in FE 4,090 (Not including Art Schools). Engineers’ Guild founded to promote ‘the unity, public usefulness and interests of the profession – incorporated in 1951. Cheetham Adult Education Centre opened.
1939 There were 50 Junior Commercial Schools (JCSs) – this reduced significantly after the reorganisation of secondary education in 1944. 10,278 students of science and technology in English Universities compared with 9,852 in 192 – no real increase!

1940-1969

1940 Some responsibilities for training transferred to Ministry of Labour (MoL). Government Training Centres expanded. Institution of Central Advisory Council for Education in HM Forces established.
1941 ‘Curriculum and Examinations.’ (Committee of the Secondary School Examinations Council). (BoE).’Education after the War.’ (The Green Book). ED136/124.  ‘Technical Education – summary of the existing provision for FE.’.  ED 126/296. ‘Education after the War.’ (TUC). ATC formed. Rab Butler appointed President of Board of Education.
1942  ‘Social Insurance and Allied Services.’ Cmnd 6404. (Beveridge Report). HMSO. Recruitment and Training of Young Persons after the War. (MoL).National Youth Advisory Council founded.’Policy on Commercial Education.’ National Council on Commercial Education. ED12/179. ‘Pre-vocational courses in the Building Industry.’ Circ. 224. SED. ‘Pre-apprenticeship courses for the Building Industry’ Circ. 250. SED.
1943 ‘Curriculum and Examinations in Secondary Schools.’ Supported a tripartite division of secondary education into grammar, technical and modern schools.  (Norwood Report). HMSO. White Paper on ‘Educational Reconstruction.’ – influenced the 1944 Act Cmnd. 6458. (BoE). HMSO. Eductional Reconstruction” – foreshadowed the 1944 Act. ‘Post-war agricultural education in England and Wales.’ Cmnd. 6433.( Luxmoore Report). (Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries.). HMSO. ‘Compulsory Day continuation classes.’ (Fyfe 4th Report). SED. HMSO. ‘The reconstruction of FE.’ (YCFE). ‘A Plan for Education’.- (NUT).Messrs. Newton Chambers Ltd Sheffield instigated vocational and general classes for their apprenticeships. Universities and Colleges Trusts Act.
1944 ‘Education Act.’- made it mandatory for education authorities to provide full-time and part-time further education. (Butler); Tri-partite system created;  “To consider the supply, recruitment and training of teachers and youth workers” (McNair Report). HMSO. ‘Employment Policy.’ Cmnd 6527. (HMSO). ‘A College of Aeronautics.’ (Fedden Report). HMSO. Board of Education (BoE) replaced by the Ministry of Education (MoE). Advisory Council for Wales established. National Society for Art Education established derived from the National Society for Art Masters. Junior Technical Schools (JTSs) renamed Secondary Technical Schools and become an intregral part of the secondary schools system. Manchester College of Adult Education opened in Lower Mosley Street.
1945 ‘Higher Technological Education.’ – proposed: National Colleges; Diploma in Technology (or alternatively B.Tech) and upgrading some selected technical colleges to colleges of advanced technology. (Percy Report). (MoE). HMSO. ‘The Working of the Statutory Machinery for Advising Young People.’ Ince Report. (MoLNS). ‘The Nation’s Schools. Their Plan and Purpose.’  MoE pamphlet 1.(MoE).  Education Act (Scotland). Advisory Council (Scotland) recommended a comprehensive system for all secondary pupils 12-16 with a common core and common leaving examination. ‘Education (Scotland) Act. ‘The National Schools’. Establishment of a Royal College of Technology. Establishment of Regional Advisory and Regional Academic Boards.Institution of Engineering Designers founded. ‘Agricultural Education.’ Circ 1432. MoE. M Agr & Fish.’Agricultural Education.’ Circ 1 MoE/MAgrFish. ‘Agricultural Education in Scotland.’ (Alness Report). Cmnd 6704. ‘The provision in secondary schools of courses preparatory to agricultural employment’.-(First Loveday Report). HMSO. Central Advisory Council for Education (England and Wales) established. ‘Fifty Years of Technical Education.’-(Union of Educational Institutions). ‘Recruitment and Training of Juveniles for Industry’.-(Ince Committee). HMSO – advocated the creation of a National Training Scheme-not implemented until the Industrial Act. Central Advisory Council for Education founded-advised government on FE. ‘A Giude to the Educational System of England and Wales.’ Pamphlet 2 MoE. HMSO. Between 1945 and 1960 63 Secondary Technical Schools STS) were built in 32 LEAs. Institution of Metallurgists founded.
1946 Scientific Manpower.’-proposed ten-year plan to double number of scientists in universities. Cmnd. 6824. (Barlow Report). HMSO. ‘Youth’s Opportunity: FE in County Schools’.-(MoE).  ‘ Education Act’  (Scotland)‘Technological Education.’ Cmnd. 9703 (MoE). HMSO. ‘Technical Education.’ Advisory Committee on Education in Scotland. ‘Youth Opportunity: FE in County Colleges.’. Pamphlet 3. (MoE). College of Aeronautics created (Cranfield)– the first national college–arose from the Fedden Report (1944)-now Cranfield University. ‘Higher Agricultural Education in England and Wales.’ Cmnd 6728. (Second Loveday Report). (Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries), HMSO. ‘Technical education.’ Cmnd. 6786. (Fyfe Report). SED. HMSO. ‘Universities and the increase of scientific manpower.’ (Parliamentary and Scientific Committee (PSC) Report. ‘Regional Organisation of FE.’ Cir. 87 (MoE). ‘The Status of technical, commercial and art colleges.’ Cir. 98. (MoE). ‘Release of teachers to industry and commerce’ Admin memo 1348. MoE.’Management Courses.’ Baillieu Report – established the British Institute of Management (BIM). ‘Industry and Science.’ FBI.  10 Regional Advisory Councils established following a recommendation of the Percy Report. Council for Scientific Policy founded – advised on FE. East Anglian Regional Advisory Council for FE established.  London and Home Counties Regional Advisory Council for Technological Education established. Regional Advisory Council for the Organisation of FE in the East Midlands established. Circ. 94/1946 encouraged research technical colleges/institutions. Council for Scientific Policy established. Bolton and London Technical Teachers Training Colleges opened. national Institute of House workers founded.
1947 ‘Technical Education.’ Cmnd. 6786 ( SED/ CACE (Scotland)-HMSO. School leaving age raised to 15. ‘Further Education: the scope and content of its opportunities under the 1944 Education Act.’ Pamphlet 8. (MoE). HMSO. ‘Education for Management: Management subjects in technical and commercial colleges.’-(Urwick Report)-MoE. HMSO. Ten Regional Advisory Councils for FE established representing regions across England and Wales and five for Scotland. Advisory Council on Education in Scotland established -advised government on FE. Northern Advisory Council for FE established. Northern-Western Regional Advisory Council for FE established. ‘Colleges of technology and technological manpower.’ (Parliamentary and Scientific Committee (PSC)). National College of Horology and Instrument Technology established.’The New Secondary Education.’ MoE pamphlet 9. ‘School and Life.’ (Clarke Report). MoE. HMSO. ‘National Advisory Council on Education for Industry and Commerce Report.’ (Hardman Report). MoE.HMSO. ‘Agricultural and Horticultural institutes’.-(Third Loveday Report). MoE/MAgrFish. HMSO. National Advisory Committee for Education and Industry (NACEIC) established. Regional Council for FE for the South West established. Southern Regional Council for FE established. ‘Some Problems of Higher Technical Education.’ R. S. Hutton. CGLI. British Institute of Management established in London. FE Pamphlet No. 8. MoE. ‘The New Secondary Education’ -government supporting the tripartite system of secondary schools. Area Training Organisations (ATOs) to oversee and manage teaching training 13 in England and 1 in Wales. All the Regional Advisory Councils for FE had been established namely: London and Home Counties, Southern, Western, West Midlands*, East Midlands. East Anglia, Yorkshire*, North West*, Northern, Wales and Monmouthshire* -*already existed under different titles. Five in Scotland. LCC raised the status of commercial institutions to that of technical colleges and schools of art renamed colleges of commerce. ‘School and Life.’ (Clarke Report). Group Certificate Examinations introduced in Ireland. Nuffield farming Scholarships Trust founded. Huddersfield Technical Teachers Training College opened. Education (Northern Ireland) Act. Local Government (Scotland) Act. National College of Horology founded at Northampton polytechnic at Clerkenwell.
1948 ‘Education/Employment and Training Act.’ (MoL) -established the Youth Employment Service (YES)-training would not be a condition of benefits. National Advisory Council on Education and Commerce established to advise the Minister on policy in Technical Education/FE after considering and co-ordinating the advice of the Regional Councils. Administrative Institute of Management Henley opened. ‘Report on Art Examinations’.-(Bray Report). HMSO. National College of Heating, Ventilation, Refrigeration and Fan Engineering established at Borough Polytechnic. National College of Rubber Technology established at Northern Polytechnic. National College for Foundry founded at Wolverhamton and Stafford College of Technology. ‘First Annual Report of the Advisory Council on Scientific Policy.’ Cmnd 7465. HMSO. University of Nottingham created. ‘Examinations in Secondary Schools.’ Circ. 168. MoE/SSEC. ‘Working Party on School Reconstruction.’ (Second Cleary Report). MoE. HMSO. Welsh Joint Education Committee founded – advised government on FE. 319 Secondary Technical Schools (STSs) in existence and by 1960 just 268. Administrative Staff College Henley opened (Management). Clarke Report on out of school activities.
1949 ‘Report of a Special Committee on Education for Commerce.’ (Carr- Saunders Report). (MoE). HMSO. Scheme for General Certificate in Education (GCE) accepted. Universities assume responsibility for curriculum for Forces Education. ‘Scheme for Scottish Leaving Certificates accepted.’ ‘Memo on the Organisation, Development and Its Work.’ (CGLI). Institute of Statisticians founded as Association of Incorporated Statisticians’, renamed 1961. The Royal College of Art (Kensington became a National College.-founded in 1837 as a school of industrial design). ‘A Hundred Years of Educational Service’.-(ULCI). ‘Report on education for commerce’.-MoE. ‘Report on the provision of part-time instruction by LEAs for agriculturists, horticulturists and domestic producers.’ (Fourth Loveday Report). MoE/MAgrFish. HMSO. In 1949/50 19% of secondary school pupils were in technical schools but this had fallen to <1% by 1969/70. Education (Scotland) Act.
1950 ‘The Future Development of Higher Technological Education.’ Cmnd 8357. (Weeks Report).(MoE/NACEIC). HMSO.  National Advisory Council on Education for Industry and Commerce (NACEIC) founded. ‘Technical education and skilled manpower.’ (PSC). University of North Staffordshire founded. Institute of Biology (IoB) founded. UGC policy statement on applied science.’Professional Bodies’ Requirements in terms of GCE.’ Circ. 227- MoE. Sir John Cass Institute changes its name to Sir John Cass College. National Association of Principal Agricultural Education Officers (NAPAEO) established – replaced in 2006 by Landex.
1951 ‘The Future Development of Higher Technological Education.’ Cmnd. 8357. (MoE.) HMSO. GCE ‘O’ levels replaced the School Certificates (SCs) and GCE ‘A’ levels replaced the Higher School Certificate (HSCs). ‘Education 1900 – 1950.’ Cmnd 8244. (MoE). ‘Training of operatives, Training of supervisors.’ (Education for Management, Universities and Industry). National Leathersellers’ College established in London. ‘FE’ Circ 405. SED. HMSO. ‘The County College in Wales’.-(Aaron Report). MoE/CACE (Wales). HMSO. 4 important reports by the Anglo-American Council on Productivity: Training of Operatives’, Training of Supervisors’, ‘Training for Management’ and ‘Universities and Industry’. National Diploma in Agricultural Engineering introduced. National College of Food Technology established-(Jan.).
1952 ‘FE in Scotland.’ Cmnd 8454. McCelland Report. (SED/Advisory Council on Education in Scotland). Scientific Policy. Cmnd. 8561. (Advisory Council on Scientific Policy).Welsh Joint Education Committee established. University of Southampton founded. Imperial College gained University status–(Barlow recommendation). ‘The Worker in Industry’.-(MLNS).HMSO. ‘Education in a technological society.’ UNESCO. National College of Food Technology established  at Weybridge. ‘Examinations in Secondary Schools’  Circ. 256. MoE (4th Sept.). ‘Research and Development in British Industry.’ FBI. ‘Art Education.’ 1st Freeman Report. MoE/NACAE.
