To add value to the histories I have included a number of appendices that will hopefully provide additional information and background about technical education and training and technical and commercial examinations. I hope the material proves helpful. I will continue to correct and add to these sections.

The biographies and pen portraits appear in a separate section under biographies and pen portraits. Additional material for this section will be updated and new material added.

The section containing articles comprises a series of pieces new and some previously published during the 1990s and early 2000s which have been updated on themes associated with technical education and training. I am grateful to the publishers for their kind permission to reproduce the original articles. In addition a series of views have been included.

Other sections have been created to add value to the site including data/statistics on examinations, colleges/providers. The latest addition to the site is ‘Counterpoint’ that will comprise a series of articles from other writers I am very grateful to them for their interesting and valuable contributions.

Updated and corrected August 2013

Chapter 1 – Introduction

This entry is part 1 of 20 in the series A Short History of Technical Education

I have undertaken to write a short history with a personal point of view of technical and vocational education, with a particular emphasis on work-based education and training. Bearing in mind the current debates about the importance and position of vocational education within the overall education system I feel an historical perspective could be useful for the following reasons:

  • In recent times very little attention has been paid to the historical context of our current quandaries/dilemmas over technical education and training.
  • It will hopefully provide a host of insights into this country’s current struggle to confront and tackle skills shortages and gaps and our ability to respond to and compete with the emerging global economies.
  • It will provide pointers to the lessons and strategies for technical education aimed at industrial growth that have been spelt out over the last 200+ years but which successive governments and educationalists have continued to neglect or discard.
  • It will illustrate the extent of industrial and economic decline both in relative and absolute terms in Britain over the past 150 years and what it would therefore be unwise to repeat in the future.

I hope that the history and analysis will be both interesting and illuminating to readers by providing additional information about this very important, fascinating and yet often neglected aspect of the education system.

This introduction will set the scene and provide a backdrop for the later chapters, which will cover the various historical stages beginning before the first Industrial Revolution up to the present time. One challenge when writing a history of technical education, say, when compared with the history of other sectors of education, is the difficulty of getting hold of the existing literature which is both relatively sparse and little referenced – thus again reflects the Cinderella image of the subject. Because of limitations of time and space I cannot hope to do full justice to this complex and fascinating topic so the major focus will be on England. Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland each merit their own histories reflecting as it were their own unique, fascinating and interesting past. The Republic of Ireland and graduates from Trinity College Dublin (see picture below) also made major contributions in astronomy, mathematics and the physical sciences. Trinity College, Dublin, was and is still a very highly regarded university and introduced examinations long before their counterparts in England. Also notable Irish individuals who made important contributions to public and technical examinations include James Booth (see biography).

Trinity College Dublin shown opposite.

Trinity college Dublin

England has never fully recognised the achievements and contributions that the other home countries have made to education including technical education, preferring to look beyond our shores, particularly to America and this approach still continues currently. This has been certainly true over the last few decades with the imitation of a number of work based models e.g. Training Enterprise Councils (TECs) which ultimately failed and again showed that the American system had little to offer. Interesting to note that Scotland and latterly Wales have for instance developed some very innovative programmes in vocational education and modular credit based systems which in many ways are more impressive than those in England.

In addition to the contributions to science and technology across the home countries I am also acutely aware of the contributions made from further a field both within Europe and beyond. One only has to read the remarkable and seminal works of Joseph Needham (1) on the history of Chinese science and technology to realise the significant contributions that this civilisation made to these important bodies of knowledge. China made an immense number of discoveries and inventions centuries before the European countries including gunpowder, the magnetic compass and printing. It is only recently following the pioneering work of Needham and his co-workers that the world has recognised these scientific and technological achievements. A remaining mystery is why China did not continue to build on these amazing achievements. Another outstanding example was the Khmer Empire, (now known as Cambodia), with its canal system and civil engineering feats at the Angkor Wat Temple. One must also remember the massive achievements to mathematics, science and technology made by the Middle Eastern countries and civilisations and the Greek and Roman empires. Also the Islamic civilisation (9th to 14th century) preserved, recorded and translated key works in chemistry, engineering, mathematics, robotics, science, technology. water engineering for future generations as well as adding further significantly to these and other subjects. The Islamic civilisation made massive contributions to architecture, astronomy, mathematics, navigation, science and water engineering creating a golden age of science. Their influence in Spain and Sicily laid the foundations for the Renaissance and the scientific revolutions in the Middle Ages. his period between the 9th and 14th centuries was a truly golden age for science and medicine  Charles Singer and this co-workers (2) in their seminal seven volume series on the History of Technology fully explored, recorded and acknowledged the major achievements and contributions made by these and other earlier civilisations. Singer and his co-writers in a sense paralleled and complemented the work of Needham by covering these earlier and other civilisations.

These perspectives always need bearing in mind when evaluating the directions and decisions of UK education policy.

Gradual economic and industrial decline and the inadequacy of technical education

One irrefutable truth that history highlights is this country’s gradual industrial and economic decline after the heady days of the first Industrial Revolution often taken to be the period between 1780 to 1850. There were a number of factors that contributed to the economic and industrial decline and these will be discussed in greater depth in chapter 2. One important factor contributing to this decline and one that is a major focus of this history was the long time it took to realise and develop a national strategy and system for technical education and training and the resultant failure to provide adequate resources to establish a network of technical education institutions. This failure was in terms of the number of technical/training institutions, their geographical spread, appropriate facilities and the low numbers of student numbers recruited. This failure meant that the growing demand from industry for these facilities and resources throughout most of the period covered by this history was not satisfied. One can identify this issue at all three levels of the education/training system namely:

  • at elementary school level
  • at university and latterly at the higher polytechnic level,
  • at the secondary and private/independent/public school level where with very few notable examples the teaching of science and technical subjects was non-existent
  • across the heterogeneous array of institutions offering technical education/instruction such as Mechanics’ Institutions, working men’s colleges and day and evening institutes.

Criticisms during this time also centred on weak institutional management as well as the quality of the provision and the ability of the teaching staff again at all three levels of the education system. Criticisms highlighted both qualitative and quantitative deficiencies. This state of affairs makes a poor comparison with other European countries even at the beginning of the nineteenth century. For example France, Germany and Prussia had already established technical universities in the early 1800s whilst little happened in England until the turn of the 20th century and then only to a limited extent.

Institutions regarded as the pinnacle of intellectual challenge and achievement such as Cambridge, Oxford and the private/independent/public schools continued to neglect science and technology providing instead a classical education. A few exceptions did exist in the public school sector e.g. Oundle, Shrewsbury introduced mathematics in 1836 and Rugby introduced physics in 1837 but overall they were few and far between.

The universities of Oxford and Cambridge were preoccupied with creating a national elite with an emphasis on liberal education. It was only after 1860/70 that industrial cities like Birmingham, Bristol, Manchester and Sheffield established institutions that introduced scientific and technical education at the higher levels and only through the efforts of such local business people as Josiah Mason and Joseph Chamberlain, William Wills, John Owen and Mark Firth. In fact universities contributed very little to creating qualified workers in technical disciplines until the final quarter of the 19th century.

However in spite of the lack of technical education at university and school level technical and scientific institutions were established early in the 19th century e.g. Mechanics’ Institutions, working men’s colleges’ that offered provision for artisans and workers. These were established by a few enthusiastic merchants, manufacturers and industrialists. The foundations of technical education and indeed the industrial revolution itself were based on the skills, experience, farsightedness and enthusiasm of practical individuals and the commitment and capital of a few successful business people. These will be described in later chapters and the short biographies of some of these farsighted individuals will be provided in a separate section on this website.

As already mentioned France, Germany, Prussia had rapidly established technical education institutions including universities in order to develop people in higher-level technical skills and knowledge thus creating a population of technocrats who would lead on their countries’ industrial developments and production. The English universities only very slowly and often reluctantly introduced vocational and technically related programmes into their provision. Many European countries had developed national systems for elementary/primary and secondary education long before England. However it must be stressed that Scotland within the British context was an outstanding exception – but more of that later. One of the few examples of Scottish influence on the English technical educational system was the adoption of the mechanics’ institutions movement into England inspired and developed from the Scottish model initiated by John Anderson and George Birkbeck (see biographies and pen portraits on this website). A portrait of John Anderson who established the first technical education in Britain is shown opposite and set the stage for George Birkbeck to continue the development of technical education in Scotland and England.

John Anderson


Some key historical issues.

