Informal Vocational Learning

Learning occurs everywhere and at all times people acquire new skills, knowledge and competences just by the virtue of one’s existence i.e. it is truly inclusive. Learning can occur in a number of different ways largely determined by the context, resources available whether they are physical, human or financial. The OECD identifies three kinds of learning namely: formal, non-formal and informal.

‘Formal learning is always organised and structured and has learning objectives. From the learner’s standpoint, it is always intentional: i.e. the learner’s explicit objective is to gain knowledge, skills and/or other competences.’ (Characteristics of current formal learning; highly institutionalised, managed with heavily prescribed curricula and dominated by examinations and tests).

‘Informal learning is never organised, has no set objective in terms of learning outcomes and is never intentional from the learner’s standpoint. Often referred to as learning by experience or just as experience.’    (The learner creatively ‘adopts and adapts to the changing situations and circumstances in everyday life’).

Non-formal learning is mid-way between the other two.’ (Non-formal learning provides more flexibility between the other two modes of learning).

This article will focus on informal learning. The distinctions and relationships between informal, non-formal and formal learning can be complex and only be understood within particular contexts and situations.

One of the interesting and fascinating features of informal learning is that the learning can be unintentional and knowledge and skills developed consciously and unconsciously by the individual. Research has shown how important informal learning is and its outcomes are increasingly seen as having significant value in employment and society in general. The research has shown that approximately 70% of learning in the workplace is informal and is the most predominate learning mode for the majority of adults namely approximately 90%. Most of the learning is through self-discovery and interaction with colleagues, associates and friends and all without an education or training institution in sight! The expression ‘sitting next to Nellie’ has in the past been used to describe this process. Clearly in some workplace contexts a guide/mentor can greatly assist the learning process mirroring the approach used in the master/apprentice model albeit in an unstructured way. The value of workplace learning is clearly evidenced by the value of work experience/shadowing/sampling programmes for learners when at school/college/university. The informal learning process involves observation and trial and error in order to perfect a particular vocational or technical skill. A vast range of skills and knowledge can be acquired this way including manual, language/ cultural awareness, ICT, interpersonal —–

Key factors involved in informal learning and the resultant acquisition of skills that have been identified and include:

  • Experiences in the workplace
  • Networking in the workplace and in society in general
  • Using museums, libraries, cyber cafes etc.
  • The role of colleagues acting as mentors/coaches in the workplace
  • Consulting instruction manuals etc.
  • Through voluntary, cultural activities etc.
  • Travelling abroad

 

There are a number of distinct advances of informal learning that  makes it relevant to vocational, technical and commercial disciplines and  particularly where resources are limited e.g. in developing countries. Some of these advances include:

 

  • The learners are more often motivated and prepared to learn and keen and curious to find out information and develop skills because of the  context especially the workplace which is real and allows them the opportunity to try out the idea or new skill
  • Overall it is more efficient and effective in terms of time, cost when compared with formal learning.
  • Informal learners can feel less pressured than when in formal learning situations

 

 

Being realistic there are some downsides to informal learning namely; it can take up colleague time, usually asked when the learner needs it and not when it is convenient for the colleague who is acting as an unofficial mentor/coach and also some of the learning and learning process can be inconsistent and sometimes wrong.ways

Therefore as a result of these factors informal learning is the most elusive and difficult to define and validate but its importance must not be underestimated or undervalued. It must be recognised that informal learning is of critical importance to a person’ intellectual and social development throughout their lives.  is

 

At this time many countries are emphasising the urgent need to recognise more fully an individual’s knowledge, skills and competences wherever acquired and this highlights the importance of informal learning.

Credible mechanisms to identify, record, assess and validate the experiences and the skills and competences so acquired need to be developed. Such recognition and validation could facilitate progression for further studies and/or in work.  The success of APL/APEL using such tools as portfolios/records of achievement/critical diaries could be further refined to accredit and validate informal learning.  At this time of recession and the need by many countries to rebalance their economies recognising the value of informal learning could motivate the existing workforce and assist more people to make significant contributions to sustainable growth.

Finally to reinforce the role, centrality and importance of informal learning the OECD definition of lifelong learning comprises all three learning modes e.g. formal, non-formal and informal.

A slightly amended version of this article first appeared in November 2013 in the City and Guilds Skills Development Centre e-zine section –

www.skillsdevelopment.org

Information, Advice and Guidance (IAG) and Enterprise Skills

Definitions:

IAG:  Information, Advice and Guidance is a range of services including the provision of impartial, learner-centred, advice and guidance, to assist in making appropriate career decisions and choices, which are informed and well thought through. It enables people to apply their knowledge, understanding, skills and experiences to manage their career and make informed decisions about their education, training, qualifications and ultimate employment.

Enterprise Skills: Enterprise is a set of skills, dispositions and attitudes that include creativity, individuality, communication, leadership and commercial awareness. Other titles used for these essential skills were critical business skills or work attributes and formerly called soft skills which really did not convey the true meaning of these skills.

In the current recession and with the totally unacceptable high levels of youth unemployment across Europe and beyond, IAG within the education and training system has never been of greater importance. There needs to be a series of radical reforms at all levels of education and training to create and resource more effective IAG systems. Equally important is the urgent need to put a greater emphasis on enterprise and employability skills in order to prepare learners to more effectively respond to the changing requirements and demands of the labour market and the continuing impact of the emerging new technologies and the global economy.

Introducing more comprehensive IAG to programmes/qualifications especially at entry and equally importantly during the programme along with enterprise skills into existing curricula will present major challenges to the education and training systems which are already experiencing substantial cuts in their budgets. However, if a country is serious about rejuvenating and rebalancing its economy these reforms are both essential and urgent. Rebalancing also applies to the range of programmes that are offered. Schools, colleges, training providers and universities must accept and manage the impact not only of the current financial crisis but the massive transitions that are occurring globally. People leaving education and training programmes must possess appropriate skills and capabilities for sustainable employment and an ongoing capability to cope with the changing demands of the work environment.

IAG will play a central and critical part in these reforms including in the development of enterprise skills, complementing the mainstream curriculum but not as a voluntary bolt-on activity. It must be totally impartial, operate on an honest brokership basis and be unbiased. Though free from pressure by employers and education and training providers at the point of delivery it is crucially informed by up to date knowledge of employers as they reconfigure their businesses and workforce needs. It must also take full account of other factors affecting and impacting on future labour market information.

In addition it must be equally accessible to all learners and people in general seeking information and guidance on jobs and relevant qualifications and be developed and delivered by qualified, skilled and experienced staff who follow an agreed code of practice. Effectively managed IAG will motivate learners to make informed and well thought through decisions about their further studies and employment options. The process involves a multitude of activities including advising, advocating, assessing, counselling, enabling, feedback, informing, innovating, managing and networking. This is not an easy set of attributes to achieve but is essential for the process to succeed. Many teachers do not have any experience of employment outside education and therefore other professionals need to be employed.

Another absolutely essential activity in developing enterprise skills are effective and relevant work placement/experience programmes particularly at school level for 14-18 year olds. So the recent ruling by the British government to withdraw funding to schools to facilitate placements following a misguided recommendation by the Wolf Review is totally bizarre. Such programmes in all their manifestations e.g. work experience/placement/sampling/shadowing should be an essential feature of the school curriculum and compulsory on college and university vocational programmes.  Evidence over many decades has shown the benefits of sandwich and work experience programmes and has proved an invaluable activity in helping learners to determine more confidentially their future studies and employment aspirations.

One only needs to look at the many elements that comprise the culture of enterprise skills to see that an effective IAG system is an essential part in the curriculum to develop creativity, employability, a sense of independence, innovation, personal responsibility, problem solving, risk taking, self belief/motivation etc. Enterprise skills , critical business skills or attributes are often referred to as soft skills are essential in preparing people for employment. It is essential they are developed in the school/college curriculum and during work experience programmes. Clearly if  IAG is to be seen as relevant it must be integrated into the mainstream curriculum and include compulsory work experience programmes in order to reinforce the importance of enterprise and other basic skills. If countries want highly qualified flexible workers who are innovative and creative and able to gain sustainable and rewarding employment and support economic development and international competitiveness then enterprise skills are essential along with effective IAG programmes.  This is particularly important in Britain with the development of the  TechBacc and an increased range of apprenticeship and vocationally orientated programmes.

Statistics for Technical and Commercial Examinations.

Updated November 2016.

In this section a miscellany of information by way of facts and figures provides additional detail on technical and commercial examinations to reinforce material in the other sections of this website. The material will where possible be provided in chronological order. I hope readers will find the information of interest. I have also started including information of the Welsh, Scottish and Irish technical education systems.

In 1839 ULCI founded.

In 1846 College of Preceptors founded

In 1847 the Union of Lancashire and Cheshire Institutes (ULCI) held its first examinations.

In 1853 the College of Preceptors began to examine boys and girls in school subjects.

In 1854 first examinations for the Indian Civil Service offered.

In 1855 first entrance examinations held for the Royal Military College, Woolwich, London.

In 1856 (Royal) Society of Arts began to offer examinations.