1953 ‘Agricultural apprenticeships scheme.’ Adm Memo 452. MoE. ‘Public Education in Scotland’ Cmnd 8813. SED. HMSO. ‘Advanced short courses for scientists and technologists engaged in industry.’ Circ. 270. MoE. ‘Agricultural education.’ attached to the Carrington Report.  Circ. 275. MoE/MAgrFish. HMSO. ‘Trade Union Education’.-WEA. ‘Engineering Training Courses.’ MoLNS. ‘The Organisation of Women’s Departments.’ ATI. University of St Andrew’s Act. ‘Exploitation of Science by Industry’.-Advisory committee on Scientific Policy.; Memorandum on Higher Technological Education’ Parliamentary and Scientific Committee (PSC). Institution of Nuclear Engineers founded.
1954 ‘Early Leaving.’ – examined why some pupils left secondary schools as early as possible, whether more should be encouraged to stay on until 18 and how this could be done. (Gurney-Dixon Report). MoE/CACE. HMSO. ‘The Organisation and Finance of Adult Education in England and Wales.’ (Ashby Report). HMSO. Associated Examination Board (AEB) established. ‘Report of Enquiry on Training Supervisors.’ (MLNS). University College Hull becomes a University. ‘Technical and Commercial Subjects in GCE.’-(JMB). ‘Technical colleges and industry.’ FBI Conference Report. ‘Memorandum on Higher Technological Education.’-PSC. ‘Agricultural Education – working party report.’ Circ. 275 (Accompanied by Carrington Report). Min Agr&Fish. HMSO. ‘Agricultural Education.’ Pamphlet 3-MoE. ‘Industry and the Graduate.’-FBI. ‘The Structure of Higher Technological Education in England and Wales.’-ATTI. ‘The First Half-Century.’-ATTI. National Advisory Council on the Training and Supply of Teachers (NACTST).
1955 National Council for Technological Awards(NCTA) established; Diploma in Technology (DipTech) scheme proposed and College of Technologists (CoT) scheme followed in 1956. (Hives Council). Diploma in Technology established in some colleges – degree equivalent qualification. ‘Liberal Education in a Technical College.’  (NIAE). ‘Committee of Enquiry into Department of Scientific and Industrial Research.’ (H. Jophcott Report). ‘Recruitment of Scientists and Engineers by the Engineering Industry.’ Advisory Council on Scientific Policy (ACSP), HMSO. ‘Technical Education Report by the Educational Institute of Scotland (EIS).’
1956 ‘Technical Education.’  Cmnd. 9703 – stressed need for more scientists, technologists and technicians; Need to link technical education with education in secondary schools; Expansion of building programme with expenditure of £70 million; Introduction of sandwich courses; Creation of Colleges of Advanced Technology (CATs) foreshadowed a 4th tier of Technical Institutions; Diploma in Technology to be introduced in some colleges; Need to expand part-time day release provision; Need for more trained teachers in technical education. (MoE/NACEIC). HMSO. ‘ Technical Education (including the White Paper on development of technical education).’ Circ. 299. Comprehensive five-year programme for the development of scientific and technology education. Cmnd. 9767, HMSO. ‘Distribution of scientists and Engineers employed in GB.’ Cmnd. 278. HMSO. ‘Evening Institutes.’-(MoE). Department of Scientific and Industrial Research reconstituted by statue. ‘Memorandum on the Recognition of courses in Technical Colleges.’ NCTA. University of Exeter founded. ‘Organisation of Technical Colleges.’ Circ. 305/56. (MoE). ‘Technical Education.’ Cir.299. (MoE). National Council for Technological Awards” proposed. (Hives Council). ‘Scientific and Engineering Manpower in GB.’ MoL/ACSP. (Zuckerman Report).HMSO. ‘Industry and the technical colleges; a review of some current problems.’ (FBI). ‘The Secondary Modern Schools.’ PEP. Technical Education.’ Circ. 305. MoE. HMSO. ‘Scientific and Engineering Manpower’. MoLabour. Institute of Biology founded. 4 categories of college designated Colleges of Advanced Technology (CATs), Regional Colleges (RCs), Area Colleges (ACs) and Local Colleges (LCs). Education (Scotland) Act.
1957 ‘The Supply and Training of Teachers for Technical Colleges.’ (Willis Jackson Report).  MoE. HMSO. ‘Scientific and Engineering Manpower in Great Britain.’  Inquiry by the MoL.Liberal Education in Technical Colleges.’  Cir.323.  (MoE).  ‘Libraries in Technical Colleges.’ Cir 322.  (MoE). University of Leicester founded. Procedures for the Approval of FE Courses. DES. Admin Memo 545. Designation of CATs -Minister designated the following CATs: Birmingham College of Technology, Bradford College of Technology, Loughborough College of Technology, Royal Technical College Salford, Battersea College of Technology, Chelsea College of Science and Technology, Northampton College of Advanced Technology (London), Welsh College of Advanced Technology (Cardiff). Bristol added in 1960 and later still Brunel (Acton). Standing Committee on the Supply and Training of Teachers for FE (Scotland) established-advised government on FE. ‘Opportunities for girls and women in science and technology.’ British Federation of University Women (BFUW). ‘Art Education.’ 2nd Freeman Report. MoE/NACAE. Coombe Lodge founded – FE Staff Training College suggested in the Willis Jackson Report to stage staff training for senior staff in FE.
 1958 ‘Training for Skill: Recruitment and Training of Young Workers for Industry.’ (Carr Report) very critical of technical/vocational provided in schools  (MLNS)/National Joint Advisory Council (NJAC). HMSO. White Paper ‘Secondary Education for All: A New Drive’. Industrial Training Council. (ITC) established. – a tripartite group comprising British Employers confederation (BEC), Trade Union Council (TUC) and Board of the National Industries, -followed a recommendation of the Carr Committee. ‘FE for Agriculture Provided by LEAs.’ Cmnd. 614-(De la Warr Report). (Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries/MoE). HMSO. ‘Education in Scotland: the next step.’ Cmnd 608. HMSO.’Recruitment of Teachers for Technical Colleges.’ Circ. 336. (MoE). ‘Britain’s Future and Technical Education.’ Circ. 343 Pamphlet. (MoE/COI) -50,000 distributed to firms etc. ‘Sandwich courses’ Adm Memo 559. MoE. (1957/58). ‘Art Education.’- changes in art exams propsed. Circ. 340. MoE, HMSO. ‘Public relations in FE.’ Circ 343.(Accompanied by Britains future and technical education). MoE. ‘Education in Scotland: the next step.’ Cmnd. 603-Sec. of State Scotland. HMSO. ‘Awards for students on advanced sandwich courses.’ Adm memo 567. MoE.’HND/C and advanced courses in electrical engineering.’ Adm memo 570. MoE. ‘Education and Training of Technicians.’ E. G. Sterland. ATI. ‘Training for Skill.’ MoLNS HMSO. There were 46 research associations in existence supported jointly by government department and by the industries concerned. Only 3.7% of secondary pupils attended Secondary Technical Schools (STSs) in England and Wales comprising 279 schools with 95,195 pupils.
1959 ‘Technical Education – The Next Step.’  Circ. 1/59. (MoE). ‘Education for Industry and Commerce.’ MoE/NACEIC. (McMeeking Report). – advocated improved technical training, including more apprenticeships and greater facilities for day-release. ‘15 to 18.’ The Central Advisory Council for Education. Proposed a 20 year programme to ensure that by 1980 50% of pupils stayed in full-time education until 18. 1959-60. (Crowther Report)-HMSO. ‘Better Opportunities in Technical Education.’ Cmnd. 1254- HMSO.  ‘Report on the Wastage of Students on Part-Time Technical and Commercial Subjects.’ (Watts Report). (MoE/(NACEIC). Advisory Committee on FE for Commerce. ‘Report of the Advisory Committee for Education England and Wales.’ (MoE). ‘Report on the Advisory Committee on FE.’ (MoE). ‘Scientific and Engineering Manpower in GB.’ Cmnd. 902. (Zuckerman Report). (Advisory Council on Scientific Policy, (ACSP)),HMSO.Lord Hailsham appointed Minister of Science. ‘FE.’ Circ. 405. (SED). ‘Secondary Education for All; a New Drive.’ Cmnd. 604. (1958/59). ‘FE for Commerce.’ Circ. 5/59. MoE. National Advisory Council for Art and Design (NACAE) founded – advised government on FE. Responsibility for Agricultural Education provided by LEAS transferred from Ministry of Agriculture to MoE. Scottish Technical Education Consultative Council founded-advised government on FE. ‘Curriculum of the senior secondary school: introduction of the ordinary grade of the Scottish Leaving Certificate.’ 1st Brunton Report. SED. HMSO ‘Introduction of ordinary grade examinations.’ Circ. 424. SED. ‘Technological Education in Britain.’ COI. HMSO.
1960 ‘Secondary school examinations.’-recommended the creation of the Certificate of Secondary Education (CSE). (Beloe Report). ‘Review of the Youth Service.’ For the 14-20 age group. Proposed the expansion of the Youth Service. (Albemarle Report). ‘FE for Agriculture.’ First Lampard-Vachell Report). ‘The Administration of Grants to Students.’ Cmnd. 1051-(Anderson Report). Memorandum on the industrial training of students. National Council for Technological Awards (NCTA) created. The Diploma in Technology and Membership of the College of Technologists-(NCTA). ‘Industrial training of students following courses recognised as leading to the Diploma in Technology Dip Tech.’- NCTA. Official recognition of St. David’s College Lampeter, Wales. ‘Cooperation between industry and education.’ Industrial Training Council (ITC). ‘Training boys in industry; the non-apprentice.’- (ITC). ‘The technical colleges and their government.’ (Federation of British Industries (FoI)). ‘FE for Agriculture.’ Circ 7/60-accompanied with the first (Lampard-Vachell report). (MoE). ‘The future development of management education and of business studies.’ Circ. 1/60-accompanied by the Arnold Report and Scottish Circ. 429). (MoE). ‘Science in secondary schools.’ MoE. ‘The Training and Education of Technicians.’ (BACIE journal). ‘Technological Education in Britain.’ Reference pamphlet 21. CoI. HMSO.  ‘Training boys in industry:the non-apprentice.’ ITC. ‘Art and Design.’ 1st Coldstream Report. MoE/NACAE. ‘Full-time pre-apprenticeship courses in building.’ National Joint Council for the Building Industry (NJCBI). Introduction of the Diploma of Art and Design (Dip AD) NACAE. ‘The future development of education for management in Central Institutions and FE centres.’ Circ. 429-accompanied by two appendices and the Arnold Report. SED. ‘The Technical College and their government: an industrial appraisal.’-FBI. ‘Education in Rural Wales.’ (2nd Oldfield-Davies Report). HMSO. ‘Your Future in Industry.’ Circ. 4/60. Technology and Culture Society for the History of Technology founded. Teacher training extended from 2 to 3 years. National College of Agricultural Engineering founded and opened in 1962 at Chelmsford – moved to Silsoe in 1963 and merged with Cranfield Institute of Technology in 1975. The FE Staff College (FESC) established.
1961 ‘Better Opportunities in Technical Education.’  Cmnd. 1254. (MoE). HMSO. ‘Technical Education in Wales.’ (Oldfield -Davies Report). ‘Technical Education in Scotland: the pattern for the future.’ Cmnd 1245. (SED). HMSO. ‘Long–Term Demand for Scientific Manpower.’ Cmnd. 1490. (Zuckerman Report). (Advisory Council on Scientific Policy(ACSP)). HMSO. ‘Better Opportunities in Technical Colleges.’ Circ. 1/61. DES. ‘Report for NCTA.’ (NCTA). ‘The Diploma in Technology and the Membership of the College of Technologists.’ (Hives Council). NCTA. University of Sussex receives royal charter. Introduction of third year in training colleges. ‘Secondary School Examinations Other Than GCE.’ (College of Preceptors). CATs to be direct grant establishments. ‘New routes to FE.’ BACIE. ‘Organisation of business studies in colleges of FE. Circ.15/61 (MoE). ‘Regional Colleges.’ Circ. 3/61-(MoE). ‘FE for Agriculture.’-(Second Lampard-Vachell Report).’FE for Agriculture.’ Circ. 6/61.(Accompanied by second Lampard-Vachell Report. (MoE). ‘LEA and the National Agriculture Advisory Service.’ Circ. 275. ‘The Diploma in Art and Design.’-(Summerson Council). (National Council for Diplomas in Art and Design (NCDAD)) established  dissolved in 1974. National Council for Diplomas in Art and Design established. ‘Training opportunities for young people leaving school.’ Circ 450. SED. ‘Guide to commercial training.’ Chamber of Commerce Booklet 8, ABCC. ‘FE for those in industry and commerce.’ FBI information booklet. ‘Technical Education in Wales.’-(Third Oldfield-Davies Report) MoE/CACE (Wales). HMSO. Following the McMeeking Report new syllabuses issued for O/HNCs and O/HNDs in Business Studies. Institution of Scottish Examination Board established. UK Advisory Council on Education for Management – advised government on FE.’NC/D in Business Studies.’ Adm memo 7/61. MoE.’General Engineering Courses.’ Ad memo 10/61. MoE. ‘Better Opportunities in technical education.’ Circ. 1/61. MoE. ‘National Certificates and Diplomas.’ Circ 469. SED. HMSO. ‘The Structure of HE.’ Fabian tract 334. Fabian Society. ‘The Evening Institute.’ H. J. Edwards. NIAE. ‘General Engineering Courses.’Admin memo 10/61. National Council for Art Awards founded.’Science in Primary Schools.’-MoE. UK Advisory Council on Education for Management (ACEM) established. Wolverhampton Technical Teachers’ Training College opened – in all there were four such institutions in Bolton, Huddersfield and London.