This historical perspective identifies a number of recurring critical factors that have blighted and slowed down the development of an effective national English technical education system at all levels. Problematic factors identified include:

  • A philosophy of laissez-faire and the subsequent acquiescence into voluntarism across the field of technical education.
  • The reluctance of the State to get directly involved in the management of technical education guided by the principle that the State might subsidise but not direct provision.
  • Preoccupation with educational elitism which always valued the academic over the practical subjects. The education provision was structured on a hierarchical and differentiated system reflecting class divisions which basically meant different class’s experienced different provision. See the viewpoint on the Academic vs Vocational Debate on this website and the issues around parity of esteem.
  • The urge to push and subsume practical subjects into an academic subject culture i.e. academic drift.
  • An education system for most of the period covered by this history that did not create a culture of innovation and competition that are elements that are critical to economic success.
  • What some historians and commentators refer to as low social capability*, (see comments at end of this chapter), namely this country does not possess the ability or desire to more fully exploit existing scientific and technological knowledge. Social capability depends critically on the quality of education and training especially technical and vocational and its management. Social capability has an impact on economic growth of a nation.
  • Neglect of commercial/technical/vocational qualifications by successive governments and the majority of educationalists which reinforced basic hostility about the validity and credibility of the more technical and practical aspects of the curriculum. Over much of the period covered by this history no sustained or concerted effort was made to integrate technical and practical elements into the school curriculum. The crucial issue of how to achieve an effective balance between the teaching of general principles and the work- based specific skills remains unresolved even today.
  • During the critical period from 1870 to 1914 British employers many of whom were not educated in technical and pratical subjects were reluctant to recruit people with formal technical qualifications. They preferred to emply people were had ‘sat next to Nellie!’
  • The relatively late development of an effective national elementary* school system. Without this national system the subsequent stages were most certainly undermined, namely secondary, technical and higher education. A prevailing view that practical and technical skills were of limited value with little credibility and possessed little or no kudos.
  • Although the Victorian educational system may have created empire-builders, soldiers and administrators, it failed to produce great engineers. Because, in the minds of gentlemen, business professionalism was tainted with trade, the system produced amateurs on the model defined by Thomas Arnold in which high principles and gentlemanly conduct and a classical education was considered essential.
  • For most of the period under consideration no real attempt was made to define technical education – a classic example of this is to be found in the 1944 Education Act that did not provide precise guidance on the organisation of technical education nor any definition of technical education within the secondary school and further education sectors.
  • Arrogance, complacency, inertia and indifference among employers about international competition, particularly in the 19th century, which was largely engendered by the benefits of the empire and a false belief in the supremacy of their products. Matthew Arnold referred to the attitude of British industry as ‘blunder and plunder.’
  • The misguided belief that persisted after the demise of the British Empire about Britain’s greatness and the subsequent subservience to America.
  • The avoidance of warnings given by a succession of royal commissions, reports and influential individuals who had as early as 1851 highlighted future problems which in turn led to the failure to improve the situation.
  •  seems as if Intellectual Failure was and continues to be a permanent characteristic of successive British governments and many politicians. It seems if they never learn the lessons from history – expressed another way – do the same thing the same way and expect  a different result!

*Now referred to as primary education but in the 17th and 18th centuries would be seen as the beginning of the very basic elements of learning then available for the majority of the population. I will attempt to identify and systematically cover all these critical factors in the later chapters of this history.

These factors largely explain why such issues as the so-called academic/vocational divide and the value of parity of esteem between technical, work-based and other qualifications still plague and dominate political and educational debates even today. The divide between technical and vocational education/training continues to be ill defined and confused. No concerted effort was made to integrate/assimilate aspects of technical education into secondary education – the first real attempt was in the late 1970s and 1980s, namely the Technical Vocational Education Initiative (TVEI).

No one can refute that the education system is central to any society and that its effectiveness is reflected in a country’s strengths and weaknesses both domestically and abroad. Education and training is a fundamental element of society and key to its ultimate success in competing economically in the world. The quality of the education and training system both conditions and is conditioned by a wide range of interrelated elements including economics, advances in scientific, technological and industrial knowledge and practices, politics, social and even the religious cultures. This history highlights how these interacting elements influenced developments and attitudes to technical education at various times during the period before, during and after the first Industrial Revolution and up today.

Accepting that the relationship between education and industrial growth is a complex matter mainly because of the multitude of variables that are involved, should not deter us from trying to make the correlation or causation between these two key parameters. Cause-and-effect explanations can inevitably oversimplify the analysis and as a result can only hope to provide a partial explanation of the situation. A great deal of evidence shows that the rapid industrialisation in Britain in the early 19th century was not matched by any significant development let alone improvement in the existing education system. The Industrial Revolution, in many instances, highlighted the inadequacies of the education system in Britain especially in England. This mismatch is both paradoxical and perplexing as Britain did become the first industrial nation and at one time was acknowledged as the workshop of the world. Paradoxically the country’s success in leading the world into the industrial age was achieved in spite of the lack of a national education system and most certainly no effective technical education or training system.

It must be remembered that Britain developed a national school system late and before 1833, elementary education had been left very much to the church or private agencies. Grants for elementary education only started in 1834 with £20,000 a year being allocated by the government and by 1846 this had risen to £ 58,000 but this was totally inadequate for creating and extending educational opportunities for the working classes. It took even longer to develop a national system for secondary education to be established. The State took the first faltering steps to intervene in elementary and technical education in 1833 and 1853 respectively and only in 1902 did it create a national system for secondary education. Little wonder technical education suffered in the early stages of its development and that movements like the Mechanics’ Institutions struggled to survive with inadequate feeds from elementary and secondary schools.

When Victoria came to the throne in 1837 25% of children did not receive any instruction and as the House of Commons reported 49% of boys and 57% of girls between the ages of 13 and 14 could not read whilst 67% of boys and 88% of girls could not write. Only following the Forster Act of 1870 was compulsory education introduced and even then after a delay of eleven years was the Act finally enacted in 1881 did the situation gradually improve. The Act created a national system of elementary schools divided into school districts and the schools were run by school boards. Fees were levied for pupils and attendance was required by pupils aged between 5 and 13. Eventually in 1891 elementary education became basically free following the 1891 Education Act. Sadly the late development of elementary education coupled with the high levels of illiteracy and innumeracy and the lack of basic science knowledge undermined many of the early attempts to develop technical education e.g. Mechanics’ Institutions – this will be considered later. Obviously there needs to be an effective system of elementary/primary education in order to develop and sustain effective and efficient secondary and post-secondary sectors but the evidence shows that during most of the 19th century that this was not the case.

Although many historians have written about the negative effect of the inadequate education system as a contributory factor to the industrial and economic decline at the time of the Industrial Revolution other historians have presented a different view. West (3) for example provides a fascinating analysis of the relationship between education and the process of industrialisation during the 19th century. One aspect West explores is the reliability and quality of statistical data during the 19th century and equally importantly how it was managed and used by the governments of the day and as a result highlights the dangers of drawing conclusions or making judgements from the historical data. West carries out a brilliant analysis of the relationship between education and industrial progress but stresses the difficulties in gaining reliable statistical evidence in order to come to firm conclusions. He makes the distinction between demonstrated correlation and proven causation especially when analysing the statistical evidence and other information and how the government departments recorded and published it – so what is new! The difficulty of statistical analysis was even more problematic when attempting to make international comparisons in the 19th century because of the different methods used in different countries.

He argues strongly that a vigorous education system did develop in England during the 19th century but the inadequacy of statistics and often misinformation provided especially by the Education Department which was often partial and selective complicates any analysis. He concludes that the two revolutions namely the Industrial and Educational were interrelated and significantly benefited each other. Hobsbawm (4) also warns about the dangers of accepting ‘simple sociological explanations’ that many other historians have offered when attempting to provide explanations of Britain’s historical performance in the past.

Other perspectives and views have been presented by others writers referenced at end of this chapter who considered in detail the relationship between technical and scientific education and industrial growth and the influence of the English culture. Barnett (5) highlights the impact of successive British governments on their continued anachronistic commitment to a military-political role as a (supposed) world power. This aspect is demonstrated very effectively by Barnett (5) who presented very detailed data and subsequent analysis that showed how budgets were skewed and ring fenced towards military research and development that most certainly diverted essential funding from education, particularly technical education and training during the 20th century.

Another interesting example of how governments have exercised preferential funding has been identified by Wilkie (6). Wilkie considers the rise and fall of science in relation to government policy since 1945. The government’s commitment to invest heavily in so-called big science and engineering e.g. Concorde, channel tunnel, nuclear power etc with the resultant neglect to fund blue sky research and development.