Examination Results for (R)SA in 1857 (Second year of operation and held at two centres namely London and Huddersfield):

Subject

Pass

(London centre)

Fail

(London centre)

Pass

Huddersfield centre

Fail

Huddersfield centre

Total number of candidates

at both centres

Arithmetic 39 4 25 8 76
Bookkeeping 11 17 5 13 46
Algebra 16 14 19 9 28
Geometry 23 5 20 4 52
Mensuration and Surveying 19 4 12 7 42
Trigonometry 13 3 10 2 28
Conic sections 9 2 3 14
Nautical Astronomy 1 1 2 4
Statics and Dynamics 3 1 4 3 11
Practical Mechanics 1 2 3 3 9
Hydrostatics and Pneumatics 4 1 4 9
Electricity 4 3 7
Heat 4 1 4 9
Chemistry 10 5 5 2 22
Physiology
Botany 2 2
Agriculture 2 2
Total (Sciences): 160 58 114 59 391
Political and Social Economy 5 1 6
English History 5 2 17 26
Geography 12 1 13 2 28
English Literature 8 7 2 17
Roman History and Latin 8 4 5 2 19
French 16 5 10 7 38
German 3 4 7 1 15
Free hand drawing 1 1 1 6
Mechanical Drawing 2 1
Total (Commercial): 60 18 61 16 155
Grand total: 220 76 546

Source: Journal of the Society of Arts. June/July 1857.

In 1858 299 candidates sat for London University matriculation examinations and by 1890 had increased to 3,000.

In 1858 Oxford University offered its ‘Middle Class Examinations’.

In 1858 Number of candidates attending SoA examinations at Huddersfield.

Institute

Candidates

Huddersfield

32

Leeds

9

Bradford

12

Halifax

10

Wakefield

11

Other Institutes

31

Print Science

17

Total

122

(Source 17th Report of the Committee of Huddersfield Mechanics’ Institution Jan. 1858)

In 1860 821 candidates entered the College of Preceptors examinations by 1870 it was 1,517, in 1880 11,208 and in 16,269.

In 1860 a Faculty in Science was established at London University and the degrees of B.Sc. and D.Sc. were introduced into England.

1862 – 1882 Teaching of Science in Schools.

Year

No. of Schools

No. of Candidates

No. of Classes

1862

70

2,543

140

1872

948

36,783

2,803

1882

1,403

68,581

4,881

In 1873 Oxford and Cambridge Examinations Board founded often called the Joint Board

In 1873 First technological examinations staged by (R)SA – only 6 candidates.

Examinations Entries for (R)SA Technological Examinations Between 1873 and 1878 Before CGLI Assumed Responsibility for the Examinations:

Subject

1873

1874

1875

1876

1877

1878

Cotton Manufacture

1

10

13

19

17

60

Paper Manufacture

Silk Manufacture

1

1

Steel Manufacture

2

14

16

26

28

36

Carriage Building

3

3

4

3

2

15

Manufacture of Pottery and Porcelain

1

1

Gas Manufacture

7

6

10

11

34

Glass Manufacture

Cloth Manufacture

2

3

2

1

8

Agriculture

2

2

Silk Dyeing

Wool Dyeing

1

1

2

4

Calico bleaching, dyeing and printing

Alkali Manufacture

6

6

Totals:

6

36

46

61

68

167

Source: Annual Report of SA on Technological Examinations 1873-1878.

(As can be seen initially examinations were not popular with very few employers interested.

In 1878 CGLI began to offer examinations transferred from (R)SA.

In 1878 London University degrees opened to women.

In the 1880s CGLI offered a number of examinations in the trades and technical subjects and had its own college in Finsbury.

In 1880 CGLI examinations: 24 subjects and 816 candidates.

In 1881 1,563 candidates and by 1890 49 subjects with 6,607 candidates.

In 1884 list of subjects offered by the Society of Arts (SoA).

Arithmetic Book-Keeping
German Italian
Domestic Economy Sanitary Knowledge
Spanish French
Theory of Music Political Economy
Commercial Geography and History Practical Music
Shorthand (Phonography) English (composition, correspondence and précis writing

In 1889 CGLI staged 100 classes with 2,639 students in Lancashire, 48 classes with 1,262 students in Yorkshire, 5 classes with 92 students in Derbyshire and 1 class with 7 students in Buckingham shire.

In 1890 Manchester Technical School started a course and examinations on Sanitary Engineering.

In 1890 over 6,000 candidates took examinations in 49 CGLI technical subjects.

In 1890 The London Chamber of Commerce began to offer examinations.

Entries/Papers Worked in (R)SA examinations between 1890 and 1949:

Year

Number of Entries/Papers Worked

1890

2,315

1900

9808

1905

23,803

1911

30,000

1919

31,000

1925

71,000

1929

100,000

1949

154,000

Source: Hudson and Luckhurst. ‘RSA 1754-1954.’

In 1902 After 1902 the development of grouped courses accelerated.

In 1903 Northern Universities Joint Matriculation Board established – Manchester, Liverpool, Leeds and Sheffield.

In 1908-1909 session1,500  candidates entered the three levels of the London University School Examinations along with 6,700 who entered the London Matriculation Examinations

In 1911 approximately 1,500 0f secondary school pupils took examinations offered by the Oxford Local Examinations Delegacy or the Cambridge Syndicate.

In 1911-1912 session only 2,558 candidates entered the BoE Higher Examinations with 985 passes.

In 1911 the elementary examinations were discontinued and in 1915 the advanced examinations in science.

In 1917 Secondary School Examinations Council founded.

In 1919 First School Certificate Examinations number of science candidates-8,017 (Botany), 9,110 (Chemistry), 513 (General Science) and 5,089 (Physics).

In 1920 Ordinary and Higher Certificates and Diplomas started –jointly staged by the BoE and the Institution of Mechanical Engineers – followed later by other professional bodies such as Institution of Electrical Engineering, Institute of Chemistry, Institute of Builders and Institute of Naval Architects.

In 1922 1,017 candidates from 46 schools and colleges sat for ONC Mechanical Engineering with 521 passes.

In 1922 The ‘Mechanical National’ first examination held – 1,125 candidates from 50 colleges – a prototype of the National Certificate scheme.

In 1926 First School Certificate Examinations number of science candidates-13,627  (Botany), 21,527 (Chemistry), 1,340 (General Science) and 13,255 (Physics).

Growth of Ordinary and Higher Certificates and Diplomas between 1923 and 1944:

Year 1923 1931 1944
Ordinary Awards 663 2,043 4,070
Higher Awards 168 749 1,405

Source: MoE Education 1900-1950

Examination Entries for CGLI by Industrial Groupings for 1892 and 1992:

Industrial grouping

Number of Entries

(1892)

%

Number of Entries

(1992)

%

Extractive Industries

90

1.5

293

0.01

Process Industries

358

4

53,993

2.3

Production and Maintenance Eng.

1,221

14

145,530

6.2

Electrical, Electronic and Informatics Eng.

689

8

193,841

8.3

Vehicle and Plant Maintenance

212

3

247,189

10.6

Textile, Clothing, Footwear and Leather

3,650

43

7,137

0.3

Construction and Construction Services

1,929

23

220,303

9.4

Media and Communication Industries

256

3

9582

0.4

Creative Arts, crafts and Leisure Pursuits

29

0.5

20,688

0.9

Agriculture and Allied

82,400

3.5

Furniture and Furnishing

12,340

0.5

Hotel, Catering, Travel and Recreation

152,827

6.5

Personal Services (Hairdressing, Health Education)

369,790

15.8

Retail , Wholesale, Distribution

157,408

6.7

Business and Commerce

41,343

1.8

Services to Industry and Commerce

120,838

5.2

Utilities

3,522

0.2

General Education and Work Preparation

424,698

18.2

Special Services

19,250

0.8

HM Forces

17,346

0.7

Joint CGLI/Foras Aisenna Saothair

7,497

0.3

Senior Awards

2,168

0.1

National Examining Board for Supervisory Management

25,055

1.1

Totals

8,534

100

2,335,005

100

Source: ‘CGLI History.’ ISBN 0 85193 0107. 1993.

University Population of Science and Technology Students in 1922/23 and 1938/39:

Subject

1922-23

1938-39

Science

5,970 (19.3%)

6,061 (16.2%)

Technology

3,882 (12.5%)

4,217 (11.3%)

Total number in all faculties

31,079

37,433

Interesting to note the relative stagnation in these key subjects during this period.

In 1934 from the beginning of the National Certificate and Diploma Scheme to 1934 total number of awards made 25,000 comprising: Mechanical and Engineering – 13,454 (from 1923). Chemistry – 1,584 (from 1923). Electrical Engineering – 7,688 (from 1924). Naval Architects – 106 (from 1927)  and Building – 2,202( from 1931)

In 1938 number of students studying in the 7 National Institutions in Scotland was 1,600 this increased to 2,000 in 1954.

In 1938 number of ONCs 5,797 candidates with 3,313 passes. 1,668 HNCs with 1,137 passes. 144 ONDs with 95 passes and 61 HNDs with 37 passes. see below:

In 1938 95 successful OND students and 37 HND students – note the very low take up for FT programmes!

Between 1938/39 and 1964/65 the number of craft and technician apprenticeships increased from 41,000 to 496,000 ( however only 79,000 girls were released in 1964/65!).

In 1939 3,999 ONCs and 1,331 HNCs were awarded.