1962  ‘Industrial Training.’  Cmnd.1892. – laid foundations for Industrial Training Act of 1964. (MoL). ‘Forward from School- links between school and FE.’   (MoE). Development of Day Release. (Oakley Report). (SED). ‘Grants to Students.’ Cmnd 1051. (Anderson Report). HMSO. ‘Training for Skills: recruitment and training of young workers in industry.’ Cmnd. 1892. HMSO. ‘Industrial Training: Who’s Responsibility.’ (BACIE). ‘Industrial Training – Government Proposals.’  (MoL).’Education in 1962.’ (Annual Report Cmd 1990.)-(MoE). ‘Craft Apprenticeships; training for a skilled craft or trade.’ (ITC). ”Training Girls in Industry.’-ITC. ‘General Studies in Technical Colleges.’ (MoE). HMSO.’Vocational courses in colleges and schools of art.’-(Second Coldstream Report), MoE/NACAE. ‘Vocational courses in Colleges, Schools and Departments of Art.’- 2nd Coldstream Report. Circ. 11/62, (MoE).Scottish Association for National Certificates and Diplomas established. ‘Pre-apprenticeship Courses.’ (Arrell Report)-accompanied by to Circ. 521), (SED). ‘Reform of Engineering Apprenticeships.’ (BACIE). ‘First Platt Report on Management in education.’-(Attached to Circ. 7/63). MoE/UKACEM. National College in Agricultural Engineering established at Silsoe, Bedfordshire. National Retail Distribution Certificates.’ Adm memo 4/62. MoE. ‘Professional bodies’ requirements in terms of GCE.’ Circ. 5/62. MoE. ‘Apprenticeships – the next step.’ FBI Review No. 150. FBI. ‘Forward from school:the links between school and FE.’ MoE. HMSO. The first Nuffield Foundation programme introduced in physics. National Diploma in Business Studies established. Curriculum Study Group established within the MoE. Curriculum Study Group triggered bitter debates and led to the creation of the Schools Council in 1964. ‘Forward from school:the links between school and FE’- MoE, HMSO. In 1962/63 there were 10 CATs, 25 RCs, 160 ACs and 89 LCs. There were 15 Central Institutions in Scotland.
1963 ‘Review of Higher Education.’ Cmnd. 2154. 6 vols. (Robbins Report): Detailed survey of the need for higher education; Predicted that by 1980/81 approximately 560,000 places should be provided in higher education; Syllabuses of first degree courses should be regularly reviewed and a higher proportion of students should receive a broader education for their first degrees; Training colleges should be re-named College of Education, with opportunities for students to prepare for the degree of B.Ed in some cases; A need for higher proportion of courses in technology; Five special institutions for scientific and technological education and research (SISTERS) to be established; Ten Colleges of Advanced Technology to be created; Regional Colleges to develop a wider range of full-time courses- ten of these to be established together with Colleges of Education to Universities; A Council for National Academic Awards to replace the National Council for Technological Awards and to award degrees in a range of subjects; Six new universities (additional to those at present in formation) to be established immediately; Need for more staff; Residential accommodation should be provided for two-thirds of students in higher education; Important recommendation in connection with internal Government of Universities and Colleges under local authorities; Recommended that there should be a Minister of Arts and Science responsible for the Grants Commission, the Research Councils and the Universities and a Minister of Education responsible for the other institutions of Higher Education. Was not accepted a single Department of Education and Science established which co-ordinated these activities;  ‘Half our Futures.’ – To consider the education of pupils of 13 to 16 of less than average ability, education being understood to include extra-curricular activities   Cmnd 1892.  (Newsom Report).  ‘From School to FE in Scotland.’ Circ. 530. Accompanied by second Brunton Report. (SED). HMSO. Industrial Training. Cmnd 1892. Government proposals. (MoL). ‘Higher Education’: Government Report. 1963. ‘Management Education.’- accompanied by the first Platt Report. Circ. 7/63. (MoE). ‘Management education and training needs of industry.’ (FBI). ‘Scientific and Technological Manpower in GB.’ Cmnd 2146-(Zuckerman Report). ACSP, HMSO. ‘Group training schemes.’ (ITC). ‘Training advisory services in industry.’ ITC.  ‘Conditions Favourable to Faster Growth.’ (National Economic Development Council (NEDC)). ‘Sandwich Courses.’ (Russell Report attached to Circ. 6/63). MoE/NACEIC. ‘Apprenticeship Training.’ (Institute of Personnel Management). ‘Training Methods in Government Training Centres.’ (BACIE). Kings College Newcastle becomes University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Further Education Staff College (FESC) – Blagdon opened. ‘From school to FE’ Circ. 530-accompanied by the second Brunton Report, SED. ‘Pre-apprenticeship courses.’ Circ. 521-accompanied by the Arrell Report attached), SED. ‘The Certificate in Office Studies.’ Circ 4/63. ‘Report of the Special Committee on the Crowther Report’ MoE/NACEIC HMSO. Wolverhampton Technical Teachers Training College opened joined the other three namely Bolton, Garnett and Huddersfield. Education (Scotland) Act.
1964 ‘Day Release for Young People Under 18.’ (Henniker- Heaton Report). (DES). HMSO. ‘Industrial Training Act.’-established a number of Industrial Training Boards (ITBs).  ‘Committee Report on Technical College Resources.’ National Advisory Council on Education for Industry and Commerce (NACEIC). Schools Council for Curricula and Examinations established.  Department of Education and Science (DES) – replaced the Ministry of Education (MoE). The Public Relation of FE.’ (Alexander Report). (NACEIC). HMSO. ‘The Industrial Training Act.’ Admin Memo 4/64. (DES). Ministry of Education (MoE) became the Department of Education and Science (DES)’The Henniker-Heaton Report on Day Release.’ Circ 14/64. Council for National Academic Awards (CNAA) established replaced NCTA. ‘CNNA Awards’ Circ. 10/64. DES. National Advisory Council on Education for Industry and Commerce (NACEIC) established. ‘CNAA.’ Circ. 10/64. Announcement of raising the school leaving age. ‘Education for Commerce.’ No. 15. (DES).Committee on Manpower Resources for Science and Technology established. Interdepartmental Committee on Training for Skills established. ‘Industrial Training Act, 1964-General Guide.’ (MoL). ‘Central Training Council.’ (BACIE journal). National Examinations Board in Supervisory Studies established. ‘A Higher Award in Business Studies’ Circ. 4/64. (With the Crick Report). MoE/NACEIC. ‘The Public Relations of FE’ Circ. 17/64.-accompanied by the Alexander Report. DES/NACEIC. ‘FE for craftsmen’ CGLI. ‘FE for operatives.’ CGLI.  ‘FE for technicians.’ CGLI. ‘Post-diploma studies in art and design.’ (Third Coldstream Report). DES/NACAE. HMSO. ‘The demand for agricultural graduates.’ Cmnd 2419-(Bosanquet Report), SED/MAFF/ Sec. of State for Home Office. NEBSS founded-eventually merged with ISM to become ILM in 2002. Interdepartmental Committee on Training for Skill founded-advised government on FE. ‘ONC/Ds in Science.’ Admin memo 3/64. DES. ‘The Henniker-Heaton Report on Day Release.’ Circ 14/64.-accompanied by 2 appendices and the H-H report. ‘From School to FE’- final report. SED. ‘HE: FT and Sandwich Courses in Colleges of Advanced Technology and Colleges of Technology, Agriculture, Art and Commerce.’ RACs (England and Wales). ‘Foreign Languages and Export Courses.’ SCCE. ‘Central Training Council.’ BACIE Journal Volume 18. No. 2. BACIE. ‘CNNA.’ Admin memo 9/64. MoE renamed DES. Committee on Manpower Resources for Science and Technology established. Interdepartmental Committee on Training for Skill established. Shoreditch Technical Instutute renamed London College of Furniture. Universities and Colleges Estates Act. Lockwood report established the Schools Council. Labour party manifesto promises to abolish selection.
1965 ‘A Review of the Scope and Problems of Scientific and Technological Manpower Policy.’ Cmnd. 2800. (Committee on Manpower Resources for Science and Technology (CMRST)). HMSO. Interestingly mentioned the issue of the then brain drain). ‘Teaching Council (Scotland) Act’. published. Certificate of Secondary Education (CSE) instituted. Training Colleges renamed Colleges of Education. Crosland’s speech at Woolwich on the creation of polytechnics. ‘The role of HE in regional and other technical colleges engaged in advanced work’ Adm Memo 7/65. (With Secretary of States Woolwich speech attached. ‘Plan for Polytechnics’ Cmd. 3006. HMSO. Comprehensive schools established.’Science in education in Wales today.’-(Llewellyn-Jones Report). (DES/Central Advisory Council for Education(Wales)- HMSO. ‘Industry in the Schools.’-(Federation of British Industries) (FBI)). ‘A policy for the Arts.’ Circ. 8/65. DES. ‘Post-diploma studies in art and design.’ Circ. 11/65. DES. ‘The future of HE within the FE system.’-ATTI/APTI. ‘Management studies in technical colleges.’-(Second Platt Report -attached to Circ 2/66). DES/UKACEM. ‘The Diploma in Management Studies.’ Adm memo 8/65. DES. ‘Industrial training and FE.’ Memo 1-(attached to Admin Memo 5/65). MoL/CTC. ‘Post diploma studies in Art and Design.’ Circ. 11/65. Council of Engineering institutions founded by Royal Charter. c1965 Northern Ireland Institute of Agricultural Science established. Teaching Council (Scotland) Act.
1966 ‘Government of Colleges of Education.’-led to Circ. 7/70 and the democratisation of FE College Governance. (Weaver Report). ‘A Plan for Polytechnics and Other Colleges. HE in the FE System.’ Cmnd 3006.  (DES). HMSO. ‘Enquiry into flow of candidates in science and technology into HE.’ Cmnd 2893. (Dainton Report). (DES/Council for Scientific Policy), HMSO. ‘University of the Air.’  Cmnd. 2922.  (DES). ‘Youth Service – No.5 revised.’ (DES). ‘A Plan for Polytechnics and other colleges.’ Circ. 8/66. DES. Central Advisory Committee for Science and Technology formed to advise Cabinet Office.’Report on Technical resources.’ (NACEIC). ‘Management studies in technical colleges.’ Circ 2/66–accompanied by second Platt Report. (DES). ‘Industrial Training and FE; a further statement.’ Memo 4-attached to SED Memo 27/1966). MoL/CTC. ‘Industrial Training Act 1966.’ Memo 35/1966. SED.  ‘Approach to Industrial Training: an assessment of the main tasks facing industrial training boards.’ Memo 5. (Attached to SED Memo 27/1966). MoL. ‘FE for school leavers’ DES/COI. ‘Technical college resources.’ Circ 11/66. (Pilkington report attached). DES.’Pre-diploma courses in art and design’ Circ. 12/66. DES. ‘Report of the Advisory Committee on Agricultural Education.’ Dadd Report. DES/NACEIC/Pilkington Report. HMSO. ‘Revised Agreement between CGLI and the REBs.’ Admin memo 2/66. ‘Course of further training for teachers in FE.’ Circ 7/66. ‘Agricultural Education.’ Circ 22/66.DES. There were 13 IBTs representing 7.5 million workers in various industries. Universities (Scotland) Act – reconstituted St Andrews, Glasgow, Edinburgh. Aberdeen Universities and founded University of Dundee.
1967 ‘The Brain Drain. Working Party of Migration.’ Cmnd. 3417. Jones Report. (CMRST.) HMSO. Proposal to establish Open University-created in 1969. ‘Education for Management.’ No.33, (DES). ‘A Going Concern.’ Policy on Art. (DES). ‘Is It Working: Industrial Training Act in Retrospect?’ (BACIE). Working Men’s College mergers with the Working Women’s College. ‘A School Approach to Technology.’-Schools Council Curriculum Bulletin No 2. HMSO. ‘Polytechnics.’ Admin memo 8/67. ‘Joint Planning of Industrial Training and Associated FE.’ Admin memo. 25/67, DES. ‘The Steering Committee on Technical Education’ (Ireland)- Malcahy Report. University of Ulster founded. Agricultural Industrial Training Board established.
1968 ‘Flow into Employment for Scientists, Engineers and Technologists.’ Cmnd. 3760.  Swann Report. (Manpower for Scientific Growth.). HMSO. ‘Enquiry into Flow of Candidates in Science and Technology into HE.’ (Dainton.)  Cmnd.3541. Council for Scientific Policy. HMSO. ‘Government of Colleges of Education and other Colleges of FE.’  ‘Trade Unions and Employers Associations.’ (Donovan Commission).’Education (No 2) Act required polytechnics and other LEA collges to establish governing bodies. Raising the School Leaving Age deferred to 1971/73. In 1968 there were 236,000 in apprenticeships. ‘The Training of Technicians in Ireland’. ‘Technological Education Report (Ireland) – proposes Regional Technical Colleges (RTCs).
1969 ‘Report of the Committee on Technician Courses and Examinations.’ (Haslegrave). Established two new bodies – Technician Education Council (TEC) and Business Education Council (BEC) – to be in charge of planning, coordinating and administering technical courses and examinations. TEC set up in 1973 and BEC in 1974. DES,  Scotland), had two equivalent Councils SCOTEC and SCOTBEC. (SES/NACEIC). HMSO. Open University receives its royal charter. ‘The Training of Technician Engineers.’  (Collop Report). Charter for the Open University. ‘Structure of Art and Design Education in FE Sector.’-(NCAE). ‘Technician Courses and Examinations.’ Admin memo 21/69. Education (Scotland) Act.