Weiner (7) in his seminal book analyses and explores the area of the British class system and the prevailing culture and beliefs that demonstrated an antipathetical view of manufacturing, science, technology and most certainly towards entrepreneurial and competitive activity. The education system in Victorian times was instrumental in creating a national elite with its emphasis on liberal education primarily based on the classics and humanities. His analysis continues beyond the Victorian age up to 1980 and shows the same attitudes persist in terms of the negative view of manufacturing. Levine (8) makes the same criticisms about the negative views of industry pointing out the stark contrasts with the performance of other European nations. One major reason which will be picked throughout the history is the class ridden nation and the resulting snobbery towards manufacturing and manual work – academic subjects are perceived as better than technical subjects. Similar views have been expressed by Landes (9) who pointed to the ‘library of lament and protest about the failure of British educational institutions to turn out applied scientists in numbers and of a quality comparable to those produced in Germany.’

Bernal (10) brilliantly explores the subtle relationship between science, technology and industry during the 19th century. I will refer to all of these critiques in greater detail in later chapters.

English culture

A number of historians have provided a fascinating insight into how English cultural elements influenced industrial and economic life arising from the class structure, which has determined so much of English history. These writers have highlighted in particular the reaction, largely one of suspicion, of the upper classes to the consequences of the industrial revolution and the rise of the ‘industrialist class’. Interesting to note also that much has been written about the destructiveness of the trade unions toward industrial progress but the so-called English elites have proved far more obstructive particularly during the critical and formative period of the first industrial revolution and beyond. Weiner (7) brilliantly examines the economic and industrial decline in England and its inter-relationship and complex interactions with the social, political and psychological elements.

Britain’s industrial decline was first identified following the Great Exhibitions of 1851 (London) and 1867 (Paris) when it became evident that the country was beginning to lag behind France, Germany and the USA. Britain’s primary energy strength, namely coal, as the symbol of her industrial might was not sufficient to keep her in the lead as a manufacturing nation. Our competitors had more quickly realised that investment in people as well as plant and machinery was equally important and this was apparent when comparing products at both of these great exhibitions. The quality and range of products from our competitors was superior to our own and reflected the beginning of our decline. In addition it must be noted yet again that England was one of the few major competing countries that did not have an organised system of technical education. The decline accelerated during the latter part of the 19th century and throughout the 20th century as we lost the highly questionable benefits arising from the empire/commonwealth namely access to plentiful and cheap resources both human and materials and the protected and given markets for our own domestic manufactured products e.g. cars, fork lift trucks, machine tools, motor cycles etc. Even with the clear advantages afforded by that fact we created the first industrial revolution – it was evident by the end of the 19th century that our productivity was declining and we were losing our international market share in a wide range of products and services. Equally concerning was our failure to develop and exploit the newer technologies associated with chemical and electrical engineering. In addition the traditional industries like shipbuilding were failing to invest in research and development and replace machinery that had become dated and inefficient. One major disadvantage of being the first industrial country was that other nations could more quickly develop and introduce the newer industrial techniques and were able to invest in new plant and equipment.

One depressing and perplexing fact emerging from historical analysis is that even when the problems were identified no real action was taken to redeem the situation. Two typical quotes reflect the growing concerns about the quality and relevance of technical education:

“The excellence of the foreign goods is due, not to the workmen, but in great part to the superior training and attention to the general knowledge of their subject, observable among the managers and sub-officers of industry. No candid person can deny that they are far better educated, as a general rule, than those who hold similar posts in Britain.”
(Lyon Playfair 1867 after visiting the Paris Exhibition).

“…evidence appears to show that our industrial classes have not even that basis of sound general education on which alone technical education can rest… our deficiency is not merely a deficiency in technical education but in general intelligence and unless we remedy this want we shall gradually but surely find our undeniable superiority in wealth…and vigour will not save us from decline.”
(Schools Enquiry Royal Commission 1868).

A portrait of Lyon Playfair is shown below (See biography on this website).


Both of these quotations sadly reveal truths that are as valid today as when they were first stated. These quotations were made at a time when there was still no national framework for technical education. In spite of some worthy attempts to develop technical education and instruction e.g. through the Mechanics’ Institutions movement progress was painfully slow and no real vision was created by the governments of the day and more depressingly most governments since.


This introduction has begun to identify some of the key issues that will be explored more fully in later chapters. Already one is confronted with differing views about whether or not the quality of the education system, where it existed, particularly in the 19th century contributed to Britain’s economic and industrial decline. Although I am not an historian, after reviewing the evidence and having had direct experience of studying and working in technical education I have come to the view that it is the prevailing culture and class structure in this country over many centuries that has created a negative attitude towards technical and vocational education/training and this persists even today. I will attempt in the following chapters to justify this view. As mentioned above many notable social and economic historians share this view but this is my version based on my own research and direct experience of technical education from 1959 to 2001.

The next chapter will consider the impact of the Industrial Revolution and the influence of the advances of scientific and technological knowledge prior to and during the first industrial revolution. The impact of the industrial revolution will then be explored with the transformations that it brought about as people moved into the rapidly developing industrial cities and the growing interest and motivation of the workers to understand the science and technology that underpinned the industrial processes. The chapter will also explore the fascinating relationship between science and technology and the resultant attitudes and perception of the relative importance of scientific and technical education.

References for chapter 1

A more comprehensive book list is provided in a separate book lists.

  1. Needham. J. ‘Science and Civilisation in China’ CUP. 1954+.
  2. Singer.C. Holmyard. E.J. Hall. A.R and Williams. T. I. ‘ History of Technology’ 5 volumes. OUP. 1954+
  3. West. E.G. ‘Education and the Industrial Revolution.’ Batsford. 1975.
  4. Hobsbawn. E.J. ‘Industry and Empire. From 1750 to the Present.’ Penquin 1990.
  5. Barnett. C. ‘The Audit of War.’ ISBN 0-333-43458-7. Papermac.1987.
  6. Wilkie. T. ‘British Science and the Politics since 1945.’ ISBN 0-631-16849-4. Blackwell. 1991.
  7. Weiner.M. ‘English Culture and the Decline of the Industrial Spirit.’  CUP.1981.
  8. Levine.A.L. ‘Industrial Retardation in Britain 1880-1914.’ Basic Books. 1967.
  9. Landes. D.S. ‘The Unbound Prometheus.’ CUP. 1969. 
  10. Bernal. J.D. ‘Science and Industry in the 19th Century.’ RKP. 1953.

Other references that might be helpful:

Hill. D ‘A History of Engineering in Classical and Medieval Times’. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-15291-7. 1996.

Landels. J. G. ‘Engineering in the Ancient World’. Constable. ISBN 0 09 477280 0. 1978.

Masood, E. ‘Science and Islam’. Icon Books. ISBN 978-184831-081-0. 2009.

Williams.T. I. ‘A Short History of 20th Century Technology’ OUP. ISBN 0-19-858159-9. 1982.

Derry. T. K. and Williams. T. I. ‘A Short History of Technology’. OUP. 1960.

* Additional note.

Abramovitz .M. ‘Thinking about Growth.’ CUP. 1998. Abramovitz explores the interesting distinctions and relationships between growth and social capability.

Biographies & Pen Portraits

Biographies and Pen Portraits.

This series of biographies expands on references made in the History of Technical Education and the History of Technical and Commercial Examinations to the contributions of some of the key people who have influenced the developments of technical and commercial education.

Similarly, where key organisations were set up during the development of technical education, this appendix provides pen portraits describing their existence with further insight into their roles.

I have also included additional pieces on particular issues and periods that impacted on the development of the history of technical and commercial education and training e.g the Cockerton Judgement. Again I hope these add value to the site.

A Short History of Technical Education –Book References/Other Publications

This entry is part 19 of 20 in the series A Short History of Technical Education

The following set of book references and other useful references has been useful whilst writing the history of technical and vocational education and compiling the chronology and glossary. Many are out of print but most can be obtained via inter-library loan, via internet book companies or from second hand bookshops. In addition I have started adding seminal and important articles from various journals and other publications.  I have added ISBN/ASIN numbers when known some of these relate to later editions of the books. I hope the list proves of value to the readers. A key to the abbreviations used is given at the end of the list.

Corrected and expanded  July 2018.


Abbot. A.  ‘Education for Industry and Commerce in England.’ OUP.  1933.

Abbot. A and Dalton. J. E. ‘Trade Schools on the Continent.’ Pamphlet no. 97. BoE.

Abbott. I. Education Policy. ISBN 10:0857025775. Sage Publishing. 2012.

Abramson. M, Bird. and Stennett. A. ‘Further and Higher Education Partnerships’. ISBN 0-335-19597-0. SRHE/OU. 1996.