Ordinary ad Higher Certificates and Diplomas in Science and Engineering awarded between 1945 and 1955:

Year

ONC

OND

HNC

HND

1945

5,135

116

1,844

60

1946

5,544

130

2,069

82

1947

5,805

110

2,479

61

1948

7,997

N/A

4,509

N/A

1949

9,483

348

4,147

287

1950

10,581

337

4,961

293

1951

10,617

299

5.564

351

1952

11,302

253

6,226

250

1953

10,898

214

6,452

312

1954

11,957

361

6,827

248

1955

13,458

412

7371

229

Sources: Annual Surveys and Technical Education Cmnd .9703 1956 MoE

(Interesting to note the relatively low entries for the full-time programmes i.e. OND/HNDs)

University Degrees awarded in Science and Technology between 1938 and 1956:

Year

Pure Science

Medicine

Dentistry

Technology

1938

7,661

11,883

1,488

5,288

1947

12,516

12,496

1,584

8,767

1948

14,544

13,414

2,144

10,146

1949

16,099

14,094

2,547

10,884

1950

16,917

14,147

2,724

10,993

1951

17,168

14,201

2,885

10,591

1952

17,053

13,910

2,889

10,215

1953

17,001

13,511

2,715

9,993

1954

16,971

13,239

2,564

10,036

1955

17,327

13,088

2,583

10,586

1956

18,133

13,341

2,651

11,379

Sources: Annual Abstract of Statistics

ONCs Awarded in Various Sciences and Technologies 1938+:

Subject

1938

1949

1955

1956

1957

1958

Mechanical Eng.

1,449

5,245

7,013

7528

8,063

8,599

Chemistry

151

512

985

1,176

1,263

1,437

Electrical Eng.

917

2,468

3,227

3,512

3,595

4,271

Naval Architecture

16

64

103

97

75

100

Building

544

1,035

1,216

1,381

1,436

1,597

Textiles

104

150

136

105

132

129

Commerce

132

106

328

377

381

380

Production Eng.

Not awarded

Civil Eng.

Not awarded

Applied Physics

29

143

183

254

405

Metallurgy

107

275

296

288

373

Applied Chemistry

23

19

23

20

22

Chemical Eng.

Not awarded

Mining

477

540

669

715

Mine Surveying

Not awarded

Totals:

3,313

9,739

13,922

15,218

16,176

18,028

HNCs Awarded in Various Sciences and Technologies 1938+:

Subject

1938

1949

1955

1956

1957

1958

Mechanical Eng.

502

2,113

2,924

3,260

3,590

3,926

Chemistry

62

194

646

670

755

852

Electrical Eng.

379

1,116

2,036

2,153

2,048

2,165

Naval Architecture

23

37

46

76

47

Building

137

369

690

677

758

929

Textiles

57

74

131

106

94

49

Commerce

20

5

1

9

7

Production Eng.

232

422

425

521

542

Civil Eng.

32

234

243

270

278

Applied Physics

48

94

112

169

Metallurgy

59

138

205

222

269

Applied Chemistry

9

28

43

32

30

Chemical Eng.

17

24

36

61

Mining

103

147

181

205

Mine Surveying

48

79

92

118

Totals:

1,137

4,241

7,507

8,173

8,796

9,647

ONDs Awarded in various Technologies 1938+:

Subject

1938

1949

1954

1955

1956

1957

1958

Building

17

195

69

90

91

95

77

Electrical Eng.

33

42

42

43

21

19

11

Mechanical Eng.

45

111

250

279

305

245

290

Mining

Total:

95

348

361

412

417

359

378

HNDs Awarded in Various Technologies 1938+:

Subject

1938

1949

1954

1955

1956

1957

1958

Building

7

143

55

81

65

66

77

Electrical Eng.

9

55

86

89

87

126

110

Mechanical Eng.

21

89

107

117

187

190

246

Mining

52

70

104

135

Production Eng.

3

5

Total:

37

287

248

339

409

489

573

In 1943 1,051 first degrees gained and 65 higher degrees in applied science. (Subsequently reached a maximum of 1,600 per annum). It was estimated at the time that the demand would be 3,000 per annum.

In 1944 1,225 HNCs awarded in electrical and mechanical engineering.

Between 1945 and 1952 teacher certificates (CGLI) had been awarded in Dressmaking-1,149, Needlework-401, Tailoring-8, Millinery-25 and 532 in cookery.

In 1945 some technical science subjects taught in universities included:

Aeronautics – Cambridge, London and Southampton.

Brewing – Birmingham, Manchester.

Building – London, Manchester.

Colour Technology and Dyeing – Leeds and Manchester.

Concrete Technology – London.

Diary Technology – Reading.

Fuel Technology – Leeds, London, Nottingham and Sheffield.

Glass Technology – Sheffield.

Leather – Leeds.

Metallurgy – London, Manchester, Sheffield, Birmingham, Cambridge, Leeds and Liverpool.

Oil Technology – Birmingham and London.

Technical Optics – London.

Textiles – Leeds, Manchester and Nottingham.

In 1946 number of part-time students in the Scottish National Institutions were: 1,238 day, evening only 5,844 giving a grand total of 7,082.

In 1948 7,997 ONCs and 4,509 HNCs awarded.

In 1949 Number of institutions offering degrees – 69, DipTech -, HND (full-time) 20, HNC (part-time) 143, OND (full-time) 24 and ONC (part-time) 252.

Entries for City and Guilds (CGLI) and the Regional Examining Boards (REBs) for Craft Qualifications in 1952 and 1955:

Awarding Body

1952 Entries

1955 Entries

City and Guilds (CGLI)

70,856

88,511

Union of Lancashire and Cheshire Institutes (ULCI)

46,300

56,926

Northern Counties Technical Examination Council (NCTEC)

21,059

24,403

East Midlands Educational Union (EMEU)

20,525

30,122

Union of Educational Institutions (UEI)

24,165*

38.944

Total:

182,905

238,906

  • Includes some double counting as the figure refers to worked examination papers and not students.

(These important examinations recognized the competence in craftsmanship and were highly valued by employers. The examinations were robust tests of the student’s grasp of his/her trade as the results show below).

Number of Entries and Passes in the CGLI Craft Examinations between 1952 and 1955:

Year

Entries

Passes

%

1952

70,856

44,390

62.6

1953

75,363

47,510

63.0

1954

82,094

49,922

60.8

1955

88,511

54,973

62.1

In 1950 technical degrees and diplomas awarded 3,593.

In 1951 number of students on London University internal degrees in Engineering 504, Pure Science 571, Commerce and Econimics 109, and Arts 27 – total 1,211.

In 1951 number of students on London University external degrees in applied sciences 504 this declined to 333 in 1953 and 218 in 1955.

In session 1951/52 class entries for needle crafts and entries to CGLI examinations: Dressmaking-307,278 CGLI entries 1,275. Millinery-4,846 CGLI entries 28. Needlework and Embroidary-130,561 CGLI entries 475 and Tailoring-29,125 CGLI 79. Grand total 470,810.

In 1952 only 130 entries for CGLI housecraft examinations.

In 1952 some qualifications gained by Technical College Students: London University degrees- internal-591, external 1,102 – grand total 1,693). Other University degrees 338, ARIC 179, HNDs 250 and 6,311 HNCs.

In 1952 number of students on HND 250, HNC 6,311 and other university degrees 338 (Awarded by other universities affiliated with the colleges.

In 1952 the number of advanced programmes (> GCE A level) gained in technical colleges in science was approximately 1,000 and 500 in the technologies.

In 1953 number of students on London external degrees: Engineering 336, Pure Science 598, Commerce 136, and Arts 32 – total 1,102.

In 1952/53 The Associateship of the Royal Institute of Chemistry (ARIC) awarded to 179 candidates out of 615 entries.

In 1952 23,052 candidates for NCTEC examinations.

In 1952 First Insignia Award in Technology awarded (CGLI).

In 1952/53 23% of successful students taking HNC Mechanical Engineering came from secondary modern schools -(total of successful students 2,700).

In 1952 during session 1952/53 ONC/HNC in Mechanical Engineering.

Previous education of candidates: Grammar Schools ONC – 47% and HNC – 45%.

Secondary Technical Schools ONC – 29% and HNC – 32%

Secondary Modern Schools ONC – 26% and HNC – 23%.

Total nuber of ONCs 5,872.

In 1953 number of GCE candidates from secondary modern schools was 4,068 this increased to 41,621 by 1960.

In 1953 90 FT students attended the Heating and Ventilation National Colleges.

In 1953 there were approximately 800 examination centres for RSA.

Up to 1953 76,000 candidates had taken CGLI examinations in the so-called women’s subjects with 8,800 gaining the teachers certificate.

In 1953 444 Intermediate and Final Diplomas were awarded for the DMS.

In 1954 HNCs in Chemistry awarded 637. HNCs in Applied Chemistry awarded 16.

ONCs in Chemistry awarded 937. ONC in Applied Chemistry 18.

In 1954 >15% of Scottish students gaining National Certificate in Chemistry were girls and in pharmacy 40% were females.

In 1954 number of Scottish students in National Institutions were: 4,422 day, 10,349 giving a grand total of 14,771.

In 1954 the number of students taking the Scottish Leaving Certificates 7,418 sat mathematics, 8,499 English and 4,861 science.

In 1954 technical degrees and diplomas awarded 3,359.

In 1954 approximately 900 short post graduate courses taught in science and technology subjects.

In 1954 637 HNCs in Chemistry awarded compared with just 16 in Applied Chemistry.

In 1954 in the UK 2,800 university graduates in engineering and other applied sciences and holders of diplomas awarded at university also 8,100 awarded HNCs.