1970-1999

1970 ‘Report of an Inquiry into the Pattern and Organisation of the College Year.’-(DES/NACEIC). HMSO. ‘Vocational Courses in Art and Design.’ (DES). ‘The Structure of Art and Design Education in the FE Sector.’ (Coldstream Report). (DES/National Advisory Council on Art Education.) HMSO. Department of Trade and Industry formed replaced by the Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform and the Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills in June 2007. Manchester Polytechnic opened.
1971 ‘Better Opportunities in Technical Education.‘ Cmnd. 1254 HMSO. ‘The Structure of Art and Design Education in the FE Sector.’ (DES). HMSO. ‘ Studies of Art and Design in FE.’ (Joint report by NACAE and NCDAD). Circ. 7/71, DES. NACAE dissolved. London Chamber of Commerce changed its name to the London Chamber of Commerce and Industry Examination Board. Committee of Inquiry on Small Firms.’ Cmnd 4811. HMSO. The Northern and North Western Polytechnics merge to form the Polytechnic of North London. Teaching Council (Scotland) Act.
1972 ‘Teacher Education and Training.’ Cmnd. 6869. (James Report). ‘Education: A Framework for Expansion.’  Cmnd 5174. (DES). HMSO.  ‘Training for the Future.’ (Department of Employment (DE)). HMSO.  ‘Training for the Future: A Plan for Discussion.’ Admin memo 6/72. ‘Into Action.’  (DE). School-leaving age raised to 16; OND Technology launched. ‘Development of HE in the Non-University Sector.’ Cir. 7173. TOPS scheme established. ‘Industrial Training–The Future.’ -(BACIE). ‘Education (Work Experience) Act. Local Government Act – reduced number of LEAs from 146 to 104.
1973 ‘Review of non-vocational adult education in England and Wales.’ (Russell Report). ‘Employment and Training Act’ – amended the Industrial Training Act. Manpower Services Commission (MSC) created with responsibilities for employment and training. Joint Advisory Committee on Agricultural Education.’-(Hudson report), HMSO. ‘Education (Work Experience) Act’ allowed LEAs to organise work experience programmes for final year school pupils. ‘Work Experience.’–enabled LEAs in Wales to provide work experience for pupils in last year of compulsory schooling. TEC established. ‘Development of HE in the non-university sector.’ Circ. 7/73. School leaving age raised to 16. Employment of Children Act. Circular 7/73 halved the number of places for student teachers.
1974 ‘Vocational Courses in Art and Design.’-Gann Report. (DES). Functions of the NCDAD merged with CNNA (Art and Design).  HMSO. ‘Pay of non-university teachers in Britain.’- (Houghton Report). ‘Unqualified, Untrained and Unemployed’ – report of a working party established by the National Youth Employment Council (NYEC). Department of Employment (DE), HMSO.. ‘Agricultural Education.’ Admin memo 12/74. BEC established. Assessment of Performance Unit (APU) established by the DES. The Educational Disadvantage Unit established by the DES.
1975 ‘Vocational Preparation for Young People’ (MSC/TSA). ‘Day Release for FE-a Discussion Document’-TUC. ‘Educational Development Strategy in England and Wales’-OECD. Education Act – amended grants to students at adult education colleges.
1976 Callaghan’s speech at Ruskin College advocating stronger links between education and industry. ‘Towards a Comprehensive Manpower Policy.’-(MSC). ‘Training for Vital Skills.’ – (MSC). ‘Unified Vocational Preparartion (UVP): a Pilot Approach’ Government Statement, DES.
1977 Young People and Work.’ (Holland Report). (MSC). ‘New Partnership for our Schools.’ (Taylor). DES. ‘Training for Skills: a Programme for Action.’ (MSC). ‘The Training of Teachers for FE.’ Circ. 11/77. DES. ‘Links between the Training and FE Services.’ Admin memo 12/77, DES. ‘Training and Retraining Teachers in Mathematics, Physical Sciences and Craft Design and Technology.’ Admin memo 9/77/ DES. ‘FE for Unemployed Young People.’ Admin memo 4/77. DES. ‘Youth Unemployment Causes and Cures’.-British Youth Council (BYC). The Further Education (FEU) Unit established.
1978 ‘Management of Higher Education in the Maintained Sector.’ Cmnd. 7130. Oakes Report. (DES). HMSO. ‘School Examinations’. Waddell Report recommended a single examination at age of 16 to replace GCE ‘O’ level and CSE – GCSE eventually introduced in 1986,  ‘Special Educational Needs.’-(Warnock Report). Youth Opportunities Programmes (YOPs) set up to deal with increasing youth unemployment. ‘HE into the 1900s.’ – a discussion paper. (DES). ‘School Examinations.’ – advocated a common 16+ examination ultimately lead to GCSEs. (Waddell Report).“Variety or Chaos? APC. Centenary of CGLI foundation. Training Teachers for Education Management in FE and Adult Education.’-ACSTT. Education (Northern Ireland) Act. Sneddon Report Learning to Teach – General Teaching Council for Scotland.
1979 ‘A Basis for Choice.’ published (Jack Mansell). FEU.’Proposals for a Certificate of Extended Education.’  Cmnd. 7755. Keohane Report. (DES). HMSO. ‘A Better Start in Working Life.’ Consultative paper. DE/DES/English/Welsh/Scottish Secretaries of State.(DES). Ferryside agreement that regulated relations between CGLI and the REBs and the RACs that were not REBs.’Education and Training for 16-18 Year Olds.’ Consultative paper DE/DES/English/Welsh/Scottish Secretaries of State. ‘Education and Training for 16-18 Year Olds’ Consultation Paper Secretaries of State for Education and Science and for Employment for Wales. DES.
1980 ‘Foundation for Working Life.’ (Venn Report). ‘Engineering our Future.’  Cmnd. 7794. (Finniston Report). HMSO. ‘Continuing Education: Post-experience Vocational Provision for those in Employment.’  (DES). ‘Education, Training and Industrial Performance.’- (Centre Policy Review Staff (CPRS). (HMSO). ‘Examinations for 16-18 Year Olds’ (Macfarlane Report). (DES). HMSO.Education for 16-19 Year Olds. (DES/CLEA). YOP expanded. DATEC established. ‘Day Release – A Desk Study’-FEU. ‘Transition from School to Work’ Dept of Employment (DE)- L Clarke. HMSO. Some 90,000 young people began apprenticeships – 10% fewer than in 1979. ‘A view of the school curriculum.’-HMI publication.
1981 ‘A New Training Initiative (NTI): A Programme For Action.’  Cmnd 8455. (DE). HMSO. ‘Employment and Training Act.’ lead to the 16  of the 23 ITBs being abolished.  ‘Legal Basis of FE.’- Thompson Report. (DES/WO/LAA). ‘Vocational Preparation.’- (FEU). ‘Education for 16-19 year olds.’ (Macfarlane Report). ‘An Open Tech. Programme.’  (MSC). ‘The Will to Win.’-(CBI). ‘The Measurement of Scientific and Technical Activity.’ (Frascati Manuel/OEDC). Northern Advisory Council for FE merged with the Northern Counties Technical Examinations Council to become the Northern Council for FE. The School Curriculum DES publication.
1982 ‘Working Together – Education and Training.’  Cmnd. 9823 (DES/Employment Department). HMSO.-removed trade unions from decisions about the costs of training to employers. ‘To consider how far the present scale and nature of provision for postgraduate education, meets manpower needs and to consider the role of the Research Councils.’ (Swinnerton-Dyer Report). ‘Industrial Training Act’ – established the regulatory framework for industrial training boards. ‘Teaching of Mathematics in Primary and Secondary Schools in England and Wales.’ – with particular regard to the mathematics required in further and higher education, employment and adult life generally. (Cockcroft Report). TVEI pilots launched – administered by MSC. ‘Youth Task Group Report.’-(MSC). Open Tech programme launched ceased in 1987. YTS introduced in NI.
1983 ‘Education Act (Fees and Awards).’ – allowed universities and colleges to charge higher fees to overseas students. Technical and Vocational Education Initiative (TVEI)  introduced technical and vocational education for 14-18 year olds 14 projects in 1983, further 48 in 1984 and a further 12 in 1985. Certificate of Pre-Vocational Education (CPVE) introduced. The Business and Technician Education Council (BTEC) created following the merger of TEC and BEC; SCOTEC and SCOTBEC merged to create SCOTVEC. Youth Training Scheme (YTS) replaced Youth Opportunities Programme (YOP). ’16-18s in Scotland – An Action Plan.’-  (Scottish Education Department). “The Great Training Robbery.” -(NATFHE). ‘Careers Education and Guidance in FE.-(DES). ‘A Credit to Your Career.’-(CBI). ‘Day Release for Girls.’ Equal Opportunities Commission. Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (CATE) founded to set standards for initial teacher training courses. There were 300,000 people enrolled on YTS the first year.
1984 Training for Jobs.’  Cmnd. 9135. (DoE/DES). HMSO. ‘Better Schools.’  Cmnd .9469 . (DES). HMSO. ‘Competence and Competition.’-(IMS). Secondary Examinations Council and School Curriculum Development Committee replaced Schools Council. ‘A Strategy for HE for the late 1980s and beyond.’-(NAB). ‘A Strategy for HE in the 1990s.’ (UGC). ‘Work-Related Non Advanced FE.’-FEU. ‘College Employer Links Project (CELP). DES. Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (CATE) – set standards for teacher training.
1985 ‘The Development of Higher Education into the 1990s.’  Cmnd. 9524. (DES) HMSO.  ‘Education and Training for Young People.’  Cmnd. 9482. (DES/DE). HMSO. “Employment-the Challenge for the Nation.’ Cmnd. 9474; ‘Further Education Act.’ – gave polytechnics and colleges the same rights to sell education products and services as universities. ‘Review of Vocational Qualifications.’- recommended the establishment of a National Council for Vocational Qualifications (NCVQ). Interim report 1985, final report 1986 and NCVQ created in 1987. (DeVill Report). HMSO..  ‘Academic Validation in Public Sector Higher Education.’ Cmnd. 9501.  Lindop Report. (DES). HMSO.  ‘Better Schools.’ Cmnd. 9469  (DES). HMSO.  ‘Managing Colleges Efficiently.’ (DES) .Obtaining Better Value from FE.’ (Audit Commission.) HMSO). ‘Vocational Education and Training of Young People.’ Cmnd 9474. (Comptroller and Auditor General.) HMSO. ‘A Challenge to Complacency.’  (MSC/NEDO). ‘Education and Training after Schooling.’  (OEDC). ‘CPVE: Confusion or Deception.’ -(FEU). ‘TVEI: Operating Manual.’-(MSC). ‘The HE Role of Colleges of Further Education.’-(AfC). ‘Core Competences in Engineering.’-FEU. ‘FE and YTS.’-FEU. ‘TVEI Review’ MSC. ‘College Employer Links Project (CELP): Colleges and Employers Working Together for the Benefit of All’- DES. New qualification for 17 year olds introduced CPVE. Pickup initiative active between 1985 and 1994.
1986 ‘Higher Education: Meeting the Challenge.’ Cm. 114. (DES). ‘Working Together – Education and Training.’ Cmnd. 9823. (DES/DE/MSC). HMSO. ‘Meeting the Challenge.’ Cm 114. (DfEE).  “Managing Colleges Efficiently.” (HMSO). ‘Job Training Scheme and Restart for Adults.’ CSEs replace GCE O-level and the CSE examinations. First awards 1988. Advanced Supplementary (AS) levels introduced. Open College created to provide open access to training and re-skilling formally known as the Open Tech.- initially called College of the Air. National Council for Vocational Qualifications (NCVQ) created. City Technology Colleges Trust formed. First City Technology College (CTC) opened in 1988 in Solihull. TVEI in-service training (TRIST) launched. YTS extended to two years. Specific grants for In-Service Training.
1987 ‘HE: meeting the challenge.’ Cmnd. 114. (DES). HMSO. ‘NAFE in Practice.’ (HMI Survey/HMSO) . ‘Working Together.’ Cmnd. 9823  (DES).  ‘Managing Colleges Efficiently.’ (DES). HMSO.’Highly Qualified Manpower and Enterprise.’ Paper MSC/87/28. (MSC).NVQs and SVQs established.’The National Qualifications Framework.’-(NCVQ). ‘The Concept of Occupational Competence.’-(TA). ‘Relevance, Flexibility and Competence.’-(FEU). Advanced Supplementary (AS) levels introduced. National Curriculum(NC) introduced.
1988 ‘Education Reform Act (ERA).’  (DES). HMSO. “Training for Employment.”  Cmnd. 316. – proposed new Employment Training Scheme (ET). ‘Employment for the 1990s.’ – proposed the creation of a taskforce for the TECs and the abolition of the remaining ITBs. Cmnd. 540. (Department of Employment (DE)). HMSO. ‘Advancing A levels.’ Proposed more coursework assessment and a wider range of subjects. (Higginson Report). (DES/DE) – rejected by the Thatcher government. Management  Charter Initiative (MCI) launched. Lead Bodies established and recognised to define standards for vocational awards. National Curriculum Council and School Examinations and Assessment Council replaced School Curriculum Development Committee and Secondary Examinations Council. MSC renamed the Training Commission (TC). TC abolished. ‘The National Certificate: A Guide to Assessment.’ (SCOTVEC). National Curriculum Design and Technology Working Party. ‘Parkes Report. DES and Welsh Office. National Curriculum Task Group on assessment and Testing founded (Black Report). Goldsmiths College becomes a full School of the University of London. First City Technology College opened – followed by 14 more over the next 4 years. ‘FE is Changing. Opportunities at 14-19’. FEU/SSCR. National Curriculum Council consultation on science and mathematics. Youth Training Guarantee all 66 and 17 year olds to be in education, employment or training. Schools Boards (Scotland) Act – established Schools Boards.