Acland. A. H. D. and Jones. B. ‘Working-men Co-operators.’ Longmans. 1919.

Acland. T. D. ‘Some Account of the Origin and Objects of the New Oxford Examinations for the Title of Associate in Arts and Certificates for the Year 1858.’ Ridgeway, London. 1858.Acland. A. H. D. ‘The Working of the Intermediate Act in Wales.’ Percival and Co. 1892.
Adamson. J.W. ‘A Short History of Education.’ CUP. 1919.
Adamson. J. W. ‘ English Education, 1789 – 1902.’  CUP. 1930.

Addy. J and Power. E.G. ‘The Industrial Revolution’. London. Longman. 1976.

Aldcroft. D. H. ‘Education, Training and Economic Performance.’ MUP. 1992.

Aldcroft. D. H. (Ed). ‘The Development of British Industries. Foreign Competition 1874-1914’. Allen Unwin. 1958.
Aldrich. R. (ed).  ‘A Century of Education.’ ISBN 0-415-24323-8. Routledge. Falmer Press. 2002.

Aldrich. R. ‘The Institute of Education 1902-2002: A Centenary History’. IoE. London. 2002.

Aldrich. R. ‘Pioneers of Female Education in Victoria Britain.’ History of Education Society. Vol. 54. pages 56-61. 1994.
Alexander. W.P. ‘Education in England – The National System-How It Works.’  ASIN B007ZIS1HE. Newnes Educational Publisjhing Co. 1956.
Allaway. A. J, ‘Adult Education in England’. University of Leicester. 1957.

Allbutt. T.C. ‘On Professional Education.’ Macmillan and Co. 1906.
Allen. G. C. ‘British Industries and their Organization.’  ISBN 10:0582480019. Longmans. 1966.

Allen. R. C. The British Industrial Revolution in Global Perspective. ISBN 978-0-521-86827-3. CUP. 2009. 9th printing 2015.

Allen. G. C. ‘The British Disease.’ Institute of Economic Affairs. 1976.
Ainley. P and Corney. M.  ‘Training for the Future. The Rise and  Fall of the MSC.’  ISBN 10:0304318612. Cassell. 1990.
Ainley. P. ‘Vocational Education and Training.’ Cassell. 1990.
Ainley. P. ‘Learning Policy Towards the Certified Society.’  ISBN 0 333-75034-9 Macmillan 1999.
Ainley. P. and Rainbird. H. (eds).  ‘Apprenticeship: Towards a New Paradigm of Vocational Education and Training.’  ISBN 10:0749427280. Kogan Page. 1999.

Ainley. P. ‘From School to YTS: Education and Training in England and Wales 1944-1987.’  ISBN 10:0335158471. OUP. 1988.

Aldrich. R ‘Education and Employment: The DfEE and its place in history.’ UoL. Institute of Education 2000.

Anderson. R.D. ‘Universities and Elites in Britain since 1800.’ Macmillan. Basingstoke. 1992.

Anderson. R. D. ‘The Scottish University Tradition: Past and Future’. In J. J. Carter and Withrington. D. J. (eds) ‘Scottish Universities: Distinctiveness and Diversity’. Edinburgh. John Donald. pages 67-78. 1992.

Anderson. R. D. ‘The History of Scottish Education, pre 1980.’ in Bryce. T. G. K. and Humes. W. M. (eds). ‘Scottish Education.’ Edinburgh University Press. 1999. pages 215-224. (See also in same book Bain. M. ‘Technology Education.’ pages 562-567).

Anderson. R. D. ‘Education and Opportunity in Victorian Scotland.’ Oxford. 1983.

Anderson. R. D. ‘Universities and Elites since 1800.’ ISBN 0333524349/ASIN B0141DEJKO. Macmillan Press. 1992.

Andrews. S. ‘Methodism and Society.’ Longmans. 1970.

Annals of Science. ‘The Lunar Society and the Improvement of Scientific Instruction.’ Vol. X111. 1957. Pages 1+.
Archer. R.L. ‘Secondary Education in the Nineteenth Century.’ CUP. 1921.
Argles. M. ‘ South Kensington to Robbins.’ An Account of English Technical and Scientific Education Since 1851. ISBN 10:0582323835, Longmans. 1964.

Argles. M. ‘The Royal Commission on Technical Instruction, 1881-1884, its Inception and Composition.’ Vocational Aspects of Secondary and FE.’ 11 (23). 1959.
Armfelt. R. ‘The Structure of English Education.’  ASIN B0000CJ6BT. Cohen and West. 1966.

Armstrong. H. E. ‘Pre-Kensington History of Royal College of Science.’ London. 1921.
Armytage. W.H. G. ‘Four Hundred Years of English Education.’ ASIN B012TYHUY. CUP. 1965.
Armytage. W.H.G. ‘Civic Universities.’  ASIN B0000CJ50R. Ernest Benn. 1955.
Armytage. W.H.G. ‘The Rise of the Technocrats.’ ISBN 10:0415853826. RKP.  1965.
Armytage. W.H.G. ‘Social History of Engineering.’ ISBN 571 04648 7  Faber and Faber 1961.
Armytage. W.H.G.  ‘J. F. Donnelly: Pioneer in Vocational Education.’  The Vocational Aspect of Secondary and Further Education. Volume 2.May 1950.

Armytage. W. H. G. ‘The German Influence on English Education.’  ASIN B012TR5MTA. RKP. 1969. (Armytage also wrote about the influences on English education from America (1967), France (1968) and Russia (1969).

Armytage. W. H. G. ‘Some Sources for the History of Technical Education in England.’ British Journal of Educational Studies. vol: v no. 2 May 1957 and vol: vi no. 1 Nov. 1957.

Armytage. W. H. G. ‘The Centenary of “South Ken”.’ British Journal of Educational Studies. Vol. v. no.1. Nov. 1956.

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Ashley Smith. J. W. ‘The Birth of Modern Education: The Contribution of the Dissenting Academies 1660-1800.’ London. Independent Press. 1952.
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Ashby. E. ‘Education for an Age of Technology.’ Chapter in History of Technology by C. Singer. OUP. Vol V.1958. Pages 785+.

Ashford. D. E. ‘Death of a Great Survivor. The Manpower Services Commission in the UK.’ Goverance. Volume 2. Issue 4. 1989. pages 365-383.
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Ashton. T. S. ‘Economic Fluctuations in England 1700 – 1800’. Oxford. 1959.

Ashton. T. S. ‘Iron and Steel in The Industrial Revolution.’ Manchester. 1982.

Ashton. W. ‘An Economic History of England 1870 – 1939’. London. 1960.

Aspin. C. and Chapman. S. D. ‘James Hargreaves and the Spinning Jenny.’ Preston, Helmshore Local History Society. 1966.

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ATTI Developing Day Release. Evidence to Henniker-Heaton. 1963.

ATTI. ‘The Future of HE within the FE System.’ Policy Statement. ATTI. 1965.

ATTI. ‘Future of HE, Evidence to Robbins’. 1962.

ATTI/APTI/ATI issues a joint publication ‘Policy for Technical Education in 1932 and re-issued it again in 1937 and 1945 – strongly advocating more support and resources for technical education.

Aspin. C and Chapman. S. D. ‘James Hargreaves and the Spinning Jenny.’ Preston, Helmshore Local History Society. 1964.

Association of Principals in Technical Institutions (APTI). ‘Regional Coordination of FE.’ APTI. 1933.

Association of Technical Institutions. ‘The Relation between Secondary and Technical Education.’ G. J. R. Potter. ATI Loughborough. 1933.

Association of Technical Institutions. ‘The Relation of Technical Colleges to Local Universities.’ W. A. Richardson. ATI. Loughborough. 1929.

Association of Technical Institutions. ‘Day Continuation Schools.’ J. W. Gledsdale. 1920.

Association of Technical Institutions. ‘Junior Technical Schools , their Status and Position.’ C.T. Millis. ATI. 1921.

Association of Technical Institutions. ‘The Place of the Local Colleges in Adult Education.’ R. Peers. ATI. Loughborough. 1926

Association of Technical Institutions. ‘Craft Training and Certification.’ H. C. Haslegrave. ATI. 1948. Page 13+.

Association of Technical Institutions. ‘Technical Education and City Companies.’ C. C. Hawkins. 1923 (Annual Conference).

Association of Technical Institutions. ‘The Function and Work of the ULCI.’ M. Tomlinson and G. T. Walmsley.. ATI. Loughborough. 1935.

Association of Technical Institutions. ‘A Descriptive Account of Technical Education in London.’ C. H. Gater. ATI. Loughborough. 1931.