In 1954 Average student hours per annum FT-833hrs. number of students 56,481. PT-153hrs. number of students 353,049. Evening programmes: Technical-64hrs. number of students 700,158. Art-63hrs.  number of students 92,508. Evening Institutions-41hrs. number of students 1,036,519.

In 1954/55 number of sandwich course students was 1,400 and this increased to 9,000 in 1959/60.

In 1954/55 output from advanced classes from technical colleges in England and Wales was 9,500 of which 50% became professional scientists and technologists.

In 1956/57 31,835 candidates for ONC examinations (16,176 passed). 12,568 candidates for HNCs examinations (8,796 passed).

In 1956 approximately 4,200 pure science degrees were awarded and 1,850 in technology.

Number of Students in Universities and Institutes of Technology in 1955/56 and 1957/58:

Year

Pure Science

(University)

Technology

(University)

Dip Tech

Degree

HND

College Diploma and others

Totals

1955-56

17,500

11,200

2,971

2,279

1,616

35,566

1957-58

21,707

13,850

1,391

3,576

3,927

3,691

48,141

Results in 1956 and 1958 for Other National Examinations Provided in some Technical Colleges:

Subject

1956

1958

National Bakery Diploma

91

72

Higher National Bakery Diploma

4

7

National Craftsman’s Certificate

(motor vehicle repair)

677

858

Diploma in Management Studies

276

324

Intermediate Certificate in management Studies

490

681

National Retail Distribution Certificate

101

120

National Diploma in Design *

968

1,085

  • 187 publicly maintained art establishments prepared students for this award.

Numbers of Students Enrolled on Sandwich Courses Between 1954/55 and 1957/58:

 

Year

Courses approved

Dip Tech

London

University

College Associates*

HNDS?HNCS

Others

Totals;

1954/55

70

4

140

1,125

150

1.419

1955/56

103

52

571

1,373

331

2,327

1956/57

148

510

207

728

2,142

392

3,979

1957/58

203

1,391

307

973

3,254

539

6,464

 

In 1957 first cohort of Dip. Tech students 965 students from 37 courses. Dip Tech was created in 1956.

In 1957/58 there were 1,700 full-time university agricultural and forestry students and there were 1,100 students in agricultural colleges.

In 1957 24,972 ONCs and 848 ONDs awarded.

In 1958 Number of HNDs awarded in Science 0, In Engineering 298. Number of HNCs awarded in Science 25. In Engineering 3,953. Number of Professional Association Awards in Science 237. In Engineering 814. Other Awards (CGLI et.al.) in Science 5. In Engineering 1,181. (Interesting to note the low numbers in science).

In 1958 34 candidates gained Dip.Tech. and by 1964 this number had risen to 1,221.

In 1958 Number of institutions offering: degrees 62, DipTech 12, HND (full-time) 39, HNC (part-time 187, OND (full-time) 40 and ONC (part-time) 291.

In 1958 During 1958/59 session there were 263 sandwich courses offered in 95 technical colleges. (Salford Royal Technical College offered 17 courses).

In 1958 35,572 ONC entrants only 18,028 passed. 13,854 HNC entrants only 9,647 passed. Note very low pass rate 50% for ONC and 30% for HNC.

In 1958 failure rates for OND were approximately 44% and for HNDs approximately 19%. These are better than the rates for ONCs and HNCs but still very high.

In 1958 18,000 National Certificates and 10,000 Higher National Certificates were awarded to students on day-release or part-time-evening mode of attendance.

In 1958/59 session  > 50,000 students on Preliminary Courses in FE. 200,000 students on courses for craftsmen and technicians. 140,000 students on ONCs and <40,000 on HNCs. 1,600 students on ONDs and 3,100 on HNDs.

In 1959 first examinations for the Mechanical Engineers Craft courses staged. CGLI.

Enrolment Data for Dip Tech in 1959:

Subject

Number of Courses

1st year

2nd year

3rd year

4th year

Total

Aeronautical Eng.

5

64

22

86

Applied Biology

1

9

6

15

Applied Biochemistry

1

5

5

Applied Pharmacology

1

5

5

Applied Chemistry/Chemical Technology/Industrial Chemistry

10

103

58

34

9

204

Building

1

8

8

Chemical Eng.

3

37

22

2

61

Civil Eng.

3

23

3

2

28

Electrical Eng.

13

358

299

143

67

867

Instrument and Control Eng.

1

10

9

19

Mathematics

4

40

14

54

Mechanical and Production Eng.

10

361

274

127

40

802

Metallurgy

4

32

34

26

6

98

Physics

9

116

88

47

15

266

Grand totals:

66

1,171

829*

381

137

2,518

*Includes 145 students not recognized by the NACEIC.

In 1959 66 Dip.Tech courses in existence in CATs – 13 FT and 53 Sandwich. Distribution across the CATs Birmingham 9 Sandwich, Bradford 2 FT and 5 Sandwich, Bristol 5 Sandwich, London – Battersea 8 FT, 6 Sandwich, Chelsea 2 FT, 1 Sandwich and Northampton 8 Sandwich, Loughborough 2 FT, 4 Sandwich,, Salford 7 Sandwich and Wales 3 Sandwich. Grand totals 14 FT and 48 Sandwich,

1960 ONC Business Studies introduced.

In 1961 the National Council for Diplomas in Art and Design (NCDAD) established.

In 1961 80,862 candidates took 231,757 papers in FE colleges for the examinations offered by the Union – REBs.

In 1961 the Scottish Council for Commercial Education (SCCE) established.

In 1961 there were 23 CGLI schemes for end-on T courses – 26 in 1968.

In 1961 138,000 candidates from Britain and the Commonwealth sat CGLI examinations at 1,200 centres

In 1961 OND Business Studies introduced.

In 1961 G1 courses in Engineering started.

In 1961 Students on advanced technology courses was 15,150 from degrees 125, Dip Tech 619, HND 1,054, NC 11,717 and other courses 650.

In 1962 HND in Business Studies introduced with 380 enrolled and by 1964 this had increased to 1,848.

In 1962 G* and G2 courses started in Textiles.

In 1962/63 between 1962/63 and 1976/77 number of day and evening students on HE (excluding teacher training) increased from 100,000 to 125,000.

In 1963 qualifications included ONC which comprised 3 years of part-time study with at least 150 hours of instruction per year (S1, S2 and S3).

OND which comprised 2 years full-time study (OND1, OND2). HNC which comprised 2 years part-time study (A1, A2 or HC1,HC2). HND which comprised 3 years sandwich or 2/3 years full-time (HD1,HD2 etc).

In 1963/64 there were 124 Dip Tech courses at 30 colleges mostly at CATs and Regional Colleges.

In 1963 Certificate of Office Studies introduced.

In 1963-1964 session 405,000 pursuing CGLI courses.

In 1963-1964 session CGLI offered 24 courses foe operatives in such areas as boiler operatives’ certificate, concrete practice and power plant operation etc.

IN 1963 Majority of certificates holders were engineers – 21,318 ONCs and 12,130 HNCs.

In 1963 608,000 part-time students enrolled in colleges.

In 1963 G courses started in Mining.

In 1963-1964 session 3,207 1st year students from 124 courses for Dip. Tech. programmes – 1,069 graduated in this session.

In 1963/64 CGLI offered 24 operative courses in such subjects as boiler operatives’ certificate, concrete practice and flour milling.

In 1964 the National Examinations Board in Supervisory Studies (NEBSS) established.

In 1964 there were 113 craft and 110 technician courses being run by CGLI.

In 1964 G courses started in Science, Shipbuilding and Construction.

In 1964 Council for National Academic Awards (CNAA) received its Royal Charter. Students on Business Courses  leading to Recognised Qualifications:

1964/65 Students on Business Courses leading to recognised qualifications: Certificate in Office Studies 5,686, ONC in Business Studies 12,734, OND in Business Studies 5,188 and Other non-advanced business courses 52,642 giving a grand total of 76,250.

In 1964 number of ONCs awarded 23,030, ONDs awarded 1,174, HNCs awarded 12,790 and HNDs awarded 1,550 in England and Wales.

In 1964 number of ONCs awarded 1,749, ONDs awarded 49, HNCs 1,119 and HNDs 18 in Scotland  (Source for these stats DES 1965).

1964/65  Students on Business Courses leading to recognised higher qualifications– HNC in Business Studies 2,956, HND in Business 1,848, First degrees in Business Studies 1,399, other advanced Business Studies 21,978  giving a grand total for advanced business courses  28,181.

In1964 198,000 examination entries for CGLI, with 27,000 from overseas (66% overall pass rate achieved).

1964 Some Examinations Schemes Modelled on National Certificate and Diploma Schemes (England and Wales:

Course Title

No. awarded

National bakery Diploma

98

HND National Bakery Diploma

4

National Craftsman’s Certificate in Motor Vehicle Service Mechanics

1,542

National Diploma in Hotel-Keeping and Catering

140

National Retail Distribution Certificate

368

Certificate in Retail Management Principles

56

Diploma in Management Studies (new scheme)

498

In 1964 Advanced Qualifications at Central Institutions:

Course

Entries

Successes

University degrees

144

College associateships and diplomas

1,346

1,236

HNC

1,828

1,119

HNC (supplementary certificates)

1,091

777

HND

23

18

SCCE Advanced Commercial and Secretarial Certificates

208

96

Diploma in Management Studies

13

Certificate in Business Administration

19

College associateships and diplomas (supplementary certificates)

38

38

Sec of State for Scotland: Education in Scotland in 1964. 1965.