1989 ‘Further Education: A New Strategy.’ – signalled the government’s intention to give FE a higher prominence. Speech by K. Baker. (DES). Universities Funding Council (UFC) replaced the University Grants Committee (UGC). ‘Towards a skills revolution.’  (CBI). TECs – a prospectus for the 1990s-(DoE). ‘Skills 2000.’-(TUC).’Skills.’-CBI/TA Special Survey. (CBI/TA). ‘Skill Shortages.’ Bulletin-(IER). ‘Productivity, Education and Training – Britain and other countries compared.’-(NIESR). ‘Training in Britain – Survey of Funding, Activity and Attitudes.’-(DE). ‘Training in Britain; The Main Report.’-(TA/DE) Howie Committee established in Scotland. Vocational Qualifications: Criteria and Procedures. (NCVQ). ‘FE: A New Strategy.’  (FEU). ‘Towards a Framework for Curriculum Entitlement.’ FEU. ‘FE in Practice: Tertiary Colleges.’  HMI Survey (DES). ‘Mainstream Curriculum in a Multicultural Society’-(FEU). ‘Education and the Economy in a Changing Society.’-(OEDC). ‘Work Based Learning: Terms.’ by M. Levy. ‘Qualifications in an Uncertain Future.’-(ACFHE). ‘Pathways for Learning: Education and Training from 16 to 19.’-(OEDC). ‘Widening of Access to HE’-(HMI Report)- (DES), HMSO. ‘Core Skills 16-19.’-NCC. York. ‘Employment Act abolished the Training Commission (TC). SED renamed the Scottish Office Education Department (SEOD). ‘Education Reform (Northern Ireland) Order. Employment Act abolishing the TC. YTS renamed Youth Training (YT). SEAC Report on 16-19 core skills.
1990 Training credits prospectus for TECs and LECs; Training credits piloted in 11 TECs/LECs. ‘British Baccalaureate.’ Finegold et.el. (IPPR). ‘Knowledge and Competition.’-(MSC/COIC). ‘The Core Skills Initiative.’  (FEU). ‘Towards a Skills Revolution.’ -(ACFHE). ‘Common Learning Outcomes: Core Skills in ‘A’ levels and NVQs.’ by G. Jessop-(NCVQ). CGLI acquires The Pitman Examinations Institute (PEI). Apprecticeships in total employment only represented 0.66% of the workforce. Horticultural Research International (HRI) founded. Education (Student Loans) Act – introduced ‘top-up’ loans for HE students. ILEA abolished. Staying on rate post 16 in Britain 58%. 30 ITBS in existence.
1991 ‘Education and Training for the 21st Century.’ – recommended the creation on General National Vocational Qualifications (GNVQs) Cm 1536.  2 vols. (DES/DE/Welsh Office). HMSO.  ‘Higher Education: A New Framework.’ Cm. 1541. (Sec of State Scotlad, NI and Wales.) ‘Access and Opportunity: A Strategy for Education and Training.’ Cm. 1530. (SO). HMSO. ‘Training for Employment.’ Cmnd. 316. (DE). ‘Choice and Diversity; A new framework for schools.’ Cmnd. 2021.  (DES/WO).  White Paper on HE recommended increased numbers. Training and Enterprise Councils (TECs) established to manage training schemes such as Youth Training (YT). CPVE replaced by the Diploma of Vocational Education (DVE). National Records of Achievements (NRA) created. ‘Science and technology education and employment.’ (ACOST). ‘Beyond GCSE.’-(Royal Society). ‘HE in FE.’-(HMI Report). ‘A Strategy for Skills.’  Cm. 1811-(DE). ‘Towards a Skills Revolution – A Youth Charter.’-(CBI). ‘TVEI.’-(HMI Report). Investors in People (IiP) introduced. ‘Ordinary and Advanced Diplomas.’  (DES). ‘Learning Pays–Role of Post Compulsory Education and Training.’-(RSA).’Education 16-19.’-(CIHE).’Access and Opportunity.’  Cm. 1530-(SO), HMSO. ‘Upper Secondary Education in Scotland.’ -(SO/HMSO). ‘National Standards for Assessment and Verification of NQVs.’-TDLB. ‘Towards a Skills Revolution. Report of the Vocational Education and Training Task Force.’-CBI. ‘Strategies for the 1990s’ Scottish Enterprise. ‘Science and Technology: Education and Employment’. ISBN 0-11-430054-2. Cabinet Office/ Advisory Council on Science  and Technology. First City College of Technology of the Arts opened in Croydon. Training Credits/Youth Credits piloted.
1992 ‘Further and Higher Education Act.’- removed the binary line between universities and polytechnics. Abolished the Council of National Academic Awards (CNAA). Incorporation of colleges–Further Education (FE), Tertiary Colleges and Sixth Form Colleges (SFCs) removed from Local Authority control and given financial independence.  (DES). HMSO. Further Education Funding Council (FEFC) created. General National Vocational Qualifications (GNVQS) piloted. ‘Choice and Diversity: a new framework for schools.’ Cmnd. 2021. “Upper Secondary Education in Scotland.”-(Howie Report), (Scottish Office) ‘Staying the Course.’-(BTEC). ‘Can Value Added Indicators be Applied to Vocational Courses?’-(HMI/Audit Commission). ‘World Class Targets: A joint initiative to achieve Britain’s skills revolution.’-(CBI). ‘Higher Education.’ D. Finegold et.al.-(IPPR). DES renamed the Department for Education (DFE).
1993 ‘Challenging Colleges.’ (FEU). Education Act – NCC and SEAC merged to create SCAA. GNVQs extended nationally. Office for Standards in Education (OfSTED) formally established. ‘Unfinished Business’-(Audit Commission/OfSTED). ‘Education for Adults in FECs.’- (DfE). ‘Routes to Success: Careership.’-(CBI). ‘Beyond a Basis for Credits.’-(FEU). ‘National Curriculum and its Assessment.’-(Dearing Review). ‘Learning to Succeed.’-(NcfE). ‘Changing College–FE in the Market Place.’ -(CIHE). ‘Basic Skills Support in Colleges.’ ‘Time off for study or training’- DfEE. Government announced plan for a new Apprenticeship at level 3 – Modern Apprenticeships. ’16-18s in Scotland. An Action Plan’-SED. Edinburgh. Launch of Modern Apprenticeships announced in the budget. National Commission on Education  established – an independent inquiry.
1994 Teacher Training Agency (TTA) established. Modern Apprenticeships (MAs) introduced became fully operational in 1995. ‘Competitiveness – Helping Business to Win.’ Cm. 2563-DTI) HMSO. ‘Higher Still: Opportunity for All.’-(Scottish Office). ‘Training for the Future.’-(Scottish Office).’GNVQs in the FE Sector.’-(FEFC). ‘GNVQs in Schools and Colleges in Northern Ireland.’-(DENI). ‘Towards an Unknown Land: Lifelong Career Development.’-(CRAC). ‘Review of National Targets.’ -NACETT). ‘Thinking Ahead.’-(CBI). ‘A Common Framework.’-(AfC). ‘Skills Needs in Britain.’-(IFF Research Paper). ’18 –19 Guidance.’ -(FEFC/OfSTED). ‘Measuring Achievement.’ -Cir. 94/31,(FEFC). ‘Planning the Progress; Basic Skills in FE.’-(ALBSU/BSA). Biotechnology and Biological Science Research Council (BBSRC) founded. Careers Service privatised and tenders sought from both public and private organisations. North West Regional Consortium for Work Based Learning established with funding from DfEE for two years. University of London Act.
1995 Dearing Report 1 ‘The National Curriculum and its Assessment.’- advocated simplification of the National Curriculum ‘Competitiveness: Forging Ahead.’- advocated strong links between education and employment. Cm. 2867. (DTI). Department for Education and Employment. (DfEE) established National Training Organisations NTOs. Prospectus published. ‘ Technology Foresight; Leisure and Learning.’  (Office of Science and Technology). Education and Employment Departments merged.  DFE renamed DfEE. ‘NVQs/GNVQs: Continuity or Change.’-(CGLI).’Education and Training Statistics.'(IMAC). ‘Manifesto for Change.’-(AoC). ‘Fit for the Future.'(AfC). ‘Education at a Glance.’-(OEDC).’Quality and Standards in FE (England).’-(FEFC). ‘Vocational Qualifications and Standards in Focus.’-(HEQC). ‘Learning to Succeed After 16.’-(NCE). ‘NVQs/GNVQs Constraint or Change.’-(CGLI). ‘Education and Training 16-19.’ by G. Jessop. ‘Results of an EEF Survey of Funding of Training.’-(EEF). SOED renamed the Scottish Office Education and Industry Department. Modern Apprenticeships introduced. Youth Credits (YCs) introduced. YT dropped.
1996 Edexcel created from merger of BTEC and the University of London Examinations and assessment Council (ULEAC). ‘Review of 100 NVQs and SVQs.’-(Beaumont Report). ‘Review of 100 NVQs/SVQs.’ -(AfC). Dearing Review 2-‘Review of Qualifications for 16-19 Year Olds.’ proposed that vocational courses should be available to 14+ pupils. ‘Review of GNVQ Assessment.'(Capey Report). ‘Competitiveness: Creating the Enterprise Centre of Europe.’-Cm. 3300, (DfEE/Cabinet Office). ‘Learning to Compete: Education and Training for 14-19 Year Olds.’ Cm 3486,(DfEE). ‘Higher Level Vocational Qualifications.’ Position paper-(DfEE). ‘The Skills Audit.’-(DfEE/Cabinet Office). ‘Inclusive Learning.’-(Tomlinson Report),(FEFC). ‘Review of 100 NVQs/SVQs.’ -(NCVQ/SCOTVEC). ‘A Passport to Learning – learning credits.’-(DfEE). ‘Maximising Potential. New Options for Learning after 16.’ ,(DfEE). ‘Widening participation in FE and Training.'(FEFC).’Work of TECs.'(ED). ‘Competitiveness: Helping Business to Win.’  (DTI).’Funding 16-19 Education and Training: Towards Convergence.’  (DfEE). ‘Report of the Learning and Technology Committee.’  (FEFC).’FE Now.’  (AfC).’Equipping Young People for Working Life.’  (DfEE). ‘Output-Related Funding and Quality of Education and Training.’ by G. Stanton-(IoE). ‘Colleges and Companies: Sharing Great Expectations.’-(CIHE). ‘Jobseekers Act’. Engineering and Marine Training Authority (EMTA) formed – Marine Engineering Association merged with Engineering Training Authority. ‘The FE/HE Interface: a UK perspective.’ Report no 316. IES. ‘Rhetoric and Reality: Britain’s New Vocational Qualifications.’ Peter Robinson. LSE. (Nov). ‘NCQQ rids GNVQs of burdensome bureaucracy.’ NCVQ. (Nov). Job Seekers Allowance began.
1997 Qualifying for Success – Future of Post-16 Qualifications.’-(DfEE). ‘Learning Works: widening participation in further education’ -advocated the importance and centrality of learning and FE in improving social inclusion and economic prosperity. (Kennedy Report)-(FEFC). ‘Connecting the Learning Society.’-National Grid for Learning. Dearing Report 3 ‘Higher Education in the Learning Society.’-proposed an expansion in Higher Education (HE) (July) NCIHE – introduction of income-contingent payment system. SCAA and NCVQ replaced by the Qualifications and Assessment Council (QCA). New Deal (ND) launched. ‘Learning and Earning.’-(Rathbone/NACRO et al).’Design of the New Deal.’-(DfEE/SO/WO). ‘Building the Framework.’-(NCVQ/SCAA/DfEE). ‘Learning for the 21st Century.’-(Fryer Report). ‘Compete: Education and Training for 14-19.’-(HMSO). ‘A Learning Route for Wales.’  (FfORWM). ‘HE in the Learning Society.’-(NCIHE). ‘Key Skills of Students Entering HE.’-(DfEE). ‘Basic Skills for Life.’ -(DfEE). ‘Skill Needs for Britain.’ -(IFF). Oxford, Cambridge and the RSA examinations activities merge to create the OCR. National Traineeships introduced. ‘Promoting Prosperity: a Business Agenda for Britain.’-CPBB (January) argued for a more flexible, skilled workforce and identified poor education and training as being for responsible for unemployment. National Traineeships introduced nationally – NTs became FMAs and MAs became AMAs in 2000). New Deal initiative launched. ‘Investing FE, Economic Development and Regional Policy.’-FEDA. ‘Learning for the 21st Century.’-NAGGELL. (Nov). ‘The Awarding Bodies Common Accord.’ NCVQ. (July). ‘Key Data on Vocational Training in the EU.’ OOPEC. First New Start partnerships established (Autumn). NTOs introduced (July) replaced ITOs and LBs.  Literacy Task Force established.
1998 ‘Teaching and Higher Education Act.’- created the General Teaching Council and compulsory qualification for Head Teachers, reformed teacher training, replaced the means-tested maintenance grant for HE students with an income-contingent loan system. ‘The Learning Age; A Renaissance for a New Britain.’  Cmnd. 3790.  (DfEE). HMSO. University for Industry (UFI ) – pathfinder prospectus published. DfEE). ‘ Learning is for Everyone.’ Cm. 3924. (WO). ‘FE.’  Education and Employment Select Committee. 2 vols. ‘Our Competitive future: Building the Knowledge-Driven Economy.’  (DTI)
‘HE for the 21st Century.'(DfEE).
New Deal replaces YTS. ‘Understanding TECs: A Guide for HE.’-(HEQC/TC/DfEE). ‘Towards a national skills agenda.’ First report of the National Skills Taskforce. (DfEE). College of Preceptors becomes the College of Teachers. AQA established (AEB+NEAB with CGLI helping to stage GNVQs). CGLI awards in millionth NVQ. National Numeracy strategy launched. Statutory duty on schools to provide a programme of careers education for pupils aged 16-18. 12 Employment Action Zones established-13 more by 1999. Government established Union Learning Fund for innovative sustainable projects in England (£2 million). ‘Redefining Work.’-RSA. Self-employment route of the New Deal was launched. (July). Training Standards Council (TSC) established.
1999 ‘Learning to Succeed: a new framework for post-16 learning.’ Cmnd. 4392.  (DfEE). ‘Improving Literacy and Numeracy.’-(Moser Report), (DFEE). Graduate Apprenticeships piloted. Education Maintenance Allowances piloted. ‘The Changing Nature of Work.’-  (CGLI). ‘Qualifications.’-(QCA). ‘The Skills and Training Agenda.’-(IoD). ‘Work in the Knowledge-Driven Economy.’-(DTI).’Enterprise and Social Exclusion.’-(HM Treasury).’Towards a New Investment Framework for Skills.’ (NTONC).’Learning to Succeed: Update.'(DfEE). Statutory Regulations for England, Wales and NI.’ QCA/CCEA/ACCAC. In 1999 there were 435 publically funded FE colleges – 217 general, 107 6th form colleges, 63 tertiary, 28 designated colleges and 7 art, design and specialist performing arts colleges. Scottish Executive Education Department (Scottish Executive Enterprise and Lifelong Learning Department). Education in Wales responsibility of the Training and Education Department of the National Assembly of Wales (NAW). The IAG initiative launched to provide Information, Advice and Guidance for adults (Jan.). Ofsted became responsible for inspecting provision for 16-19 year olds in schools and colleges. The new awarding body consortium launched.’-ABC. (March). ‘Basic Skills.’-BSA. (May). Second Report of the National Skills Task Force.’ Skills shortages are getting worse say NTOs.’-NTONC. (June). RDAs introduced. Modern Apprenticeships expanded to 82,000 places. IiP renamed Connexions. National Numeracy Strategy launched.