Association of Technical Institutions. ‘Apprenticeships and the Irish Apprenticeships.’ ATI. R. R. Butler. 1934.

Association of Technical Institutions. ‘Education for Distribution.’ F. J. Stratton. ATI. 1938.

Association of Technical Institutions.   ‘Technical Secondary Schools.’ A. M. Gibson. ATI. Loughborough. 1936.

Association of Technical Institutions. ‘Industry and Technical Colleges.’ F. H. Perkins. ATI. June 1954.

Association of Technical Institutions. ‘The Trend of Technical Education.’ Doherty, 1948.

Association of Technical Institutions. National Colleges in Concept and Realisation.’ Symposium paper.  Gibson. T.J. et al. ATI 1951.

Association of Technical Institutions. ‘The Structure of Higher Technological Education.’ Jones. J. C. 1954.

Atkinson, R, L. ‘Copper and Copper Mining.’ Shire Publications. 1987.

Atkins, E, (Ed.). ‘ The Vaughan Working Men’s College, Leicester 1862-1912.’ Leicester. 1912.
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BACIE. ‘Economic Growth and Manpower.’ BACIE. 1963.

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Bailey. B. ‘Technical Education and Secondary Schooling’ 1905 to 1945.’ Manchester University Press. 1990.

Bailey. J. ‘The Co-operative Movement.’ The Party. 1952.

Balfour. G. ‘The Educational Systems of GB and Ireland.’ OUP/Clarendon Press. 1903.
Balfour. G. ‘Educational Administration.’ OUP. 1921

Ball. C. ‘Learning Pays’. RSA.

Banks. O. ‘Parity and Prestige in English Secondary Education.’ ISBN 0-415-17768-5. Routledge Kegan Paul. London. 1955. Later editions published.

Bantock. G. H. ‘ Education in an Industrial Society.’  ISBN 10:0571047912. Faber and Faber. 1963.

Barker. T. C. ‘Pilkington Brothers and the Glass Industry.’ Allen and Unwin. 1960.
Barnard. H. C. ‘A Short History of English Education from 1760.’  ASIN BOOOXZZUKA. 1947/1961.

Barnes. C. L. ‘The Manchester Lit and Phil Society.’ The Society. 1938.
Barnett. C. ‘The Audit of War.’ ISBN 0333-43458-7. Papermac/Macmillan. 1986.
Barnett. C. ‘Technology, Education and Industrial and Economic Strength.’ Journal of RSA. 1979.

Barnes, C, L. ‘The Manchester Lit and Phil.’ Manchester. 1938.

Barnett. C. ‘The Collapse of British Power.’ ISBN 0-86299-074-2 . Alan Sutton. 1972.

Barnett. C. ‘Long Term Industrial Performance in the UK; the Role of Education and Research 1850-1939’. In ‘The Economic System in the UK’, D. J. Morris (ed) 1985.

Baron. G. ‘A bibliographical guide to the English education system.’ 2nd edition. Athlone Press. 1960.

Bartlett. C. J. ‘Britain Pre-eminent’. Macmillan Press. 1969.

Barton, D. B. ‘The Cornish Beam Engine.’ Truro: Barton. 1965.
Beales. H.L. ‘ The Industrial Revolution 1750-1850.’ Frank Cass and Co. 1958.

Bee,  M. ‘Industrial Revolution and Social Reform in the Manchester Region.’ ISBN 978 185216 1170. Neil Richardson. 1997.

Bees and Swords. ‘National Vocational Qualifications.’ Kogan Page. 1990.

Beecham. B. L. ‘The Universities and Technical Education in England and Wales.’ Journal of F and H Education.’ 6 (1). 1982.

Belcher. V. ‘The City Parochial Foundation 1891-1991: a Trust for the Poor of London.’ ISBN 10:0859678792. Scolar Press. Aldershot. 1991.

Bell. V. A. ‘Junior Instruction Centres and their Future.’ (Carnegie UK Trust) Edinburgh. 1934.
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Bell. Q. ‘The Schools of Design.’ Routledge. ASIN B0037ZU58M. 1963.

Bell. D. and Napier D. ‘David Napier. Engineer.’ J Maclehose and Sons. 1912.

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Benge. R. C. ‘Technical and Vocational Education in the UK: a Bibliographical Survey.’ UNESCO.

Benn. C. and Fairley. J. ‘Challenging the MSC on Jobs, Education and Training.’ London. Pluto Press. 1986.
Bennett. C. A. ‘History of Manual and Industrial Education Up To 1870.’ The Manual Arts Press. 1926.

Bennett. Y. and Carter. D. ‘Day Release for Girls’. EOC page 76+. 1983.

Bennett. R. ‘Training and Enterprise TECs and VET’. ISBN 0 853281122. LSE. 1989.

Bennett, C, A. History of Manual and Industrial Education 1870-1917.’ Peoria, Illinois. 1937.

Berg. M. (Editor).  ‘Technology and Toil in 19th Century Britain’. ISBN 0-90633 6031. Humanities Press Inc. 1979.
Berg. M. ‘ The Age of Manufactures.’ ISBN 0-00-686019-2. Fontana Press. 1985.
Bernal. J. D. ‘ Science and Industry in the 19th Century.’  ASIN BOOABM3AVS. RKP. 1953. A number of volumes
Bernal. J. D. ‘The Social Function of Science.’ ISBN 10:0262520060. George Routledge and Sons. 1939.

Bernal. J. D. ‘Science in History.’ ASIN BOOOPKIFC. Watts. 1957.

Bernbaum. G. (ed). ‘Schooling in Decline.’ See D. Reeder article. ‘A recurring debate: education and industry.’ London. Macmillan. 1979.

Berry. H. F. ‘History of the Royal Society of Dublin.’ 1915.

Best. G. ‘Mid-Victorian Britain 1851-1875.’ Fontana Press. 1979.

Betts. R. ‘The Samuelson Commission of !881-1884 and English Technical Education.’ History of Education Society Bulletin. 34. 1984. pages 40-52.

Beveridge. A. ‘Apprentice now: notes on the training of young entrants to industry.’ Chapman and Hall. 1963.

Bibby. C. ‘T. H. Huxley, Scientist, Humanist and Educator.’  ASIN B0010H81HY. Watts London. 1959.

Binnie. G. M. ‘ Early Victorian Water Engineers.’ Thomas Telford. 1967.

Binns. H. B. ‘A Century of Education 1809 – 1909.’ London. J. M. Dent and Co. 1908.

Bird. A. ‘Roads and Vehicles.’ Longmans. 1965/69.
Bishop. A. S. ‘The Rise of a Central Authority for English Education.’ ISBN 0 521 08023 1. CUP. 1971.

Black. A. ‘The Owenites and the Halls of Science.’ Co-operative Review. Volume XXIX. Number 2. February 1955. Pages 42-44.
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Board of Education. ‘Trade and Domestic Schools for Girls.’ BoE HMSO. 1929.

Board of Education (BoE). ‘A Review of JTSs in England’. BoE Educational Pamphlets. Number 111. 1937.

Board of Education. ‘Education for Salesmanship.’ BoE Education Pamphlet. 1931.

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Board of Education. ‘Evening Schools’ Lloyds. S. Li. Educational Pamphlet No 2.

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Boyd. W. ‘The History of Western Education.’ ASIN B001A91DPY.Adam and Charles Black.1961.
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Bradshaw. C. A. ‘Bringing Learning to Life’. ISBN 0 750703954 4. Falmer Press. 1995.

Bratchell. D. F. ‘The Aims and Organisation of FE.’ Pergamon. 1968.

Bray. R. A. ‘The Apprentice Question.’ The Economic Journal. XIX. 1909. pages 404+.

Bremner. ‘Education of Girls and Women in GB.’ Swan Sonnenschein and Co. 1897. (Chapter by G. W. Alexander of particular interest).
Brereton. J.L. ‘The Case for Examinations.’ CUP. 1944.

Brewster. D. ‘Observations on the Decline of Science in England.’ Edinburgh Journal of Science. 1831.

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Briggs. A. ‘Iron Bridge to Crystal Palace. Impact and Images of the Industrial Revolution.’  Library of Congress Catalogue card number 79-63877. London. Thames and Hudson Ltd. 1979.

Bristow. A. ‘Pride and Some Prejudice: The Story of YTS,’ London. Imogen.
Bristow. A. ‘ Inside the Colleges of Further Education.’ SN 11 2701744. DES/HMSO. 1970.

British Association. ‘The scientific-societies in relation to the Advancement of Science in the UK.’ B.A. 1879. pages 458-468.

British Association for Commercial and Industrial Education. ‘ Education for Commerce in Scotland.’ J. B. Frizell. BACIE. 1935.