In 1965 Honours Degrees introduced in Business Studies.

In 1964/65 16,000 of the 20,000 advanced sandwich students in colleges were either studying for a Dip Tech or HND.

1966 G courses started in Printing. Interestingly to note G courses not staged in Scotland.

In 1967-68 Students on Business Courses leading to recognised qualifications: Certificate in Office Studies 8,807, ONC in Business Studies 13,962, OND in Business Studies 6,458 and Other non-advanced business courses 61,671 giving a grand total of 90,898.

1967/68 Students on Business Courses leading to recognised higher qualifications – HNC in Business Studies 5,247, HND in Business Studies 4,364, First degrees in Business Studies 7,604, other advanced Business Studies 35,047 giving a grand total for all advanced business courses  52,262.

In 1968 Number of Candidates for Business Qualifications:

ONC Business Studies: Entries 3,935 – passes 2,188. OND Business Studies: Entries 2,366 – passes 1,684. HNC Business Studies: Entries 1,695 – passes 1,310. HND Business Studies: Entries 1,554 – passes 1,216.

National Certificate Retail Distribution Certificate: Entries 723 – passes 348. Certificate in Retail Management Principles Part A:  Entries 117 – passes 79. Part B: Entries 133 – passes 97.

Certificate in Office Studies: Entries: 2,632 – passes 2,114.

In 1968 number of students in art establishments in England and Wales were:

Men: 14,653 (full-time), 36 Short full-time < 18 weeks, 126 Sandwich, 14,451 Day release,  2,960 Other part-time, Evening only 17,254 giving a grand total of 49,480 students.

Women: 11,866 (full-time), 117 (Short full-time), 55 Sandwich, 1,556 day release, 18,473 Other part-time, 30,281 Evening only giving a grand total of 62,348 students.

Above figures do not include university departments.

 

In 1969/70 81,000 students in Full-time and Sandwich Public Sector HE. Also there were 109,000 students in teacher training.

In 1970/71 total student numbers on art and design courses were:

9,844 full-time, 3,551 part-time giving a grand total of 13,39

Institutions offering art and design provision:

54 Art Colleges, 20 Polytechnics, 7 Specialist Colleges and 95 other FE Institutions giving a grand total of 176 Institutions.

In the 1970s 60% of CGLI awards were in Engineering.

In the 1970s degree courses were offered in 48 universities and university colleges, 28 polytechnics and 12 other institutions

In 1974 there were 6,500 subject entries for the Certificate of Extended Education (CEE).

In session 1974/75 first Dip. HE programmes started and by 1980 there were 45 programmes in operation.

In 1974/75 there were 102,000 students in full-time and sandwich courses and 108,000 in teacher training.

In 1975 30,000 students taking courses leading to recognised qualifications in Art and Design of whom 18,000 were on non-advanced courses – art and design students only constituted 1.5% of all the students enrolled on recognised courses in FE colleges.

In 1975 there were approximately 22,000 students taking agriculture courses leading to recognised qualifications in over 40 FE Colleges in England and Wales – 15,000 on part-time day release mode.

In 1975 (Nov) CGLI courses enrolled 235,000 students in the 16-19 age group  16% were on full-time or sandwich programmes

In 1974 (Nov) 25,700 students taking OND programmes – 10,500 on Business Studies, approximately 9,000 on Engineering and Technology programmes.

In 1977/78 session 3 FE Colleges were offering the International Bacc with approximately 100 students most from overseas.

In 1977/78 session approximately 50 Dip HE courses existed with approximately validated by CNAA and the remainder by universities.

In 1977 350 colleges introduced 1,200 new TEC programmes with approximately 37,500 students.

In 1977 over 1,200 candidates from more than 200 courses were assessed for the SIAD diploma.

In 1977 there were 182 CNAA first degrees in Art and Design with approximately 13,350 students.

In 1977 CGLI Foundation courses enrolled 1,700 candidates in over 150 programmes.

In session 1977/78 6,442 candidates were enrolled on 169 DMS courses.

In 1978 TEC appointed 2 full-time moderators and 230 part-time moderators.

In 1980 approximately 1,000 CNAA degree programmes existed.

In 1983/84 approximately 4,000 students enrolled on Dip Tech in England and Wales – note it was not adopted in Scotland.

In 1986 approximately 250 professional bodies examining and awarding qualifications.

In 1989 school leavers highest qualifications in UK were: 15% (2 or more GCE ‘A’ levels). 40% (1 ‘A’ level or below i.e. ‘O’ level). 35% (below ‘O’ level) and 10% with no qualification. Compare these figures with similar for France namely 35%. 55%. 10%. (CBI 1989).

In 1990 NCVQ had accredited 170 NVQs in over 40 major UK industries and occupations representing 30% of UK employers.

1991 between 1991/2 and 1995/96 number of NVQs and SVQs awarded increased by 354,000.

In 1992 in session 1992/93 number of NVQS/SVQS awarded in UK was 153,00 – 67.5% at level 2, 23.1% at level 3 and 5.9% at level 1.

In 1992 GNVQs introduced.

In 1993 -1994 session  70,000 students enrolled on GNVQs increased to 165,000 by session 1994-1995 – mainly in the 16-19 age range.

In 1994 there were 500 NVQs covering 150 0ccupations this represented 80% of all jobs.

In 1994/95 13% of HE was delivered in England by FE colleges – equivalent figures in Wales 5%, 16% in NI and 27% in Scotland.

Up to 1995 986,907 NVQ certificates awarded compared with 346,528 in 1995/96 and 444,117 in 1996/97.

In 1995 43% of 16 year olds in education and training studied at FE or 6th form colleges – 14% of year olds in education and training chose the work-based route.

In 1995 240,000 NVQs awarded while in 1997 the figure was 368,000 and in 1996 446,000 awarded each year.

In 1995 75% of 16-18 year olds on some form of structured education or training scheme – in 1990 the figure was 66%.

In 1995/96 354,000 NVQs/SVQs awarded and 84,000 GNVQs.

In 1995/96 percentage of females taking NVQ/SVQs approx. 53%, GNVQ/GSVQs approx. 53% and other vocational qualifications approx. 51%. Most NVQ awards were in service sector with only 50,000 engineering programmes. Other vocational awards namely 219,000 were in areas of computers, electrical and electronic engineering and 32,00o in engineering production and industrial design.

In 1995/96 423,000 other vocational awards (OVAs) awarded.

In 1996/97 459,000 NVQs/SVQs awarded and 93,000 GNVQs.

In 1996/97 439,000 other vocational awards given.

In 1996/97 CGLI awarded certificates in: GNVQs 16,393, Customised 19,229, Other general education 85,442, NVQs 192,442, Other vocational 350,998 and at the following levels: at level 1 -235,785, at level 2 – 267,052. at level 3- 105,834, at level – 4 44,565 and at level – 5 1,443.

In 1996/97 RSA started introducing text processing awards (Stages II and III).

In 1997 there were 11 NVQs at level 5, 125 at level 4, 316 at level 3, 357 at level 2 and 110 at level 1.

In 1997 over 45,000 candidates achieved NCFE competence based certificates.

In 1997/88 number of entries to SVQs was 35,000.

In 1998/99 the top three FMA programmes being studied were Business Admin 17%, Retail 14% and Hairdressing 12%.

In 1998 2,223,523th NVQ awarded.

In 1998 other qualifications by level awarded were as follows: Entry- 164. Level- 1 1,378. Level 2-1,765. Level 3-2,015. Level 4 and above- 584.

Examples of areas of award 1st aid, Hygiene and Nutrition, Key Skills, Language Certificates. Office Skills/Secretarial and Sports Coaching etc.

In 1998 NCFE offered over 70 qualifications.

In 1998 26,600 young people had begun national traineeships (Nov.).

In 1998 320,000 applicants for university places.

In 1998 Number of NVQs/SVQs programme areas: 11 at level 5, 125 at level 4, 316 at level 3, 357 at level 2 and 110 at level 1.

In 1998 Qualifications listed in FEFC Qualification database: GCSE 1,598, GCE ‘A’ and ‘AS’ 1,752, Access to HE 1,155, NVQ 1,811, GNVQ 216 and Other Qualifications (OQs)  7,881. (Note Other Qualifications  in spite of government attempts to reduce them continue to dominate the qualification scene).

In 1998/99 number of FMA starts in England and Wales 41,900 an increased to 96,000 in session 1999/2000, 81 approved sectors for AMAs and 50 for FMAs. Percentages for FMAs by programme : 17% Business Admin. 14% Retailing and 12% Hairdressing.

Percentages for AMAs by programme: 13% Engineering Manufacturing and 12% Business Admin.

In 1998/99 session NOCN recorded that OCNs more than 630,000 learner registrations (an increase of 27% on session 1997/98), awarded over 1,200,000 credits to learners, worked with over 3,100 members or user organisations and reached and provided certification for a wide range of learners with 87% were over 18 years of age and 42% were unwaged or unemployed.

In 1999 number of students taking National Certificate modules decreased by 7% with 60% studying at FE colleges in Scotland (SQA). Entries for Higher National units and awards increased by 2%.