2000 to 2015

2000 Learning and Skills Act.’ -proposed Learning and Skills Councils (LSCs), a new Youth Service – ConneXions, reformed inspection structure for inspecting post-16 learning with an extended remit for Ofsted and the creation of the Adult  Learning Inspectorate (ALI) Qualifying for Success – changes in post-16 qualifications.  (DfEE). ‘Education and Training (Scotland) Act.  National Curriculum revised. UfI became operational (Autumn). General Teaching Council established. Modern Apprenticeships scheme established. ‘Foundation Degrees Prospectus.’-(NTO/BCC/DfEE/HEFCE). ‘Foundation Degrees.’ – consultation paper-(DfEE). New Deal for 50+ extended nationally.
Third Report of National Skills Task Force-(NSTF). ‘Tackling the Adult Skills Gap; Upskilling Adults and the Role of the Work-place.’-(DfEE). ‘Guide to the Basic Skills Quality Initiative.’-  (FEFC). ‘Working in Partnership–FE Taking Forward the Skills Agenda.’-(FEFC). ‘Learning and Skills Council (Brief Guide).’-(DfEE). ‘Funding Flows and Business Processes.’-  (LSC/DfEE).’Learning to Succeed.’-(ES/DfEE). ‘Common Inspection Framework.’ -(Ofsted/ALI). Federation of Awarding Bodies (FAB) established. Level2 Apprenticeships introduced. ‘Improving Training Opportunities in SMEs.’ (May)-EMFEC.
2001 ‘Schools achieving success.’ Cmnd. 5230-(DfES). ‘Centres of Vocational Excellence (COVES).’-(LSC/DfEE). ‘COVES –LSDA response.’-LSDA.  ‘COVEs. Heralding a New Era for FE.’ LSC. ‘Skills for Life.’ (DfES). ‘ Raising Standards – Teaching in FE.’-(DfES). ‘Modern Apprenticeships – The Way to Work.’-(Cassels Report)-(DfES/LSC). ‘Education into Employability–The role of the DfEE in the economy.’-(DfEE). ‘Work Related Learning.’-(DfES). Learning and Skills Councils (LSCs) formally established. Connexions created. Prototypes for Foundation Degrees launched. “Report on C2k.” by D. Hargreaves. ‘Learning and Training at Work in 2000.’ RR 269-DfEE. National Adult Learning Survey. RR.321-DfEE. ‘Supply and Demand in HE.’-HFCE. ‘Matching Employer needs and Learner Aspirations Today and Tomorrow. the Strategic Challenge for Providers.’-FFC. Employment functions of the DfEE were transferred to the newly created Department of Work and Pensions (DWP) and the educational functions under the DfES. DfES  replaced the DoE. ‘Skills in England 2000 the key messages’-DfES/LSC. ‘Vocational Education (Amendment) Act Ireland. Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs created. Connexions – new youth support service for 13-19 year olds started. DfES announced that ILAs would be closed (Dec.).
2002 Learning and Skills Councils operational. Sector Skills Councils (SSCs) established replacing the NTOs“14-19: Extending Opportunities, Raising Standards” proposed the introduction of more vocational GCSEs, a matriculation certificate, fast tracking for high achievers. ‘Success for All Reforming FE and Training.’ (DfES). ‘Investing in Innovation. A Strategy for Science, Engineering and Technology.’-(DfES/DTI/HMT). ‘Developing Workforce Skills: Piloting a new approach.’ (HMT). ‘Cross-Cutting Review of Science and Research.’-(DfES/DTI/HMT/OST). ‘SET for Success.the supply of people with science, technology, engineering and mathematics skills’ -(Roberts Review. City Academies established the first 3 opened. ‘Success for All. Reforming FE and Training.’ (DfES).Vocational GCSEs introduced.“Modern Apprenticeships – Framework.’ ‘Education and Skills-Delivering Results; a Strategy to 2006.’ Institute of Leadership and Management created – National Examining Board for Supervision and Management (NEBSM) + Institute of Supervision and Management (ISM). ‘Welsh Baccalaureate.’-WJEC. ‘Adult Skills for the 21st Century.’-(Cabinet Office CO). ‘Individual Learning Accounts.’-(NAO). ‘Scottish Credit and Qualifications Framework.’-SQA. ‘The New Deal for Young People.’-NAO. There were 310 specialist schools in existence. Scottish Qualifications Authority Act. ITOs replaced by SSCs. e-University launched. Trailblazer SSCs received their licences (March). ALI finished its first 3 year cycle of inspections of the New Deal for Young People.
2003 ‘The Future of Higher Education.’ Cmnd. 5735.  January (DfES).  ‘21st Century Skills Realising Our Potential.’ Cmnd. 5810. (DTI/DWP/DfES/HMT). Scotland’s Economy: An Agenda for Growth’. CBI Scotland.  ‘Developing a National Skills Strategy and Delivery.’-(DfES). ’14–19 Opportunities and excellence.’- 2 vols-(DfES). ‘Learning from the trailblazer Sector Skills Councils.’  ‘Widening Participation in HE.’ ‘Delivering Skills for Life.’-  (DfES). ‘Education and Skills: The economic benefit.’-(DfES). HMSO. ‘Review and Development of Graduate Apprenticeship.’-(HEFCE).’Inspection for Improvement.”  (OPSR). ‘Sustainability and Business Competitiveness.’-DTI).“University Collaboration.’-(Lambert Report)-(HMT). ‘Competing in the Global Economy. The Innovation Challenge.’-(DTI). ‘Skills for Success’-(DfES/DTI). 2003/2004 Technical Certificates introduced to explicitly require theoretical knowledge for apprentices. City Academies number increased by 9.
2004 ’14-19 Curriculum and Qualifications Reform’-Tomlinson report. University top up fees introduced. ‘Skills in England.’  4 vols.-(LSC). ‘An Employers Guide and Case Studies.’-(Union Learning Representatives). Apprenticeships re-branded. Tomlinson Report 14-19 Curriculum and Qualifications Reform – rejected by government.
‘HE Act.’ ‘Inspection for Better Lives.’-(CSCI). ‘Post-16 Mathematics Inquiry.’-(A. Smith). ‘Science and Innovation Investment for 2004-2014.’-(HMT). AoC merges with the National Association for IT in FE to create AoCNILTA.  A Curriculum for Excellence (Scotland). National Proficiency Tests Council (NPTC) – Agriculture and Horticulture became part of CGLI. City Academies renamed Academies.
2005 ’14 – 19 Education and Skills.’-(DfES). ‘Learning and Skills – an agenda for change.’ -rejected most of the Tomlinson recommendations. Prospectus. ‘Skills: Getting on in business, getting on in work.’-DfEs/DIUS. HMSO. ‘Realising The Potential’ – A Review of the Future Role of FE Colleges.’-(Foster Report), (DfES). ‘Review of Skills: Skills in the UK: The long-term challenge.’- Interim report-(Leitch),(HMT). ‘Adult Skills.’ ‘Youth Matters’ ‘Education Act.’ ‘Education and Culture.’-(EU – Lisbon Strategy). ‘The Business Case for Apprenticeships.’ Final Report from the Apprenticeships Task Force. The Hospitality Awarding Body (HAB) – Hospitality and Catering became part of CGLI. ‘FE and HE (Scotland Act).
2006 ‘FE Reform: Raising Skills. Improving Life Chances.’-(DfES). Raising Expectations: staying in education and training post- 16.  ‘Skills in the UK.’-Final report-(Leitch), (HMT). ‘FE: Raising Skills, Improving Life Chances.’-Cm. 6768, DCSF.  ‘Skills for Productivity.’-(DfES/DTI).Widening Participation in HE.’-(DfES). ‘Prior Qualifications of Adult Learners in FE and Work Based Learning.’-(LSC). ‘The Supply and Demand for Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematic Skills in the UK Economy.’-(Research report 775), (DfES). ‘Youth Matters: Next Steps.’ Professionalising the workforce in FE. ‘Skills in a Global Economy.’-(C. Humphries CGLI). ‘Live Longer, Work Longer.’-(OEDC). ‘Prior Qualifications of Adults Learners in FE.’-(LSC). ‘Skills.’-(DfES). ‘Personalising FE: Developing A Vision.’-  (DfES). ‘2020 Vision: Report of the Teaching and Learning in 2020.’-(DfES). ‘Further Skills for Success: Competition delivers for learners.’-(CBI). ‘Learning to Change. Why the UK skills system must do better.’ EEF. ‘Mathematics in FE Colleges.’-ACME. Policy statement PR./08. 51 Academies opened in September.
2007 ‘Delivering World Class Skills in a Demand-Led System’   (LSC/DfES). ‘FE: Raising Skills. Improving Life Chances- Update’ Cm. 6768.  (DfES). Final Leitch Report: Implemention Plan.  ‘World Class Skills: Implementing the Leitch Review of Skills in England’ Cm. 7181. (DIUS). Ten Year Youth Strategy.’Adult Sklls and HE.’ (CfBT). Education Trust). ‘Third Sector Strategy and Action Plan.’ ‘Train to Gain (TtG).’-(LSC). ‘Ten Year Science and Innovation Framework.’-(BERR). ‘Raising Expectations-staying on in education and training post-16.’ ‘Government response to EU to establish new European Union.’ ‘Integrated Action Programme for Lifelong Learners.’ ‘School Leaving Age (SLA).’ Government announces intention to raise the SLA to 18 possibly by 2013 Cmd. 7065. ‘Confidence in Standards: Regulating and Developing Qualifications and Assessment.’ Cm. 7281, DIUS. Quality Improvement of National Occupational Standards.’-(Mackinnon Partnership). ‘Vocational Qualifiations in Wales.’-NAW. ‘National Employers Skills Survey.’-LSC. ‘FE and work-based learning for young people.’-LSC. DfES split into DIUS and DCSF. ‘State of the Nation report.’ Volume 1. Royal Society. Ofsted becomes The Office for Standards in Education, Children’s Services and Skills.’Opportunity, employment and progression:making skills work’ Cm. 7288-DWP/DIUS. ‘Skills for Business Network and Other Bodies Contribution Towards Meeting the Apprenticeship Entitlement and Leitch’-(SSDA).
2008 ‘Raising Expectations; enabling the system to deliver’ White Paper. Cm. 7348. (DCSF/DIUS). ‘Promoting Achievement, valuing success; a strategy for 14-19 qualifications’ Cm. 7354. DCSF). ‘Innovation Nation.’ Cm. 7345. (DIUS). ‘World –class Apprenticeships: Unlocking Talent, Building Skills for All.’-(DIUS/DCSF). ‘Towards Expansive Apprenticeships.’-(Teaching and Learning Research Programme). ‘Building Skills, Improving Lives: A Training and Apprenticeships Revolution.’ Paper 7- (Conservative Party). ‘The Work-related Learning Guide.’-(DCSF). ‘FE and the Delivery of Higher-level Qualifications.’-(LSC). ‘The academic experience and outcomes of students with vocational level 3 qualifications.’-(Higher Education Policy Institute). ‘Post-19 implementation strategy.’-(DIUS).’Employability Skills Explored.’-(LSN). ‘Inspiration and Aspiration: Realising our Potential in the 21st Century.’-(UK Skills Commission). ‘Promoting Achievement, Valuing Success: A Strategy for 14-19 Qualifications.’ Cm. 7354, DCFS. ‘Building Colleges for the Future.’-(LSC). ‘Culture and Learning: Towards a New Agenda.’-(DEMOS). ‘Learning Power.’-(Scarman Trust). ’16-18 Adult Learner and Employer Responsive Funding.’-(LSC). Draft Apprenticeship Bill. Cm. 7452. ‘Innovation Nation.’ Cm. 7345-(DIUS). ‘Making the Grade.’ (British Chambers of Commerce( BCC)). National Employer Skills Survey- LSC. National Apprenticeships Service (NAS) announced and formally launched in April 2009. ‘Back on Track-A Strategy for Modernising Alternative Provision for Young People.’ Cm. 7410, DCFS. ‘Operating rules for using the term NVQ in a QCF.’ Ofqual etal. ‘Foundation Degree Statistics 2001/2 to 2007/8 -HEFCE. ‘Time to Train.’-DIUS. ‘State of the Nation Report.’ Volume 3. Royal Society. ‘Mathematics Matters.’-NCETM. University of Aston and Birmingham City Council agrred to establish a University Technical College (UTC). ‘Taking Stock, Education and Skills Survey- HM Treasury. Office of Qualifications and Examinations Regulator (Ofqual) created. ‘Education for All’ final Nuffield Report on 14-19 education and training. CGLI Centre for Skills Development founded. 51 Academies opened in September.
 2009 The DIUS abolished after just two years and merged into the newly formed Departmant for Business, Innovation and Skills-(BIS) in June 2009. ‘Re-skilling for Recovery: After Leitch, implementing skills and training policies.’  Innovation, Universities, Science and Skills Committee (IUSS) select committee.‘The Learning Revolution’ Cm. 7555. DIUS. ‘New industry, new jobs, Building Britain’s Future.’- BERR. ‘Jobs of the future, Building Britain’s Future.’ Cabinet Office. ‘Skills for growth: the national skills strategy.’ Cm 7641-BIS. ‘Apprenticeships, Skills, Children and Learning Provision.’ Research Paper 09/14. Houses of Parliament. ‘Apprenticeships, Skills, Children and Learning Act’ -provided statutory framework for apprenticeships. ‘A New Framework for HE’ DBIS. ’14-19 Partnerships and Planning’ DCSF. A New Framework for Higher Education. BIS.  ‘Science and Learning Council Report.’ Science and Kearning Expert Group- DCSF and DUIS. 11+ abolished in Northern Ireland. ‘The Talent Challenge’- DCSF 00871-2009. ‘National Evaluation of Diplomas (2008 survey) DCSF-RR-145). In 2009 there were 203 academies in existence.
2010 The DCFS was replaced by the Department of Education (DfE) in May 2010. LSC dissolved and replaced by the SFA and the YPLA. ‘FE and Skills’-BIS. ‘ ‘Skills for Sustainable Growth. Strategy Document.’-BIS. ‘Apprenticeships and Skills.’-BIS. ’14-19 Qualifications Strategy Research Brief.’-DFE RB. 055. ‘National Evaluation Diploma (First year of delivery)-DCSF – RR 220. Apprenticeship, Skills, Children and Learning Bill.’ HL-BILL-42. ‘Schools White Paper.’ ‘A New Vision for Skills.’  ‘Securing a Sustainable Future for HE. Browne Report.’Academies Act.’ Diplomas scrapped. QCDA abolished. ‘State of nation Report.’ Volume 3. Royal Society. ‘Wolf Review of 14-19 vocational education.’-DoE. ‘Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM).’-Research Report, BIS. ‘Sector Skills Assessment 2010’-LLUK. ‘Review of FE Workforce Data’-BIS. ‘Shaping the Future: The Workforce Strategy for the FE Sector in England 2011 and Beyond’-LLUK (December). ‘Successful Science’ Evaluation study 2007-2010 Ref 100034. EBITT Funding TDA 0844. Skills conditionality. DWP. ‘Learning Functional Skills in Secondary Schools’ DCSF-00065-2010. ‘Learning Targets in Science’ DCSF-00061-2010. ‘ Good practice in involving employers in work-related education and training’. Ref 090227. ‘PISA 2009′ How Big is the Gap? DFE-RB 149. ’14-19 Qualifications Study Research Brief’. DFE-RB 055. ‘The Role of Information, Advice and Guidance in Young People’s Education and Employment Choices’. DFE-RR 019. By early 2010 there were 3,068 specialist secondary schools out of a total of 4,403 maintained by the state – 58 Engineering. 256 Business and Enterprise. %34 Technology). ‘Sector Skills Assessment England’-LLUK. 1,700 Foundation Degree programmes in operation in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. ‘The Case for Change.’ DfE. London. Simplified FE and Skills Funding System and Methodology. BIS.
2011  ‘State of the Nation Report.’ Volume 4. Royal Society. ‘Education Select Committee: Inquiry into 16-19 participation in education and training.’ ‘Transition to Transformation: Strategic Regulation of Awarding Organisations and Qualifications.’-Ofqual. ‘Participation by 16-19 olds in education and training.’ HFEC ‘Review of the National Curriculum.’-DoE. ‘Review of Vocational Education.’-Wolf Report, DfE 00031-2011 (March). ‘Wolf Review of Vocational Education – Government Response’-DfE 00038-2011.’New Challenges. New Chances-FE and Skills System Reform Plan:Building a World Class Skills System’-BIS (Dec). ’16-24 Education, training and work: Strategy and Reform.’-BIS. Policy Paper. Specification of Apprenticeship Standards  for England’-(SASE), BIS (May). ‘Improving Science in Colleges’ Ref 110081. ‘Grade Comparisons of Overseas Qualifications’ ITT-OQ-Grade. ‘Review of the National Curriculum in England,’-DFE-00136-2011. ‘Free Schools in 2013- How to apply for UTC status’.-DFE 00095-2011. ‘Girls’ career aspirations’- Ref 090239. ‘The English Baccalaureate and GCSE Choices’.- DFE-RB 150. ‘Statuary Guidance: Funding for 16-19 Education and Training’. YPLA-16-19.’Evaluation of Implementation and Impact of Diplomas:Information, Advice and Guidance’. DFE-RR. 122. ‘Evaluation of the Implementation and Impact of Diplomas: Findings for 2009/10 Survey of HEIs’. DFE RR-093. Maths and Science Education:the supply of high achievers at ‘A’ level’.-DFE-RR 086. The English Baccalaureate-HCEC Report. The creation of 24 UTCs announced to be opened by 2014. ‘Preparation for new FE reform and skills policies.’ Summary. BIS. Research and Analysis. (Dec). ‘Science beyond the classroom. A reform of informal science learning,’ Welcome Trust. London. White Paper Higher Education: Students at the Heart of the System. BIS. The English Baccalaureate CESC. New Challenges. New Chances. Next Steps in Implementing FE Reform.
2012 ‘Criteria for Functional Skills Qualifications’-Ofqual. ’16-19 Funding Review’-EFA 00073-2012. ‘Study Programmes for 16-19 Year Olds’.-DFE-00074-2012. ‘Raising the Participation Rate (RPR)’.-DFE 00076-2012. ‘The Richard Review of Apprenticeships’ by D. Richard. November 2012. ‘Professionals in FE’. Lingfield Report. ‘Developing a Guild for FE: Prospectus. BIS Policy Paper. ‘Science, technology, engineering and mathematics education.’-CST.11/7/2012. ‘Widening participation in HE’. (Dec). BIS. ‘Understanding HE in FECs.’ BIS. Research and Analysis. (June). ‘The Importance of Physics to the UK Economy.’ Institute of Physics. Science beyond the classroom. A Reform of informal science learning.’ London. Welcome Trust. The administration of examinations for 15-19 year olds. CESC.
2013  ‘Measuring Additionality in Apprentices.’-BIS. 17/10. Research Paper. ‘Future of Apprenticeships in England: Richard Review Next Step.’-BIS and DfE. Consultation. ‘Progression of apprentices to HE.’-BIS. Research. ‘Perkin view of Engineering.’-BIS 4/11/2013. ‘New ‘A’ level’ subject content.’-DfE. Consultation. 25/10/2013. ‘Review of ITBs.’- BIS. Consultation. 23/9/2013. ‘Small  Great Ambition.’-BIS 7/12/2013. Policy. ‘Apprenticeship Funding Reform in England.’-BIS. 24/7/2013. Consultation. ‘Improving the quality of FE and Skills Training-BIS. 6/10/2013. Policy. ‘Government proposals to reform vocational qualifications 16 – 19.’ (Sept). Consultation-BIS. ‘Post 16 Work Experience as part of 16-19 study programme.’ (Oct). Policy. ‘Education (Wales) Bill’. (July). ‘Post-16 Education (Scotland) Act.’ ‘Traineeships: framework for delivery.’ BIS/DfE. Policy. (July). ‘Enterprise education: impact on HE and FE.’ BIS. Research and Analysis. (June). ‘Introduction of 16-18 core mathematics qualification.’ DfE. Revision on National Curriculum DfE. New Inspection Arrangements Ofsted. ITB Review. BIS consultation.
 2014

 16-18 core maths qualifications (Jan) Policy. ‘Getting the government’s reform plan for vocational qualification’. BIS/14/577E. (Executive summary BIS/14/577E. ‘Engineering Skills.’ Perkins Review. BIS Research and Analysis. ‘Academies: research priorities and questions.’ DfE. (March). ‘Future of Apprenticeships in England- Richards Review- next steps.’ BIS/DfE. (March). ‘The future of Work, Jobs and Skills in 2030.’ UKCES. ‘State of Engineering.’ Engineering UK. ‘Good Careers Guidance.’ Gatsby Charitable Foundation. J. Holman. London. ‘Vision for Science and Mathematics Education.’ Royal Society. ‘Employer guild to higher apprenticeships.’ SFA. 18/11/2014. CIPD survey showed that in the UK 22% of jobs required only compulsory-level schooling – second lowest in OECE. SMEs employed 60% 0f people in private sector companies. Sense and Instability CGLI – identified how government policies on skills over three decades had failed. Adult FE – how do we measure success? BIS. Core Maths technical guidance. DfE. Apprenticeship funding reform. BIS/DfE. Education, vocational training and youth – review of balance of competence. BIS/DfE. Traineeship: funding in England. BIS/DfE.

 

 

2015

 Apprenticeship standards. FE and Skills – statistical returns. Specifications of Apprenticeship Standards in England (SASE). Protection of the term Apprenticeship. BIS. Young people and the movement between education and work. Academies and Free Schools. CESC. Apprenticeships and traineeships for 16-19 year olds. CESC. FE and Skills Inspection and Outcomes. Ofsted. Better Inspection for All. Ofsted. After the QCF – a new qualifications framework. Ofqual. Alternative providers of HE – improving quality and value for money. BIS. Adult vocational education – challenges over the next decade. BIS. HE teaching excellence, social mobility and student choice. BIS. Developing GCSEs in D&T for 2017. Implementing the English Bacc. DfE consultation. Adult FE measuring success – detailed proposals. BIS. Further GCSE and A level content. DfE. Apprenticeship levy: employer owned apprenticeship training. BIS consultation. GCSE and A level reform content for teachers for 2017.

 

Name changes for government departments for education:

England:

1839/Committee of Council of Education. 1856/Education Department. 1899/Board of Education (BoE). 1945/Ministry of Education (MoE). 1964/Department of Education and Science (DES). 1992/Department of Education (DoE). 1995/Department of Education and Employement (DfEE). 2001/Department of Education and Skills DfES)./2007 DCSF Department for Children, Skills and Families ./2010 Department for Education  DfE

Scotland:

1839/As for England. 1872/Scotch Education Department. 1886/Scotch Educaion Department (reformed). 1918/Scottish Education Department. 1989/Scottish Office Education Department. 1995/Scottish Office of Education and Industry. 1999/Scottish Executive Enterprise and Lifelong Learning Department.

Wales:

As for England until 1974.

1974/Welsh Office. 1999/National Assembly of Wales Training and Education Department. Extrav note: FE in Wales came under the remit of the Welsh Assembly and was formerly ELWa before that merger with the Assembly.