British Journal of Educational Studies. ‘The 1870 Education Act’. W. H. G. Armytage. BJES. 18. no. 1970.

British Youth Council. ‘Youth Unemployment: Causes and Cures.’ BYC. London. 1977.

Brock. W. H. (ed). ‘H.E. Armstrong and the Teaching of Science 1880-1930’. CUP. 1973.

Brock. W. H. ‘The Japanese Connection: engineering in Tokyo, London and Glasgow’. BJHS. 1981.

Brook. W. H. (ed). ‘H. E. Armstrong and the Teaching of Science 1880-1930.’ ISBN 10: 0521169410. CUP. 1973/2012.

Brookmann. M. L., Clarke. L. and Winch. C. ‘The Apprenticeship Framework in England: A New Beginning or a Continuing Sham.’ Journal of Education and Work. 23. 2010. pages 111-127.

Brooks. C. W. ‘Apprenticeships, Social Mobility and the Middling Sort’. In J. Barry and C. W. Brooks ‘ The Middling Sort of People’. Basingstoke pages 52-83. 1994.

Brookes. J. H. ‘Many Sided Education in the Technical College.’ Journal of Education. 7. 1949. Pages 296+

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Brougham. H. P. ‘The Scientific Education of the People.’ Edinburgh Review. 1822. October edition.

Brougham. H. P. ‘Practical observations upon the education of the people, addressed to the working classes and their employers’. London. Longman. Hurst. Rees. Orme. Brown and Green. 1825.

Brown. A. and Fairley. J. (eds). ‘The MSC in Scotland.’ see article by T. Burness. ‘FE and the MSC.’ and C. Howieson. ‘The Impact of MSC on Secondary Education.’ Edinburgh University Press. 1989.

Brown. L. M. and Christie. ‘Bibliography of British History 1789 – 1851’. OUP. 1977.

Brown. J. ‘Co-operation in Engineering Education’ Transcript of lecture at University University, London. 1965.
Brown. F. P. ‘South Kensington and Its Art Training. ISBN 10:1445518112. Longmans, Green and Co. London. 1912. New edition 2003.

Browne. L.  ‘Securing a Sustainable Future for Higher Education’. BIS. 2010.

Bryce. T. G. K. and Humes. W. M. (eds) ‘ Scottish Education.’ see article by R. Anderson. ‘The History of Scottish Education, pre 1980.’ and M. Bain. ‘Technology Education.’  and J. Johnson. ‘Current Priorities in FE.’ Edinburgh University Press. 1999.

Bulter. R. A. ‘The Future of Technical Education.’ The Journal of Education. Oct 1950.

Burgess. T. ‘ Education after School.’ Penguin. ASIN B0010XJ368. 1977.
Burgess. T. ‘A Guide to English Schools.’ Pelican. 1972.

Burgess.T. and Pratt. J. ‘Technical Education in the UK.’ OECD. 1971.

Burke. J. W. ‘Competency Based Education and Training’ ISBN 1-85000-627-X. Falmer Press. 1990.

Burn. D. L. (editor). ‘The Structure of British Industry.’ 2 volumes. Cambridge. 1958.

Burness. T. ‘Further Education and the MSC.’ in Brown. A. and Fairley. J. (eds). ‘The MSC in Scotland.’ Edinburgh University Press. 1989. p 91-104.

Burgess. T. and Pratt. J. ‘Policy and Practice: The CATs’. Allan Lane. 1970.

Burgess. T and Pratt. J. Technical Education in the UK.’ OECD. 1971.

Burns. C. D. ‘A Short History of Birkbeck College.’ London.1924.

Burns. D. ‘Mechanics’ Institutions: Their Objects and Tendency.’ Glasgow. 1837.

Burton. A. ‘Josiah Wedgewood: A Biography.’ Deutsch. 1976.


Campbell. W. A. ‘The Chemical Industry.’ Longmans.1971.

Cane. B. S ‘Scientific and technical subjects in the curriculum of English secondary schools at the turn of the century.’  Brit J Educ Studies 8 pages 52-64 1959.

Cantor. L.M. and Roberts. I.  ‘Further Education – a critical review.’ ISBN 0 7100 0412 5. RKP. Various editions e.g. 3rd edition 1986.

Cantor. L. M. ‘Vocational Education and Training in the Developed World. A Critical Study.’ ISBN 0-415-02542-7. Taylor and Francis. London. 1989.

Cantor.L, Roberts. I and Pratley. B. ‘A Guide to FE in England and Wales’. ISBN 0-304-33134-1. Cassell. 1995.

Carr-Saunders. A. M. and Wilson. P. A. ‘The Professions.’ Taylor and Walton. 1933.
Carlton. F. F. ‘ Education and the Industrial Evolution.’ Macmillan. 1908.

Carpenters’ Company’s Technical School. ‘The Story of the Carpenters’ Company Technical School, 1891-1905.’ Old Carpentarians Association. 1964.
Carwell. D. S. L. ‘ Organisation of Science in England.’  ISBN 0 435 54154 4. Heinemann.  1980.
Cardwell. D.S.L. ‘ Technology, Science and History.’   ISBN 0 435 54151 X. Heinemann. 1972.
Cardwell. D.S.L. ‘Artisan to Graduate.’ ISBN 0 7190 1272 4. Manchester University Press. 1974.

Cardwell. D. ‘Fontana History of Technology’. ISBN 0 00 686176 8. Fontana Press. 1994.

Cardwell, D. S. L. ‘Steam Power in the 18th Century: A Case Study in the Application of Science’. New York, Sheed and Ward. 1963.

Carter. E. H and Mears. R. A. F. ‘A History of Britain 1714-1852.’ ISBN 978-1906768-24-9. Stacey International. 2010.

Carter.M. P. ‘Home, school and work: a study of the education and employment of young people in Britain.’ Oxford Pergamon Press. ISBN 10:1483208052. 1959.
Carter. C.F. and Williams. B.R. ‘Industry and Technical Progress.’ OUP. 1957.

Carter. C. F. and Williams. B. R. ‘Science and Industry.’ ASIN B0006D60TG.  OUP. 1959.

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Cassels. J. ‘Britain’s Real Skills Shortage’. London. Policy Studies Institute. 1990.

Cavanagh. F.A. ‘Lord Brougham and the Society of the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge.’ Journal of Adult Education. Vol IV no 1 Oct 1929. Page 13+.

Cawthorpe. H. M. ‘The Spitalfields Mathematical Society 1717-1845.’ Journal of Adult Education. Vol III no 2 .April. 1929. Pages 156-158.

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CBI. ‘Managing the Skills Gap’. 1989.

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CGLI. ‘ Reflections Past and Present’ A. Sich. CGLI. 2001.
CGLI. ‘A Short History-1878-1992’. ISBN 0 8519 30107. CGLI. 1993.

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CGLI. ‘Variety or Chaos.’ CGLI. 1978.

CGLI. Programme of Technical Examinations 1880-1881. CGLI.

Chambers. T. G. ‘Royal College of Chemistry, Royal College of Mines and Royal College of Science.’ Hazell, Watson and Viney. 1896.
Chapman. C. R. ‘The Growth of British Education and its Records.’ ISBN 10:1873686056. Lochin Publishing. Dursley. 1991.

Chapman. S. D. ‘The Early Factory Masters.’ David and Charles. 1967.

Chapman. S. D. ‘The Cotton Industry in the Industrial Revolution.’ London Macmillan. 1972.

Chambers. J. D. ‘The Workshop of the World.’ OUP. 1961.

Chapman. S. D. ‘The Cotton Industry in the Industrial Revolution’. Macmillan. 1972.

Chapman.P. and Tooze. M. ‘The Youth Training Scheme in the UK’. Aldershot. Avebury. 1987.

Charlton. D et al. ‘The Administration of Technical Colleges.’ ISBN 10:0719004632. Manchester University Press. 1971.

Checkland. S. G. ‘The Rise of Industrial Society in England 1815 – 1885.’ ASIN B0006BMDHG. Longmans. 1966.
Chessy. C. H. ‘Technical Teaching in Theory and Practice.’ London. 1935.
Chitty. C. Ed) ‘Post-16 Education.’ ISBN 0 7494 0097 8. London Education Studies. 1991.

Chitty. C. ‘Education Policy in Britain.’ ASIN B00HK30W8U. Palgrave, Macmillan. Basingstoke. 2004.

Church, R, A. ‘ The Great Victorian Boom 1850-1873.’ London 1975.

Cipolla. C. M. (Ed). ‘The Emergence of  Industrial Societies’. Fontana. 1973.