In 1999 the highest qualification level held by people of working age was as follows:

Age 16 – 19: Level 4/5 – 1%. Level 3 – 20%. Level 2 – 42%. <Level2 – 24%. None – 13%.

Age 20 -24: Level 4/5 – 23%. Level 3 – 30%. Level 2 – 22%. <Level 2- 18%. None – 7%.

Age 25 – 29: Level 4/5 – 30%. Level 3 – 18%. Level 2 – 22%. <Level 2 – 22%. None – 8%.

Age 30 – 39: Level 4/5 – 26%. Level 3 – 17%. Level 2 – 21%. <Level2 – 26%. None – 10%.

Age 40 – 49: Level 4/5 – 26%. Level 3 – 17%. Level 2 – 20%. <Level – 19%. None – 17%.

Age 50 – 59: Level 4/5 – 21%. Level 3 – 16%. Level 2 – 19%. <Level – 17%. None – 27%.

Age 60 – 64: Level 4/5 – 18%. Level 3 – 22%. Level 2 – 21%. < Level 2 – 11%. None – 28%.

All 16+:                      23% (4/5)             18% (3)             22% (2)               11% (<2) and     15% (None) .

In 1999/2000 the top 12 registrations for subjects for CGLI examinations  (in ‘000s) were: General education 210, Business and Commerce 172, IT Services and Services to Industry 151, Care and Related Occupations 70, Education and Training 60, Engineering 58, Construction 55, Management 46, Hairdressing and Beauty 43, Hotel and catering 35, Retail Wholesale and Distribution 34 and Creative Art and Craft 21.Registration by level: 25.62% at level 1, 44.14% at level 2, 26.62% at level 3, 3.32% at level 4 and 0.32% at level 5.

In 1999/2000 80.3% of students on FEFC provision were adults but only 7.3% were on full-time full-year programmes whilst 19.7% of students under 19 years of age were on FEFC provision of whom 71% were on full-time full-year programmes.

In 2000 drop outs overall 11-12%, For MAs 5%, NTs 10% and other training programmes 20%.

In 2000 entries for GNVQ Part 1 increased by 41% to 32,350.

In 2000 Pass rate in summer examinations was 58.8% for Advanced GNVQs.

In 2000 achievement rates for distance learning mode was: for GCE ‘A’ Level 36% (all modes of learning 77%), GCE ‘AS’ 46% (all modes of learning 58% and for GCSE (Grade C+) 33% (All modes of learning 42%).

In 2001 (March). Just over 3.2 million NVQ Certificates had been awarded with 60% at level 2 and 19% at level 3.

In 2001 Vocational ‘A’ level results: Advanced VCE Double Award entries 6,949 with pass rate of 54.4%, Advanced GNVQ Double Award 70,717 entries with pass rate of 59.8% and ‘AS’ level/VCE 5,719 entries with pass rate of 66.4%.

In 2001 4,229 students had studied foundation degrees – 70 FD programmes available in 90 UK institutions.

In 2001 since 2001 4,229 students started foundation degrees – with over 52% with vocational or work-based qualifications.

In 2001/02 3,775 enrolled on Foundation Degrees increased to 12,000 in session 2002/03.

In 2001/02 705 level 4/5 students enrolled on NVQ courses – 2.5% of all NVQ 4/5s were awarded by HEIs.

In 2002 up to June total number of NVQs awarded 3,715,057 (An increase since 2001 of 365,000).

In 2002 there were 527 different Scottish Vocational Qualifications.

In 2002 approximately 200,000 students were studying for HE qualifications in FECs.

In 2002 vocational ‘A’ level results:

Advanced VCE Double Award 42,291 entries with pass rate 82.7%. Advanced VCE Single Award 32,246 entries with pass rate 78.7% and ‘AS’ level/VCE 12,411 entries with pass rate of 74.6%.

In 2003 Number of entries to GCE ‘A’ levels in physics and Mathematics 31,543 and 50,602 respectively.

In  2008 in session 2008/09 number of NVQs/SVQs awarded in UK was 958,000.

In 2009/10 There were 1,215,900 under graduate students in UK HE Institutions and 298,000 post graduate students.

IN 2013 over 340,000 learners from over 2,000 colleges, schools and training providers took NCFE awards.

In 2013 Number of entries to GCE ‘A’ level Physics and Mathematics 35,569 and 88,060 respectively. In 2013/14 there were 1,351,800 under graduates in UK HE Institutions and 305,400 post graduates.

In  2014 41% of the work force had a qualification at NVQ level 4 or better – 41% in England, 36% in Wales, 32% in Northern Ireland and 45% in Scotland held a qualification at SCQF level 7 or higher.

42% of females had a qualification at NVQ level or higher compared with 39% of males .

50% of 30 to 39 year olds had a qualification NVQ level 4 or higher compared with 29% of 19 to 24 year olds and 35% of 50 to 64 year olds.

Total expenditure on education £83.4 billion in 2014. 6% of 16-19 year olds started apprenticeships in 2014/2015.

In 2015 There are 19,00 regulated adult vocational qualifications in England. 47% of graduates were employed in jobs that did not normally require higher education qualifications.

532,300 people entered HE the highest number recorded so far. 35% of 18 year olds applied for university. There are 8 vocational qualifications for every GCSE.

In 2016 30% of UK students take vocational training compared with 75% in Germany.

The TechBacc – What Chance of Success?

The latest attempt to introduce a vocational and occupational qualification, the Technical Baccalaureate (TechBacc), has been announced to begin in September 2014 and results will be reported in the performance tables in 2017. As usual the initiative is launched with all the usual political hype and well worn rhetoric – namely it will be an alternative choice and possess parity of esteem with ‘A’ levels , be attractive to students of all abilities and of the highest quality ensuring that the students have the skills employers want. This will be achieved through a programme comprising three elements namely:

  • A level 3 vocational award *that is endorsed by employers

  • A level 3 ‘core’ mathematics qualification which will include AS level mathematics
  • An extended project that will test additional skills such as writing, communication, research, self-discipline and self motivation

*Examples could be CGLI, BTEC. Cambridge Technical Diplomas or at least two GCE ‘A’ levels in science and/or technical subjects – note the continuing presence of GCE ‘A ‘level which will undermine the TechBacc.

The hope is that the TechBacc will provide students with a high-quality vocational programme supported by relevant basic skills such as literacy, mathematics and the wider employability and interpersonal skills necessary for employment or progression onto apprenticeship programmes or FE studies. The TechBacc framework draws upon existing and proposed national qualifications and will provide progression to apprenticeships, FE/HE, further training and employment. The TechBacc will be based on achievements rather than courses and will require evidence from different learning experiences including from a work place. Students will have a choice depending on their interests and intended occupation e.g. academic, artistic, technical and vocational – note that an academic theme is included which will again surely dilute the intentions of the award! After all, is the TechBacc a serious attempt to create a true alternative of equal value to ‘A’ levels or not!

Little reference is made to the multitude of previous initiatives that have gone before and the reasons why some of these worthy attempts failed e.g. TVEI, GNVQ, and Vocational Diplomas etc. No matter how good this latest initiative is, very fundamental and persistent problems exist, many of which have been discussed ad nauseam over decades. These include:

  • The cultural hostility to practical/technical disciplines
  • The prevailing preference for the so-called academic subjects over vocational ones
  • The destructive influence of the supposed gold standard of GCE ‘A’ levels supported by successive governments, public schools and some universities. In spite of innumerable attempts at reform they have remained largely the same since 1950
  • Recent research has shown that employers place a low premium on higher levels of skills for their employees and this acts as an inhibitor to up-skilling the workforce and those wishing to enter employment. 33% of employers do not possess a business or training plan let alone a training budget for their workers
  • Insensitive funding regimes for colleges which have disadvantaged vocational, technical and commercial subjects coupled with too much choice. Learners have opted for softer subjects that they perceive as easier and assume they provide a greater opportunity for employment

So will it succeed even if these fundamental issues are resolved? Early evidence shows little promise. There are already divisions are appearing between the political parties and awarding bodies. Different models are being proposed e.g. by CGLI and Lord Baker. CGLI have a strong case and with their reputation for vocational and technical qualifications and having attempted to develop a Technical Baccalaureate in the 1990s where they trade marked the terms Technical and Technological Baccalaureate when GNVQs were abolished.

It is hoped that graduates from the TechBacc will enter employment in technical roles in such areas as Science, Technology and Mathematics (STEM) occupations e.g. construction, engineering, IT, and laboratory technicians, service roles e.g. hospitality, personal and retail and creative technicians e.g. design, digital and other media, material/textile occupations

This initiative joins two others as the government attempts to raise the profile of vocational education namely University Technical Colleges (UTCs) and Studio Schools (SSs). Only time will tell if these institutions on the already cluttered and fragmented education and training landscape will led to any significant improvement and allow this country to be on a par with Germany, Japan and South Korea! But there is a very steep path to climb as in England 60% of students leave full-time education at 16 whilst in Japan the figure is 4% and 10% in Germany and the USA.