School leaving age: Raised to 11 in 1893, 12 in 1899, 14 in 1921, 15 in 1947 and 16 in 1973. Government school leaving age will be raised to 18 by 2013/14

The Future of the Economy and the World of Work?

 

A Personal View.

Writing about the future is always a challenge especially when the topic is about the economy and work so inevitably this article will raise more questions than answers  – this is my attempt.  Many of the issues are complex and multidimensional but must be addressed by governments and society.  Both are currently experiencing transitions and major transformations. The economy is currently driven by banks, financial and multinational organisations and the so-called 1% rich and this is now being increasingly acknowledged as having massively failed and in need of urgent review and reform. We need to reverse the current financial policy/philosophy of placing the economy over society. The new approach should be society over economy namely putting social and people centre stage. Obviously this is a very radical proposal and will require a transition which does not fit with capitalism, current financial practices and entrenched political and ideological beliefs.

In addition to this essential transition we need to move away from a linear economy to a circular economy. This will create totally different ways of manufacturing, distributing and deposing products. At present Capitalism is based on making and distributing products with built in redundancy which guarantees return business and the resultant dumping of existing short-lived products without any real consideration about the damage to the environment and the constant depletion of the world’s finite natural resources; not to mention the entrapment of consumers in this model of need/want. This means that an absolute and comprehensive commitment to recycling will become central to future manufacturing processes and people will need to commit more thoroughly to recycling and energy conservation practices.

Equally important is addressing private/personal debt and significantly reducing the current practice of creating and increasing debt. The level of these debts in Britain and America is mind blowing and at present the approach is to ignore them and further increase the levels which will be ultimately unsustainable and will end in a national disaster for both nations! The mantra seems to be spend your way out of debt and create even more debt!

If a different approach is adopted the reduction of personal debt should allow people to save and invest and this in turn this should increase demand and subsequently contribute to the national economy – one of the elements of consumerism.  People at present are spending what money they have on servicing debt and coping with the costs of living, low wages, frozen annual wage increases. In addition working conditions continue to be eroded e.g. zero hour contracts, the growth of employment agencies and the so-called umbrella companies who tax their lowly paid staff at very high rates. The high costs of covering such items as rent, mortgages and utilities continue to dominate their budgets.

However people need to more fully appreciate the importance of financial prudence and develop a greater understanding of financial literacy and the current obsession with property ownership consigned to history particularly in Britain. Rampant consumerism carries real dangers to the economy which encourage many people to live beyond their means and survive on large debts.  If the economy is driven by society and its members many of the current problems will be reduced but that must be based on the assumption that the members of that society are themselves aware of the dangers of adopting the discredited past practices of generating debt.

As the nature of work is transformed by robotics, full blown digitisation, ever newer technologies and the continuing consequences of the global economy developed nations will require to urgently review and fundamentally reform the way they manage employment and the economy. Millions of jobs across the world will be replaced by robots and automated machinery. Governments must have a clear vision and long term policy on the national economy and the future nature of work and how this impacts on workers, citizens and education. It will be a very difficult transition to make.

An example of the future impact of robots and automation is on male employment in America. At present the largest percentage of American males employed is associated with driving e.g. haulage, public and private transport etc. These jobs will be ultimately be replaced by computer controlled vehicles already being piloted across many parts of the world. This raises the question: what jobs will be available for these millions of males in America and those in a similar situation in over 30 nations? Obviously this is just one example of the impact of the introduction of robots and automation. Many other occupations will be dramatically effected by automation and robotics particularly in traditional manufacturing industries and in some services based industries. Many occupations that involve mundane tasks will be replaced by robots while occupations that will require creativity less so.

However there will be occupations that will employ more people as a result of the demographic trends e.g. the aging populations in many countries. A number of service industries will as a result need to respond to the increased demand for care and health requirements where workers will not be necessarily be replaced by robots and where direct human contact is still essential. Other occupations offering a service to people will continue e.g. hairdressing, hospitality, a number of medical services, undertaking etc.  One key question is: will these areas fully compensate for the employment losses in other industries?

If work opportunities decline creating large numbers of people who will be unemployed throughout their lives how do these people survive financially and maintain a reasonable life style for themselves and their families?  One possibility is the introduction of Universal Benefit Income (UBI) or a Basic Benefit (BB) which could allow people to survive financially. This is a proposal where  people receive a basic income whether they are in employment or not. However this again raises fundamental questions about how the UBI /BB is paid for and the consequences for the traditional taxation system. A number of countries are piloting the concept of UBI/BB e.g. Finland and Holland.  Switzerland recently staged a referendum which the Swiss rejected by a large percentage. The Swiss voters questioned how it would be paid for. However an increasing number of commentators say UBI/BB will be introduced within the next two decades as a result of automation and robotics.

This question will require the development of fundamentally new taxation regimes and raise major issues associated with national debts and deficits and a country’s ability to sustain a healthy economy through manufacture and export activity.  In the case of this country we currently have massive debt/ deficits which are increasing and a declining manufacturing base, massive skill shortages and gaps so the future looks very bleak unless the government takes urgent and radical action. If the country vote exit the EU the situation for the economy and manufacturing will be truly dire. Lets hope the vote is to REMAIN!

A Final Comment:

(Inevitably these challenges and transitions will have fundamental implications for technical and vocational education and training and the essential need to develop high quality apprenticeship frameworks. In order to tackle skill shortages and gaps and improve the skills of the current and future work forces colleges and training providers must be adequately resourced and supported by the government and employers.)

dickg.evans@virgin.net

 

 

Celebrating 160 Years of the Society of Arts (SA) and Royal Society of Arts (RSA) Examinations

 

(First published in the Royal Society of Arts  William Shipley Group Bulletin 49 March 2016).

Introduction:

2016 marks the 160th anniversary of the beginning of the Society examinations.

A Short History:

The history of examinations provides a fascinating insight into how the education system developed in Britain.  Various assessment methods had been introduced by universities, the College of Preceptors and a number of independent self-help institutions in earlier times but public examinations were only started after the mid-18th century. Examinations and certificates had been awarded by Trinity College Dublin, Edinburgh College of Art both of whom pioneered testing before the 1850s.

In this article I will focus on the key role the Society of Arts (SA ) played in these developments particularly emphasising those in the early stages. I cannot hope to do justice to this vast topic in a short piece but the history will highlight many similar issues associated with the development of technical, commercial and vocational subjects in colleges and schools over the past two centuries. Inevitably their respective histories identify a number of factors that contributed to the slow and at times ad hoc development of a public system of examinations that included:

  • The minimal support and involvement of successive governments in the early 19th century which reflected an attitude that government should not intervene directly in the development of education.
  • The laissez-faire attitude that existed particularly in Victorian times – the view that individuals should be free to develop themselves and not be dependent on or expect intervention from the government. This approach established voluntarism across the field of technical education and training.
  • The preoccupation with educational elitism which always valued the academic over practical/technical subjects and which is an attitude that sadly continues today.
  • An education provision structured on a hierarchical and socially differentiated system reflecting class divisions which basically meant different classes experienced different provision.
  • The urge to promote and subsume practical/technical subjects into an academic subject culture often referred to as ‘academic drift’.
  • The lack of interest from employers both in the development of technical education and its examinations. They were reluctant in appointing people who have attended school/other providers and/or those who had gained qualifications arguing that would have to pay them more!

The Society was founded in 1754 by William Shipley with the title the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce. It was granted a Royal Charter in 1847 and granted the right to use the title Royal in 1907. William Shipley was aware of the Dublin Society for Improving Husbandry, Manufactures and Other Useful Arts which awarded premiums for inventions. An excellent account of the Dublin Society is provided by Allan (1).

One of its first activities of the Society of Arts was to award prizes called premiums and financial rewards to inventors. These premiums were granted for a wide range of inventions and developments including improving machines in manufacturing and techniques used in industrial and agricultural processes. This clearly laid the foundations for developing a more comprehensive system of examinations particularly in association with the Mechanics’ Institutions movement (1). The development of the Society of Arts (SA) examinations was clearly linked to the Mechanics’ Institution and the Union that represented them.

The key person in the creation of the Union between the Society of Arts and the Mechanics’ Institutions was Henry/Harry Chester (1806-1868) who first proposed in 1853 a system of examinations for the Institutions and its members. The proposals advocated a scheme for examining and awarding certificates to the students attending the affiliated Institutes of the Union of Mechanics’ Institutions. Other influential individual involved in the development of the examinations were James Booth (1906?-1879) and James Hole (1820-1895) who were both heavily involved with the Society and the Mechanics’ Institutions movement. A number of writers have commented that Harry Chester (1806-1868) and James Hole (1820-1895) first instigated the debate about creating examinations whilst James Booth was largely responsible for bringing them into existence. (See website www.technicaleducation matters.org for biographies of these individuals).These three individuals were representative of the few who made significant contributions to the development of technical and commercial education and their associated examinations.  One interesting and recurring aspect in the development of technical and commercial education and training was the role that a few far sighted individuals played in introducing various initiatives. In spite of resistance they persevered and remained committed to establishing a national system for technical education.

The first examinations for artisans were held in 1855 but proved unsuccessful because of the associated bureaucracy, complexity and an over-ambitious schedule of subjects and syllabuses. Only one candidate enrolled for a mathematics paper namely William Medcraft a chimney sweep who studied at the Belmont Mutual Improvement Society but was informed that no examinations would be staged that year. The examinations were remodelled and offered again in 1856 and 42 candidates enrolled. William Medcraft entered again and gained pass certificates in arithmetic, algebra and geometry. Papers were set in Agriculture, Book-keeping, Botany, Chemistry, English Literature and Composition/ History, Freehand Drawing, Geography, German, Latin and Roman History, Mechanics, and Physiology. Candidates had to sit at least three subjects and a preliminary/qualifying examination in handwriting and spelling. Interesting to note that the Belmont Mutual Improvement Society which William Medcraft attended was an example of a few self-help organisations that existed along with the Mechanics’ Institutions, commercial and trade schools. These institutions did much to develop technical and commercial education and training but at the time did not possess the required critical mass to create a national system. It was not until the late 18th century that the technical education sector began to take shape in a way that we would recognise today following a number of major government sponsored Royal Commissions, Education Acts, increased government support and focussed funding. A good example of this was the use of ‘Whiskey Money’ following the Customs and Excise Act of 1890. It must be noted that the 1850s was a very important decade in the development of technical and commercial education largely influenced by the Great Exhibition and its consequences in which the Society was a major player. There were also a  few strong advocates for technical education including George Birkbeck (1776-1841) , Henry Brougham (1778-1868) , Harry Chester (1806-1868), Henry Cole (1808-1882),James Hole (1820-1895), Thomas Huxley (1825-1895), Philip Magnus (1842-1933) , Lyon Playfair (1818-1898), Bernhard Samuelson (1820-1905) and Henry Solly (1813-1903) many of whom were associated with the work of the SA and its evolving examinations. (See a series of biographies on website referenced below).

A number of conditions were introduced on entry requirements to the examinations e.g. university graduates, undergraduates, students from learned societies, certificated schoolteachers and pupil teachers were not allowed to enter along with children under the age of 15. Also only three subjects could be taken. Boys attending classical schools were also barred from enrolling for the examinations.

Although the 1856 examinations enrolled very few candidates it highlighted the need to continue and cascade and in 1857 the Society’s examinations were extended to provincial centres when four centres were identified but only two of which were agreed by the Society as a start with examinations taking place in London and Huddersfield. After the 1857 examinations the initiative was deemed a success and fifty centres were designated but ultimately forty centres were actually active in thirty-two cities and towns across the country. The 1857 examinations enrolled approximately 1,100 candidates but only 50% passed the local preliminary/qualifying examinations which resulted in 288 candidates sitting the final examinations with 197 being successful. The pass rate for successful students was approximately 78%. The extension of centres across the country by the Society eventually hosted and administered the examinations offered by the government’s Department Science and Art (DSA) after 1859. With the advent of the DSA examination the Society had to review and reform some subjects e.g. freehand drawing was withdrawn in 1860 and a recasting of its schedules resulted in 1870 when 17 of 36 subjects were removed from the list of examination titles.

In spite of the shaky start the original members of the Board of Examiners included a number of influential individuals including Thomas Huxley who continued to stress the importance of the examinations.  The Board of Examiners was replaced in 1857 by the Council of the Society of Arts which then established a system of paid examiners.

Subsequently the examination centres were extended geographically and the constraints on the institutions that could take the examinations were removed which resulted in increased numbers of candidates. Initially the examinations were limited to members of Mechanics’ Institutions and specifically to ‘artisan class’ which included   clerks, farmers, labourers,  mechanics, tradesmen and apprentices and the sons and daughters of tradesmen and farmers, assistants in shops and others who were not graduates. In addition the examinations were aimed at people who had left school and were in employment meaning the minimum age for entry was 16. The school leaving age was 12.

In 1859 the Society transferred the responsibility for examining the sciences to the Department of Science and Arts (DSA) whose aim was to introduce and encourage the teaching of science in schools.

The examinations quickly developed a commercial emphasis which has continued today. Shorthand was introduced in 1876 and typewriting in 1891 which proved successful enrolling clerical and professional workers. The Society did not receive any monetary assistance from the State but depended on subscriptions and benefactions of its supporters. It had also established such a good reputation in promoting the arts, science and manufacturing that it attracted many noticeable individuals as examiners and lecturers. The subjects were chosen and kept under review to represent the skills that were emerging during and after the Industrial Revolution.

The examinations were finally opened to everybody in 1882 and the Union of Institutions dissolved as the number of Mechanics’ Institutions declined with many transmuting into technical colleges which we recognise today. Other technical education and training providers were established by the government and local authorities so the Mechanics’ Institutions began to close. They achieved a great deal and provided the basis for the later development of technical and commercial institutions.  As a result the examinations had to be self-supporting and fees were introduced in that year with one concession granted to adult students in evening classes. In addition the option of taking single subjects was introduced.

As a result of these reforms candidate numbers increased rapidly from 288 in 1858 to 2,325 in 1880. The numbers dipped dramatically to 695 in 1882 but then increased significantly to 2,474 in 1890 and 9,808 in 1900. Following the governments Technical Instruction Act of 1889 technical and commercial education gained even more impetus. Numbers had risen to 23,803 in 1905 after new regulations were introduced recognising examination success in three stages with two classes of pass being obtainable in the higher stages. Also a number of elementary tests were discontinued. 1911 witnessed approximately 30,000 candidates and by 1953 150,000 candidates presented themselves in 800 examining centres in Britain and Ireland the majority of them under the control of Local Education Authorities (LEAs). In 1974/75 session approximately 500,000 candidates sat the examinations.

Not only did the Society of Arts  pioneer public examinations but the work done by Booth and colleagues provided a blue print for the examinations system that developed subsequently particularly in the school sector of education. The timing of examinations during the year, the production of syllabuses, the appointment of examiners and the subject profile were all later adopted by other examination bodies. Much of Booth’s work was shaped by his experience at Trinity College Dublin which possessed a first rate reputation in setting examinations long before its English counter parts.