Clapp. B. W. ‘John Owens, Manchester Merchant.’ MUP. 1965.

Clark. E. K. ‘Leeds Philosophical and literary Society: History of 100 Years.’ Jowett and Sowry. Leeds. 1924/44.

Clarke. L. ‘The Transition from School to Work.’ London. Department of Employment. HMSO.
Clarke. F. ‘Education and Social Change. An English Interpretation.’  Sheldon Press. 1940.

Clark. A. ‘Working Life of Women in the 17th Century.’ ISBN 0-7100-9045-5. George Routledge and Sons. 1919.

Clarke. R. H. ‘The Development of the English Traction Engine.’ Norwich. Goose. 1960.

Claxton. T. ‘Memoir of a Mechanic. Life of Timothy Claxton’. Boston. G. W. Light. Cornhill. 1839.

Cleveland-Stevens. E . ‘English Railways. Their Development their relationship to the State’. London 1915.
Clough. G. B. ‘A Short History of Education.’ Ralph Holland and Co. 1904.

Cliffe-Leslie. T. E. ‘An Inquiry into the Progress and Present Condition of the Mechanics’ Institutes.’ Dublin Statistical Society. 1852.

Coates. T. ‘ Report on the State of Literary, Scientific and Mechanics Institutes.’ SDUK. 1841.

Coffey. D. ‘Vocational Education: The Way Forward.’ British Journal of Education . Volume 37. No 4. 1989 (Nov.). pages 317-416.
Cole. G.D.H. ‘A Short History of the British Working-Class Movement 1789-1947.’ George Allen and Unwin.1948.
Cole. G.D.H. and Filson. A.W. ‘British Working Class Movements 1789-1875.’ Macmillan/St Martin’s Press. 1967.

Cole. G. D. H. and Postgate. R. ‘The Common People’.  London. Methuen and Co. Ltd. 1938.

Cole. G. D. H. ‘Studies in Class Structures.’ Routledge London. 1968.

Cole. G. D. H. ‘The Life of Robert Owen.’ Cass. 1965.

Cole. G. D. H. ‘British Trade and Industry: Past and Future.’ Macmillan. 1932.

Cole. H.  ’50 Years of Public Work.’ Bell. 1884.

Cole. W. A. ‘The Measurement of Industrial Growth.’ Economic History Review. 1958.

Cole. G. D. H. ‘A Century of Co-operation.’ Allen and Unwin. 1944.

College of Preceptors. ‘Fifty Years of Progress in Education : a review of the work of the College of Preceptors from 1846 to its Jubilee in 1896’. 1896.

Collins. B. and Robbins. K. ‘British Culture and Economic Decline.’ ISBN 10:0297820389. Weidenfield. 1990.

Coleman. D. C. ‘Gentlemen and Players.’ Economic History Review. 26. 1. 1973.

Colquhoun. P. ‘A New and Appropriate System of Education for the Labouring People.’ London. 1806.

Comber. N. M. ‘Agricultural Education in GB.’ Longmans, Green. 1948.

Connell. K. H. ‘Population of Ireland 1750 – 1845’. Clarendon Press. Oxford. 1950.
Cook. C. and Stevenson. J. ‘Modern British History 1714-1987.’ ISBN 0-582-01328-3.  Longman. 1988.

Cook. C. and Keith Brendan. ‘British Historical Facts 1830-1900. London. 1975.

Coombe Lodge Reports. ‘The Statutory Framework of FE.’ M. Locke. FESC/CLR. Vol 9 No 8 1976.

Coombe Lodge Reports. ‘Colleges of Education and Reorganisation’. Study Conference. Vol. 7. No. 18. FESC. 1974.

Coopers and Lybrand Associates. ‘A Challenge to Complacency: Changing Attitudes Towards Training.’ London. MSC. 1985.
Corsi. P. and Weindling. P. ‘Information Sources in the History of Science and Medicine.’ Butterworths. 1983.

Cossons. N. ‘The BP Book of Industrial Archaeology.’ David and Charles. 1987.
Cotgrove. S. ‘Technical Education and Social Changes.’ ISBN 10:0713173823.  George Allen and Unwin. 1958.

Copeland. J. ‘Roads and their Traffic 1750-1850.’  David and Charles. 1968.

Cotgrove. S. ‘The Training and Education of Technicians.’ BACIE. 1960.

Cotterell. A. B. and Heley. E. W. (eds). ‘Tertiary: A Radical Approach to Post Compulsory Education’. Stanley Thornes. pages 10-11. 1980.

Cook. C and Keith. B.  ‘British Historical Facts 1870-1900.’ London. 1975.

Colquhoun. P. ‘A New and Appropriate System of Education for the Labouring People.’ London. 1806.
Court. W.H.B. ‘British Economic History 1870-1914.’  ISBN 10:0521093627. CUP. 1965.

Cowley. K. and Sugden. R. ‘A New Economic Policy for Britain’. ISBN 0 7190 32717). Manchester University Press.1990.

CPVE Joint Board. ‘CPVE Evaluation: general findings and recommendations. 1988.

Crafts. N. F. R. ‘Steam as a General Purpose  Technology: A Growth Accounting Perspective.’ Economic Journal. Vol. 114 (495). p. 338-351. 2004.

Crafts. N. F. R. ‘British Economic Growth Through the Industrial Revolution.’ Oxford. 1985.
Craik. H. ‘The State in Its Relation to Education.’ Macmillan and Co. 1914.

Creasey. C. H. ‘Technical Education in Evening School.’ Swan Sonnenschein. London. 1905.
Cressy. E. ‘An Outline of Industrial History.’ Macmillan and Co. 1925.

Croft. M. ‘Apprenticeships and the Bulge.’ Fabian Society, Research paper 216. 1960.

Crombie. A.C. and Hoskin. M.R. ‘History of Science’. Vol 1. Heffer and Sons. 1962.
Cronin. B. ‘Technology, Industrial Conflict and the Development of Technical Education in the 19th Century.’  ISBN 0 7546 0313 X. Ashgate. 2001.

Crouch. C,  Finegold. D and Sako, M. ‘Are skills the answer?’ In The Political Economy of Skill Creation in Advanced Industrial Countries’. OUP. 1999.

Crouzet. F. ‘The Victorian Economy.’ ISBN 0-416-31110-5. Methuen and Co.1982.

Crowther. J. G. ‘Scientists of the Industrial Revolution.’ ASIN B00071WL2K. Cresset Press. 1962.

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Musgrave. P. W. ‘Sociology, History and Education.’ Methuen and Co Ltd. 1970. (Interesting material on technical education).
Musson. A. E. and Robinson.E. ‘ Science and Technology and in the Industrial Revolution.’ SBN 7190 0370 9. Manchester University Press.1969.

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(Critical of the negative attitude to manufacturing, technical and scientific ideas. Strongly advocated the development of technical universities and institutions).

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Price. B. ‘Technical Colleges and Colleges of FE.’ BT Batsford Ltd. 1959.

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Roberts. R. D. ‘Eighteen Years of University Extension.’ CUP.1891. Pages 62+.
Robinson. E. ‘The New Polytechnics.’ ISBN 10:0140800417. Penguin Books. 1968.

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Roderick. G.W. and Stephens. M.D. ‘Scientific Technical Education in 19th Century England.’ ISBN 0 7153 5777 8.  David and Charles. 1972.
Roderick. G. W. and Stephens. M.D. ‘Education and Industry in the 19th Century- The English Disease?’ ISBN 0-582-48719-6. Longman. 1978.
Roderick.G.W. and Stephens.M. (eds). ‘The British Malaise. Industrial Performance Education and Training in Britain Today’. ISBN 0 905273 214. Falmer Press. 1982.
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Rolt. L. T. C. ‘George and Robert  Stephenson.’ Longmans. 1960.

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Rolt. L. T. C. ‘James Watt.’ London. Batsford. 1962/3.

Rolt. L. T. C. ‘Isambard Kingdom Brunel.’ London. Longmans. 1957.

Rolt. L. T. C. ‘Tools for the Job, A Short History of Machine Tools.’ London. Basford. 1965.

Rolt. L. T. C. ‘The Mechanicals. Portrait of a Professional.’ Heinemann. London. 1967.

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Rolt. L. T. C. and Allen. J. S. ‘The Steam Engine and Thomas Newcomen.’ Moorland Publishing. 1977.

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Rowe. J. ‘Cornwall in the Age of the Industrial Revolution. Liverpool. 1957.

Rowntree. J. W. and Binns. H. B. ‘A History of the Adult School Movement.’ Headley Brothers. 1903.