May 2013

Inhibitors to Implementing the Skills Agenda

As a result of the current financial crisis many countries are now considering how to rejuvenate and rebalance their economies. New paradigms need to be developed which in turn will create many difficult challenges for governments and the education system. Many of these issues are associated with the quality and quantity of human capital in terms of knowledge and skills and how to recognize and cope more effectively with the massive transitions in labour markets and the ever accelerating advance in technologies. These challenges differ in magnitude from one nation to another. Many of the causes for skills gaps and shortages have been identified and discussed ad nauseam over many years but still remain largely unresolved especially in some European countries e.g. Britain and France; they include the following:

  • The positive and negative consequences of globalization from micro to macro levels
  • The mismatch between supply and demand and the critical need to match the demands of the economy with the correct skills profile
  • The continuing low skills equilibrium, the continuing failure to elevate the skills of the existing workforce and to increase, improve and raise the levels of the skills of those in vocational and technical education and training
  • Poor and ineffective labour market research which is too often focused on short term priorities as a result of government policy
  • Weak careers information, advice and guidance systems (CIAG) in the education and training sectors especially in schools
  • Lax accountability in schools for vocational provision
  • The reluctance to develop a comprehensive range of high quality apprenticeship programmes especially beyond level 2+

In addition to these factors there are equally critical inhibitors that contribute to the skills problem and these are seldom identified and discussed but are important when attempting to develop new strategies and tactics and include:

  • Some employers place a low premium on the skills possessed by their employees
  • Although some employers effectively identify skill requirements short term they are generally less effective at planning over the intermediate and longer terms
  • The absence of radical and long term skills policy that matches the reforms that are so urgently required in industrial strategies and the vocational curriculum offered in colleges and universities
  • Neglect in recognizing regional differences and disparities in investment in a country too often as in Britain there is a focus on London and the South East. Preference for one region and its economic specialisms can siphon graduates and the more highly qualified people away from the other regions that already have less economic investment and renewal and hence suffer skills deficits
  • The vocational education system is failing; colleges and other training providers are not responding adequately to demand or because of funding issues they are unable to provide the relevant programmes (1)
  1. College funding regimes are based on the previous session’s enrolments i.e. historical rather than forward looking data; as a result it is difficult to respond effectively to future industrial policy changes. The funding regimes also favour high recruiting programmes, in itself symptomatic of lack of focus on IAG and unrelated to strategic market intelligence. This disadvantages many key strategically important programmes which are orientated to scientific, technological and mathematical disciplines-the very ones that will be essential in the future.

The fact that some employers are indifferent to the quality of employees’ skills profile is a worrying feature as a recent survey highlighted 33% of employers did not possess a business or training plan let alone a training budget for their employees. Therefore many employers continue to recruit low skilled people and in many cases paying them low wages which can raise some fundamental ethical issues when they employ immigrants. In also brings into question the quality of the products and services they offer. Countries like Germany and the Scandinavian countries have adopted the opposite approach and recruit highly qualified people whether domestic or immigrant and aim for the high value end of the product chain.

 

The way forward especially for Britain if it is serious about rebalancing the economy and up-skilling the workforce now and in the future is to look at proven good practice abroad e.g. Germany and Scandinavian and urgently introduce a series of measures that must include:

  • Create a more effective labour market information system with robust intelligence to identify industry skills gaps and shortages and intermediate and long term skills challenges
  • A greater focus on establishing a flexible labour market, encouraging and supporting flexible and part-time employment
  • Support for lifelong learning including CPD programmes for employees especially for SMEs
  • Place a high value on working partnerships between employers and education and training institutions
  • Support to employers to encourage an enlightened demand for higher level skills
  • Establish a high quality, robust and up to date foundation of skills in the education and training system including a greater emphasis on high quality vocational and apprenticeship programmes,
  • Require all levels of education – secondary to FE and HE to work more closely with industries
  • Strengthen the accountability of schools for vocational provision and decouple it from the school- leaving examinations and hence link it more significantly with post-16 vocational curricula; namely remove the primary focus on a school-leaving certificate and expand 14-19 vocational programmes in schools and colleges
  • Devolve powers to the regions so that they can develop their own priorities and industrial strategies that recognize and exploit local strengths and resources and hence play their part in the national economy.

Dec 2012

The Cooperative Movement and Education in Britain Part 1

 Contrary to the general belief that the Industrial Revolution only brought about social disorder and despair because of the factory conditions, it is actually the case that many innovative initiatives developed at a local level amongst the workers and artisans themselves. There was a wide and rich set of developments including the Co-operative movement, Mechanics’ Institutions, Building Societies, political groupings and trade unions that grew from a growing sense of social, employment and political inequality. Local initiatives by local people is something which is urgently required now devolving powers away from London and the so-called golden triangle of the South East.

This biography will focus on the Co-operative movement and its involvement in education and training. The precise date of the first cooperative is uncertain although it is known that a number of embryonic versions existed in Scotland from the 15th century and in France and England in the 19th century. But it was the Industrial Revolution in Britain associated with the resultant massive transitions in society and the labour markets that gave the basic principles of such movements added impetus. The guiding principles were that people could come together to create membership organisations based on common ownership or mutualism. For example a co-operative society was founded in 1824 in London. The number increased rapidly and in 1830 there were approximately 300 and by 1832 around 450 in Britain. These early examples of co-operatives were based on the ideas of Robert Owen (see below). Their main activity was as trading associations within communities and education for children and adults formed part of the philosophy. The London Co-operative and Economical Society along with its counterpart the Edinburgh Practical Society made provision for education both for adults and children. Other societies such as that based in Westminster offered lectures on science and the Birmingham society established a library and organised debates on a wide range of topics. In 1829 the British Association for the Promotion of Co-operative Knowledge was established but education also figured significantly in its history especially from 1844 when the Rochdale pioneers recognised the importance of education and welfare for people.

A key figure in the establishment of the concept of cooperatives as we know them today was the visionary Welshman Robert Owen (1771-1858) a successful cotton magnate who was committed to creating a conducive working environment for his workers including education for them and their children.

504px-Portrait_of_Robert_Owen

He was a man ahead of his time and his work inspired amongst other developments infant education, the Cooperative movement and trade unionism He introduced his ideas in New Lanark in Scotland and attempted to establish ‘villages of co-operation’ where workers would be enabled to provide for themselves by growing their own food, making their own clothes and eventually to become self-governing. Sadly this initiative failed both in Scotland and America. The Owenites were committed to education as an essential aspect for achieving co-operativism. According to the Owenite philosophy a person’s character was a product of the environment and education was learning about the essential facts and also the ideas and attitudes that would lead to a healthy and productive life. Education was not just about learning facts or gaining knowledge as important as this was in the industrial revolution. His ideas were taken up and developed by others including William King (1786-1865) who firmly believed that the working classes should establish co-operatives for themselves and he saw his primary role as an instructor. He founded ‘The Co-operator’ a monthly publication which advocated through a series of philosophies and practical guidance encouragement of workers to engage in society by creating their cooperatives in the wider society. He also advocated a gradual development, starting with setting up their own shop – why not to go to their own shop run to their own standards and fairness rather than be abused by storeowners and shopkeepers many of whom adulterated their products to maximise their profits

Rochdale is quite rightly acknowledged as the birthplace of the modern cooperative movement when a group of 28 workers founded the Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers and established the Rochdale Principles in 1844. The Rochdale pioneers as they became known were also committed to developing educational opportunities. From 1850 to 1855 a school for young people was established and more advanced classes were offered to adults and workers in Rochdale. The original shop in Toad Lane, Rochdale shown below.

Cooperative shop

In 1872 the education committee of the Pioneers’ Society determined to develop instruction in artistic, scientific and technical subjects some twenty years before the legislation following the Technical Instruction Committee recommendations (see this website). The Rochdale Society committed some money to develop educational activities of around 2.5% of their budget. Instruction was meant to develop greater understanding of industrial processes and procedures. In 1873 the Pioneers affiliated with the Science and Art Department (SAD) in London at South Kensington and science classes were started. The classes were well supported and in 1886 numbered 686 students pursuing classes in art, science and technology and in 1882 the first City and Guilds technological examinations were held in Toad Lane in Rochdale. The subjects studied were associated with the cotton industry and enrolled 70 students and later other related subjects were introduced including cloth manufacture, pattern designing, spinning of woollen and worsted articles and weaving.

In 1879 students studying botany, chemistry, geology and electricity arranged a debate with their teachers to discuss the nature of general education and specialist subjects. These kinds of educational activities were eventually to lead to the creation of the Rochdale Literary and Scientific Society which continues today. In 1884 there were 47 lending libraries, 69 circulating libraries and 194 newsrooms with 134 lectures enrolling 2,253 students in Rochdale and the immediate locality. These initiatives built the foundations of higher education in Rochdale when the 1889 Technical Instruction Act was passed. The Rochdale Society established fourteen libraries in the locality comprising 13,389 volumes along with an extensive number of periodicals. It managed a laboratory containing a wide range of scientific and mathematical instruments including microscopes with sets of slides. Classes largely focused on science and technology in such subjects as botany, chemistry, electricity, geometry, magnetism, mechanical drawing, physical geography, physiology with French and art. The majority of these classes were recognised and supported financially by the Science and Art Department (SAD) – (see this website).

Only 230 out of 912 societies across the country in 1880 allocated money for education and again the North West of England led the way with 100 funding education activities – another reflection of London’s neglect to fund education in the north!). So in summary only a small percentage of co-operative societies were involved in adult education and if active were managed very much like Mechanics’ Institutions or evening classes often limited to the provision of a library, a newsroom, a few popular lectures and one or two classes. But this is not to underestimate the influence of the more active societies in Rochdale and Oldham which contributed significantly to the University Extension Movement.