The Technological Examinations:

The involvement of the Society of Arts in the development of technological examinations was very short lived but again laid the foundations for these strategically important subjects to be developed by other examining bodies particularly the City and Guilds Institute of London and later by the National Awards. The key figure in this development was John Donelly (1834-1902) who proposed the introduction of the technological examinations to the Council of the Society 1871. Donelly again proposed the examinations in 1873 arguing strongly that knowledge of techniques/skills in particular industries should be examined. The technological examinations were to be introduced alongside the existing examinations. Initially five subjects were to be offered namely carriage building, cotton manufacture, paper, silk and steel manufacture. The Council of the Society of which Booth was a member defined the structure and nature of the examinations. Their main purpose was to admit students from mechanics’ Institutions, commercial and trade schools. Identical techniques were used by the Department of Science and Art (DSA) comprising three grades: elementary, ordinary and honours. The new examinations enrolled very few candidates only 6 entered for three of the subjects. The number of subjects was increased in 1877 to 14 but still only attracted 68 candidates in 8 subjects. In 1878 167 candidates presented themselves for 10 subjects. The failure was due to the lack of support from employers and inadequate class facilities and qualified instructors. In 1879 the technological examinations were transferred to the newly established City and Guilds Institute of London (CGLI). However the Society of Arts technological examinations provided a strong foundation for CGLI to adopt and further develop the examinations e.g. syllabuses in a number of key industries.

The Society was then able to focus its attention and resources on further developing its examinations in the commercial subjects for which it is now renowned.

One classic example of the influence and impact of the Society of Arts examinations was on the creation of the Oxford and Cambridge Locals. The Society examinations represented the catalyst for the Locals which in turn established other school examinations managed from other universities and led to school examinations becoming a preserve of the universities.

Summary and Final Words:

Over the 160 years the Society has become a major domestic and international examining body and has continued throughout its long history to make significant contributions to commercial examinations, office skills, languages especially English as a foreign language (EFL), adult and work based education and training. The awards are now granted from foundation to post-graduate level. The number of entries have grown so significantly over the period that the Society in 1987 created a separate examinations board and subsequently in 1997 merged with the Oxford and Cambridge Boards to form OCR. The Society can be justifiably proud of its contributions to the examination system in this country. It pioneered examinations and produced templates and guide lines for how they were managed and delivered.

References.

Foden. F. ‘The Examiner, Henry Booth and the Origins of Common Examinations’. ISBN 0 907644 06 6.  Leeds Studies in Adult and Continuing Education. 1989.

Hudson, D and Luckhurst. K. W. ‘The Royal Society of Arts’. ISBN 10 1135151040. London. Murray.

Journal of Society of Arts – various from 1853. An excellent publication.

Montgomery. R. J. ‘Examinations: An account of the evolution as administrative devices in England’. ASIN B000502D3E.  Longmans. 1965.

Walker. M. A. ‘Examinations for the ‘Underprivileged’ in Victoria times; the Huddersfield Mechanics’ Institution and the Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce.’ WSG Research Paper 1. William Shipley Group. 2008.

Wood. H. T. ‘History of Society of Arts’. ASIN B013TCXUDO.  London Murray. 1909.

  1. Allan. Royal Society of Arts Journal. November 1990.
  2. Website www.technicaleducationmatters.org provides a detailed set of histories, biographies and articles on technical and commercial education and training and examinations.

 

 

Hands on Vocational Training

(I am very grateful to Charles Beamish for sending me this fascinating letter. Charles attended a Secondary Technical School (STS) (see biography on this site). Charles provides a great insight into the structure and curriculum of STSs. Little has been written about Secondary Technical Schools so this valuable contribution adds greatly to this site and to or knowledge. The letter highlights the focus on the teaching of practical and manual skills in the Secondary Technical Sschool curriculum something that sadly has vanished today with its increasing emphasis on the academic subjects. Charles also identifies current problems with the lack of qualified teachers and continuing cuts to school and college budgets).

Mr Evans,

 

Continuing to be interested in all things technical, even though it is some while since I retired, I was very interested in your website. This is as well as reading at the views of vocational teachers venting their frustrations on the TES site. So I wondered if I could be indulged by recounting my own experience and views on the subject.
 
I failed my 11+ and so attended a Technical Secondary School 1952-56. A rare beast then and now totally extinct. We were taught the basic subjects of course, with maths based on Ordinary National Certificate, Geometry O Level as was English, and technical drawing. And we had a choice of woodwork or metalwork. As a Meccano enthusiast I chose metalwork. For four years I was taught by a fully qualified fitter and turner; often with a roll-up cigarette in his mouth whilst operating the lathe. No safety glasses, just overalls or dad’s cut down dungarees for the boys. Before I arrived he and his boys had constructed a fully working steam train with wagons and track, which ran around the school carrying boys as passengers. The engine and tender was proudly displayed in the main corridor.
 
There I was taught the use of numerous hand tools besides forging, brazing, soldering, grinding, turning both metal and wood on the lathes, case hardening, tempering, the use of micrometers and Vernier gauges, screw cutting and the different types of screw threads, drilling and riveting. I made a junior hacksaw, a tin tray, a cold chisel, a soldering iron, a screwdriver, a flower pot stand made from strip steel, a bullnose plane from a block of mild steel, a brass toasting fork (which I still have), a gate latch, a poker, a pin vice, and a tri-square. All paid for with a nominal sum to cover the cost of materials. Sixpence for the flowerpot stand as I remember. Those with the ability made a drill brace – all save the cast frame – as made by Stanley the tool maker. At fifteen I went to the local technical college for a year before joining the RAF to become a radar fitter, so learned electronics.
 
It still rankles to some extent even now that only the grammar school students were allowed to take O Levels at that time, so that even having been top of the class in the top stream for four years I left with no qualifications whatsoever. Night school rectified that, academically if not in the hands-on skills.
 
However I have continued to use those skills learned at school and am grateful for the opportunity to have learned so much of what is denied to today’s students. As one of a certain generation it dismays me that a younger generation cannot carry out what to us oldies are simple DIY tasks. My own children attended a school which demolished its workshops and then spent several thousands of pounds on new sports facilities. My grandchildren enjoyed learning in my workshop, just as I learned in my grandfather’s workshop – he was a carpenter. Children are fascinated by tools and are eager to learn. Their intent faces whilst sawing or hammering were a joy. Now they are home-schooled and taught by ex-teachers and experts disillusioned by state education. Yet still bound by state examinations, which regrettably are all theory.
My point therefore in writing this is to emphasise what I believe is the vital importance of actual hands-on experience in working with tools and materials, and the satisfaction of producing something useful. Also experiencing the touch and smell of woods and metals, the oils and paints. Running one’s fingers along a well-planed length of wood is almost sensuous. And smelling the various scents from different woods is perfume to a woodworker. In the same way that the smell of cutting oil still recalls for me so many pleasant memories. And the smell of flux when soldering, the acrid smells of cut Paxolin or Ebonite or a burnt out resistor in a circuit. They can however forego the experience of the tingle of a finger touching a 400v terminal on a large capacitor and the subsequent hole burned in the skin… My radar days.
 
It is essential in my view that students get to feel tools and materials they are using or learning about. And I do mean feel in the sense of touch. To take an example: screw cutting with a die. Use a square to ensure the piece of work is vertical; use a file to lightly create a bevel around the edge where the die is to start cutting; keep the die horizontal; turn gently but firmly with a slight initial pressure; turn back at intervals to release waste material; apply a drop of oil to aid cutting. All this requires touch, the feel of too much or too little torque. As does using a vertical drill require a certain feel to judge and observe the drill as it cuts, so that it doesn’t burn or indeed snap. None of this can possibly be learned from books.
 
You are more qualified than me, so please excuse me if I’m teaching granny to suck eggs, but the above example is meant as an illustration of what I mean.
 
Your contributors, and those to TES, are naturally concerned with qualifications and careers. Coming from my angle I see these skills as life-enhancing in themselves. However I despair at the ignorance of politicians in cutting costs where investment should be made, and constantly interfering in things they know absolutely nothing about, since there is not one scientist or engineer amongst the whole bunch of them.
 
Thank you for reading thus far.
 
Charles Beamish
 

Print Friendly

Definitions of “Technical Education” and “Industrial Workers”.

 (An interesting definition of technical education given in the Technical Instruction Act 1889).

“The expression ‘technical education’ shall mean instruction in the principles of science and art applicable to industries, and in the application of special branches of science and art to specific industries or employments. It shall not include teaching the practice of any trade or industry or employment, but, save as foresaid, shall include instruction in the branches of science and art with respect to which grants are for them time being made by the Department of Science and Art (DoSA), and any other form of instruction (including modern languages and commercial and agricultural subjects), which may for the time being be sanctioned by that Department by a minute laid before Parliament and made on the representation of a local authority that such a form of instruction is required by the circumstances of its district.”

 

Reference: Extract from the Technical instruction Act 1889.

Samuelson stated in 1890 technical education was “everything which prepares a man and woman for then walk of life which he or she intends to pursue”.

These definitions even accepting their limitations was used extensively into the 20th century.

For example Millis stated in 1925 “that the objectives of technical education were to provide instruction in the principles of art and science applicable to industry and in the application of special branches of art and science to specific industries and employment”.

These definitions did not identify the relationship between theory and practice within technical education. In addition the dividing line between technical and vocational remained unclear. Clearly the teaching of technical education is equally applicable to the teaching for the professions and services. These definitions did not identify the problems and challenges of the appropriate learning environment and the differences between education and training.

As this history highlights the balance between the teaching of the general principles and practical and specific skills continues to be a problem and at times a very contentious issue across all the educational sectors.

An early definition of  recognised categories of  Industrial Workers.

The Department of Science and Art (DoSA) defined in its 1870 Science and Art Directory categories of persons who could be regarded as industrial students as follows:

  1. Artisans or operatives in receipt of weekly wages.
  2. Coast-guards, policemen, and others, who, though in receipt of weekly wages, do not support themselves by manual labour.
  3. Teachers in elementary schools in connection with the Education Department.
  4. Persons in receipt of salaries not large enough to render them liable to income tax, as some descriptions of clerks, shopmen, etc.
  5. Small shopkeepers employing no one but members of their own family, and not assessed to income tax.
  6. Tradesmen and manufacturers on their own account, supporting themselves by their own manual labour, not employing apprentices, journeymen, etc., and not assessed to income tax.
  7. The children (not earning their own livelihood) of all such persons above mentioned.

Further definitions:

Technology: the scientific study of the practical or industrial arts.

Craft: skill, art, ability in planning or construction; a calling requiring special skill and knowledge; especially a manual art, a handicraft.

We can, somewhat simplistically, identify two kinds of education and training namely technological and technical to the broad classes of occupations e.g.

  1. Unskilled occupations
  2. Semi-skilled occupations
  3. Skilled craftsmen and technicians
  4. Professional and managerial occupations – scientists, technologists, managers and executives.

“Technical” education and training is largely concerned with (c) and with (b) whilst “Technological education and training” is concerned with group (d). Clearly these are very crude mappings and distinctions as ultimately demand depends critically on the advancing nature of science and technology and its impact on industry and working practices in the future.

The increasing introduction of robotics and information communication technologies into the workplace will fundamentally change the nature of work in the future. These changes will in turn significantly impact on the technical and technological education and training systems.

 

 

Union of Lancashire and Cheshire Institutes Examinations Papers

 These examination papers were kindly sent to me by Pam Cruise and were taken by her Uncle Alfred Edward Audas. The certificates gained by Alfred are shown in another biography on this web site. After graduating he worked as a draughtsman at ICI in Warrington (NW England). I am very grateful to Pam for her generosity.

An uncle to be proud of.

Below are examples of ULCI examination papers taken by Alfred for 1939, and 1940 for English, Practical Drawing, Practical Mathematics and Science. It is interesting and fascinating to note the content, the standard, the wording and the practical bias of the papers.

(A recent report in England showed the dramatic decline in standards in mathematics over the past decades e.g. a grade B currently awarded for GCE ‘A’ level in Mathematics would have gained an E grade 50 years ago.)

Left click to see the image more clearly.

Union of Lancashire and Cheshire Institutes: Preparatory Senior Technical Course 1st Year in 1939 for English, Practical Drawing and Science:

English:

Exam E1ExamE2ExamE3 ExamE4

 

Practical Drawing: 

Exam5 Exam6Exam7Exam8

 

 

 

 

 

Science:

 Exam9Exam10

 

 

 

 

Union of Lancashire and Cheshire Institutes: Preparatory Senior Technical Course 2nd Year in 1940 for Science, Practical Drawing and Practical Mathematics:

Science:

Exam11 Exam12   Exam13   Exam17

Practical Drawing:

Exam14Exam15    Exam16    Exam17

 

 

Exam18           Exam19        Exam20

Practical Mathematics:

 Exam21         Exam22        Exam23

 Remember to left click to view papers clearly.

A Perspective on the Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was a significant characteristic of life in Britain during the 18th century. Major rapid changes occurred across many areas e.g. machine-labour in factories took the place of hand-labour in people’s homes and large-scale agriculture based on scientific principles replaced the medieval system of tillage on small plots of land.

This Revolution was a process and not a single event, it had no sharply defined stages, and nevertheless we can say that it had taken hold by 1783 when it was being generally introduced and applied in most leading industries at the time. In 1784 the invention of the power-loom marked the application of water-power to weaving which was the last main process of the textile industry to be power-driven. In 1785 the application of steam for driving spinning machines foreshadowed the wider development of factories using steam-power which subsequently changes the face of Britain.

This revolution in industry had results that continued into the 19th century. The introduction of machinery which replaced hand-labour caused unemployment and the consequent distress. Unemployment coupled with low wages paid to the factory workers, because of the oversupply of labour enabled the employers to pay low wages. In addition child labour formed a significant proportion of the labour force the children working to supplement family incomes. Later with the expansion of international trade made Britain became very wealthy although this wealth was concentrated in few hands. The money was very often used to fund wars and subsidise her allies.

The rapid development of manufacturing produced dreadful and dangerous working conditions in the factories. In addition large numbers of people moved into the cities and towns in order to be close to their work place which created insanitary, overcrowded houses and slums. These slums continued to exist well into the 20th century in many cities and towns,

As a result of the creation of the manufacturing base for the country agriculture experienced major changes and challenges. For example to be profitable farming had to be a much larger scale. Consequently the yeoman-farmer i.e. the farmer who was neither a large land-owner nor a tenant of a farm owner and worked his own land was in most instances forced to give up his farm. He would then become a labourer for a more prosperous person who had been able to buy his farm or move to a town to become a factory worker or to join the ranks of the unemployed in the towns.

The disappearance of the yeoman was but one of the significant changes brought about by the Industrial Revolution.

 

Source: Lancashire and Cheshire Institutes Examination paper for English in March 1939.

Union of Lancashire and Cheshire Institutes Examination Certificates.

These were kindly sent to me by Pam Cruise and gained by her Uncle Alfred Edward Audas. After graduating he worked as a draughtsman at ICI in Warrington. I am very grateful to Pam for her generosity. An uncle to be proud of.

Below are copies of certificates :

They provide a fascinating insight to how the examination board recognised achievement.

Institution of Mechanical Engineering Higher Grade awarded in September 1952:

Alfred studied for this award at Birkenhead Technical College.

(Click the thumbnails to view full-size image)

Certificate      Certificate2

Union of Lancashire and Cheshire Institutes. Preparatory Technical Certificate 1st and 2nd Years

1939 and 1940:

(Click the thumbnails to view full-size image)

Certificate4      Certificate5

Union of Lancashire and Cheshire Institutes.

Mechanical Engineering Course Certificates 1st and 2nd Year 1941 and 1942:

(Click the thumbnails to view full-size image)

Certificate6      Certifiate7

Union of Lancashire and Cheshire Institutes.

Mechanical Engineering Course Advanced 1st Year 1950:

(Click the thumbnail to view full-size image)

Certificate3