Royle. E. ‘Mechanics’ Institutes and the Working Classes 1840-1860′ Historical Journal 14 pages 305-321 1971.

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Rust. W. Donney and Harris. H. F. P. ‘Examinations Pass or Failure.’ ASIN B0010XCC70.  Pitman.1967.

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Sadler. M. E. ‘Continuation Schools in England and Elsewhere.’ Manchester: Victoria  University Press. 1907.

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Schofield. R. E. ‘The Lunar Society of Birmingham: A Social History of Provincial Science and Industry in 18th Century England.’ ISBN 10:0198581181. Clarendon Press Oxford. 1963.

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Key to abbreviations:

AoC: Association of Colleges

AEB: Associated Examining Board

ASE: Association for Science Education

APTI: Association of Principals in Technical Institutions

ATI: Association of Technical Institutions

BACIE: British Association of Commercial and Industrial Education

BJES: British Journal of Education Studies

BoE: Board of Education

BYC: British Youth Council

CER:  Comparative Education Review

CPR: Central Policy Review

CPS: Centre for Policy Studies

CUP: Cambridge University Press

EC/EngC: Engineering Council

EIAGA: Engineering Industries Association Group Apprenticeships

EOC: Equal Opportunities Commission

FESC: Further Education Staff College

FEU: Further Education Unit

JBPVE: Joint Board for Pre-Vocational Education

JEW: Journal of Education and Work

JHoI: Journal of History of Ideas

JoE: Journal of Education

JoVET: Journal of Vocational Education and Training

JRSA: Journal of the Royal Society of Arts

JSA: Journal of Society of Arts

LSDA: Learning and Skills Development Agency

LSE: London School of Economics

MSC: Manpower Services Commission

NAPTSE: National Association for the Promotion of Technical and Secondary Education

NATFHE: National Association of Teachers in Further and Higher Education

NATTI: National Association of Teachers in Technical Institutions

NFER: National Association for Educational Research

NIAE: National Institute of Adult Education

NIESA: National Institute for Economic and Social Research

NUT: National Union of Teachers

OECD: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

OREP: Oxford Review of Economic Policy

OU: Open University

OUP: Oxford University Press

RKP: Routledge Kegan Paul

SoA: Society of Arts

SRHE: Society for Research into Higher Education

ULCI: Union of Lancashire and Cheshire Institutes

ULP: University of London Press

UNESCO: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation

UTP: University Tutorial Press

VAEd: Vocational Adult Education

VAoE: Vocational Aspects of Education

VAoSFE: Vocational Aspects of Secondary and Further Education

WMEU: Working Men’s Educational Union







The Future of Manufacturing

We live in an interesting world at present, full of contradictory and paradoxical policies, whether these be financial or political, where this country still lacks a definitive and clearly articulated long-term strategic framework for post-16 education and training. There is still uncertainty about the future of manufacturing in this country, and how this country can improve its performance and competitiveness within the global economy.

One classic example is the future shape and purpose of manufacturing and construction in this country. Recent statistics show that major transformations are occurring in employment patterns. There are now more qualified social workers in employment than there are builders. Membership of professional associations associ¬ated with law and accountancy has gone up by almost 50%. By sharp contrast, construction has lost a quarter of its workforce and manufacturing has lost almost 800,000 jobs between 1990 and 1995. Service-based industries gained just over 200,000 jobs in that period.

The Government and its various Ministers talk enthusiastically about the need to restore the manufacturing base of the UK, but they then operate policies, for example in the areas of education and training, that weaken that endeavour. The application of a hard free-market-driven approach seriously weakens the ability of educational institutions to offer quality provision and to increase the stock and flow of highly-qualified people into certain areas of strategic importance such as manufacturing, engineering and construction. The education and training of craftpeople and technicians is equally as important as that of graduates and chartered professionals.

Decline of manufacturing

Over the past two decades we have witnessed the wholesale destruction of manufacturing in this country. Many areas of manufacture and production in which we were world leaders a few decades ago have rapidly vanished. Even accepting that many of the companies were over-staffed and operated rigid and inflexible work practices, plagued with demarcation disputes, the rate of destruction is now seen to have been disastrous and has most certainly contributed to our poor economic performance and has seriously weakened our competitive edge within the global economy.

Many have argued that we have reached the critical threshold and it is essential that long-term strategies are now developed to regenerate a manufacturing base, different in kind to that which previously existed, but without it this country cannot hope to compete with our competitors and will further slip down the international league tables.

This country must offer quality and value-added services and products that the rest of the world will want to purchase. Some UK-based companies are world-class and successful, but at present many are not.

Need for a balance

The financial health of any country must surely depend on a sensible balance of manufacturing and service-based industries. They must complement each other and no one element should be given undue emphasis. It has been said that the disappearance of one per cent of the manufacturing base requires a ten per cent replacement by service-based industries. This fact alone highlights the absurdity that this country can survive within a global market, reliant solely on a service-based econ¬omy. That seemed to be the political philosophy of the ’80s and I believe that we are now paying the penalty for that rather shortsighted belief. Even the arguments and drive for greater inward investment are now being questioned by many commentators. After all, retrenchment could occur at any time as a result of changing political or financial priorities back in the home country. Many overseas companies who have invested in the UK often bring their own senior staff and continue to use their own home-based banks and financial services.

A number of politicians argue that it is the global economy that is the ultimate determiner of whether we have employment bases in manufacturing and construction. After all, they would argue, why should we have a domestic construction industry when one can import the expertise at lower cost? It surely does not make sense for this country to be dependent on others to build and maintain the country’s infrastructure, much of which is of strategic importance. One aspect of this argument is sel¬dom heard: after all, if one maintains a strong and viable construction industry, then one is in a position to tender for lucrative overseas contracts. A number of people I have spoken to who support the market economy seem reluctant to accept this rationale. It is as if they have thrown in the towel – or should it be the trowel? – completely, and are happy just to allow a free deregulated market mentality to operate.

Another factor which intrigues me is that, when companies declare their profits or losses and the subsequent dividends to their shareholders, great emphasis is given to the level of these dividends, or to the fact that they have significantly downsized their company and apparently increased their efficiency and productivity, but very little mention is made on the resultant impact of the recession and downsizing of companies on educa¬tion and training and the development of the workforce in their companies.

It always appears that the shareholder occupies the apex of the pyramid and the last thing that is mentioned is the impact on the employees. They can be made redundant or receive little or no re-training or upskilling. One of the key flags of a world¬class company is the fact that it is employee-driven and the company invests heavily in lifelong learning and retraining. This latter aspect is greatly assisted by the development of meaningful and more effective partnerships between employers and educational institutions.

Changing the nature of learning

It is now accepted that colleges and universities need to approach their work in very different ways, offering new provision, delivered in more enlightened ways, and making certain that the provision matches the needs of the employer and the changing nature of work. It is accepted that many engineers, for example, do not possess the necessary knowledge, skills and ‘graces’ that will be needed for the future nature of work, and to make their contribution to develop world-class companies. Lifelong learning is now essential to cope with the ever-accelerating knowledge- and skill-base and all the consequences of the global economy and greater competitiveness. The Government, and the Funding Councils, must accept that the nature of learning is being transformed and there should be a sensible and cor¬rectly differentiated funding to bring about the necessary changes and to encourage partnerships between them and the employers.

Educating and training engineers and construction people is expensive, by the very nature of the skills, knowledge and understanding that they need to acquire. There therefore needs to be a long-term strategic plan developed, properly resourced, that recognizes the elements that contribute to that high cost. Employers, too, must be helped by the Government to encour¬age life-long learning. This does not mean that we have to revert to the old levy system, but there surely must be other ways of offering incentives, possibly through a reformed tax regime, to companies that would allow them to accept greater responsi¬bility to develop a more highly-qualified workforce. There are political sensitivities in this approach, and many politicians are reluctant to introduce statutory legislation. But, as the world of work changes and the influence and importance of small and medium establishments increases, it is these very companies that need financial incentives within a national framework. Recognition should also be given to the reprofiting of the workforce with its increasing emphasis on teams and the importance of increasing the stock and flow of highly-qualified craftpeople and technicians as well as graduates.

Unless action is taken, I fear that manufacturing and construction will fall below that critical threshold, and once it does it will be lost for ever and this will raise serious questions about this country’s place, not only in Europe, but within the world.


The implications of the decline in the UK’s manufacturing base and its replacement by service based industries are discussed. A proper recognition of the changing nature of learning and the importance of increasing the stock and flow of highly-qualified craftpeople and technicians as well as graduates is urged.

First published in the Journal of the Foundation for Science and Technology -‘Technology, Innovation and Society’ in Summer 1996.