After1885 a number of inevitable and understandable changes occurred following enactment of various political Acts by Parliament led to a decline in the educational work of the societies. Local authorities took over much of the education activities operated by the societies and the technical classes were superseded by the new Technical Instruction Committees (see detail on this website). Also following the legislation concerning the provision of libraries, public libraries reduced the need for the society’s libraries. However the co-operative movement influenced key players in education and the University extension movement like James Stuart pioneer on the Extension movement, Arnold Toynbee the noted historian of the Industrial Revolution, Arthur Acland an Oxford Extension secretary and Michael Sadler his successor. Stuart proposed in 1879 that funds should be established to support ‘peripatetic professors’ of a Co-operative University and this led to the creation of a committee that established the Co-operative Union to promote classes in book keeping, industrial history and citizenship. Another consequence of the movement was the creation of the Women’s Co-operative Guild founded in 1883 by Mrs. Acland and led by Margaret Llewellyn Davies which advocated greater commitment to education for women.

In 1894 the Pioneers decided to cease all its technical classes which reflected the change resulting from national legislation in regard to technical education which had brought about more state control and funding. In 1890 the Pioneers education committee provided £200 for the new Technical School and in 1891 the Rochdale Technical Instruction Committee appointed two councillors to represent them on the Pioneers education committee to maintain strong links between the Co-operative and the local authority. The excellent work and example of the Pioneers was complete.

Recognition of the pioneering work achieved in Rochdale is demonstrated on an engraved tablet on the external wall of the Toad Lane building inscribed as shown below:

1873 R.E.P.S 1894 EDUCATIONAL DEPARTMENT

SCIENCE AND ART CLASSES

TECHNOLOGY & LANGUAGES

THIS TABLET WAS ERECTED BY

THE OLD STUDENTS

AS AN APPRECIATION OF THE GREAT WORK OF

THE COMMITTEE IN PROVIDING HIGHER EDUCATION
FOR THE MEMBERS AND THEIR CHILDREN; ALSO FOR THE NOBLE

SERVICES OF THE

TEACHERS

FOR WHOM THEY HAVE HAPPY AND THANKFUL MEMORIES

THESE WERE

PIONEERS OF EDUCATION

3.10.36

In the early days of the cooperatives, education about the movement was secondary to industrial education. As the Co-operative’s general and vocational education role was replaced by the state, co-operators focussed on education about co-operativism. The movement in Britain is now more commonly known, rightly or wrongly, through a brand name and its nation business as a retailing, undertaking services and banking organisation but education continues to form an important part of its work.

Part 2 will bring the cooperative movement’s involvement in education up to the present time with the re-emergence of co-operative schools in England – a real alternative to the academies being currently developed.

March 2013

Trade Schools in England

Trade Schools in England

As mentioned in the history of technical education there were a number of separate developments in technical and commercial education provision and the focus for this pen portrait will be on a few examples of trade or similar schools. As the apprenticeships declined in the late 1800s/early 1900s the trade schools attempted to provide an alternative and in some cases provided a pre-apprenticeship programme as an entry to the existing apprenticeships. They provided instruction in the manual skills and trades to young people leaving elementary schools. The majority of the trade schools were in London but the general descriptions will illustrate the overall organisation of these institutions. There were basically three kinds of school in the London area namely:

Trade Schools for Girls, Technical Day Schools for boys and Preparatory Trade Schools for Boys.

Most operated the same entry requirements and timetable profiles. All the Institutes’ had advisory committees with members drawn from the specific trades. Committee members examined the work, advised the Governors where appropriate and helped to place the students in the workplace.

Trade Schools for Girls:

Day Trade School at Borough Polytechnic, London.

The first Trade School for Girls founded in 1904 with 11 students in London teaching dressmaking, waistcoat-making and upholstery. In addition other supporting subjects specific to the student included practical arithmetic, design, geometrical drawing and were taught along with English and physical education. Students were given a thorough introduction to the specific skilled craft whilst continuing their general education in order to develop after two or three years of work placed experience into a competent worker. Approximately twenty-two hours per week involved the trade subject. Admission was usually through an industrial scholarship awarded by the London County Council (LCC) and candidates must have attained at least Standard VI of the elementary day school. Students had to be between 14 and 16 years of age. The scholarships offered free instruction and a maintenance grant of £8 for the first year which rose to £12 for the second year. Non- scholarship candidates must have passed Standard VII of the elementary day school and had to pay 9d (5p) per week or 10s (50p) per term.

Day Trade School at Woolwich Polytechnic, London.

Opened in April 1907 and taught dressmaking and the profile of instruction included:

 

Subject

Hours per week

Dressmaking

20

English

2

Arithmetic

1.5

Geometrical drawing

1.5

Design and Art Needlework

3

Physical education

1.5

Total

29.5

Emphasis was given throughout the course to the suitability of materials, calculations of cost and quantities, colour coordination and sizing garments to customer requirements. All the teachers were experienced and practising professionals.

The admission policy was the same as the Day Trade School at Borough Polytechnic but a number of free places were available which were granted by the governors.

Day Trade School of Dressmaking at Paddington Institute (LCC).

The primary aim of the Day Trade School was to offer girls leaving elementary school an alternative to an apprenticeship in dressmaking. Approximately two and half days were devoted to trade instruction whilst the rest of the week was aimed at providing a general education with special reference to dressmaking. A typical subject profile was:

English literature and composition.

Vocal expression.

Arithmetic and bookkeeping.

Drawing.

Geometry.

French.

Domestic economy.

Physical education.

The programme was usually two years in duration with a three month probationary period. The age was for 14 to 16 year olds with opportunities for other students to enter subject to a fee of 10s (50p) per term or £1.50 per year. Similar entry criteria were in place as with the Polytechnic mentioned above.

Day Trade School for Girls at the Shoreditch Technical Institute (LCC).

Opened in 1906 with the objective of offering industrial training to girls leaving elementary school and an alternative to apprenticeships. The trade subject focused on designing and making ready-made rather than customised clothing and upholstery. 50% of the week was dedicated to the trade the student had chosen and the other half on general education which included English composition, arithmetic, design, freehand and geometrical drawing, some domestic subjects and physical education. Courses lasted two years and entry was similar to the Paddington Institute. Again supervision conducted by a Consultative Committee of experts.

Preparatory Trade School for Girls at the Cockburn High School, Leeds.

Opened in February 1906 to provide a very practically focused training programme designed to replace the then disappearing apprenticeship programmes. One priority was to engage with employers and link the school and workplace as much as possible. The school was more general in its approach than the London Trade Schools. Approximately 15 hours a week were given to practical work and the remaining to business methods, drafting, drawing, design, hygiene, additional elements of housewifery and general education. The primary objective was to adapt the course to the specific needs of the girls and depending on their occupational aspirations. The Trade School worked closely with the School of Housecraft situated at the Cockburn High School and this relationship provided greater opportunities to the girls. The course was usually a yearlong with a termly fee of 7 shillings. Girls were admitted from the age of 14 but a number of 13 year olds were also admitted who had gained or could receive a labour certificate.

Domestic Science School for Girls Liverpool:

Opened in 1896 and was a result of work of the Liverpool Training School of Cookery and Technical College of Domestic Science. The focus of the school was to provide grounding in the trades and skills required by elementary school leavers before entering different domestic occupations. Course duration was twenty weeks and instruction was given in cookery. housewifery, hygiene, laundry work and sewing. The school could accommodate 70 pupils and was open from 9.30 to 4.00 each day except Saturday. There were five classes for practical work with a maximum of 15 girls per class. Some subjects were offered on a rotating one week basis and the cycle was repeated four times in a session. Interestingly the school was actually based in a house which was lived in and used. The Principal and four teachers were resident and the girls performed all the regular duties. The girls were also required to plan, purchase and manage for a small house hold. In dressmaking each girl was measured for her own pattern and then made the garment for herself. The practical work was carried out each morning and the afternoon demonstrations were given on the principles of skills involved in the various trades.

A fee of 1 shilling (5p) was charged to girls from the elementary schools; others paid 2 shillings and sixpence (12.5p). Liverpool City Council gave a grant on the understanding that a certain number of girls from elementary schools would be enrolled. The usual age of entry was between 14 and 15 and none were eligible over 18 years of age.

The Domestic Economy School, Dallington, Northamptonshire.

Opened in 1896 by the Northamptonshire County Council the Domestic Economy School at Dallington aimed to provide a thorough training in the skills and trades of domestic services with a special focus on the economic use of materials and time. The accommodation comprised a residential school set in two acres of land with gardens including a flower bed, lawns and vegetable plots, a house and paddock. The girls were expected to carry out all duties expected in such a domestic complex – no servants were employed. The school catered for 30 girls all who had attended elementary schools and entered at 14; all boarding and meals were provided free. Initially the course was to last six months but it was decided that this was not long enough and in 1899 it was extended to eight months. Two school entries were operated every four months and the girls were paired into ‘old’ and ‘new’ girls.

The timetable over the thirty-four weeks was as follows:

Kitchen and scullery work 9 weeks, Laundry 9 weeks, Housework (upstairs) 9 weeks and Housework (downstairs) 7 weeks.

Instruction was also given in bed-making, cooking, dressmaking, ironing, house-cleaning, lighting, mending and sewing. Instruction in basis first aid was also given.

Special Schools for Engineering and Trade Schools for Boys:

Technical Day School, Paddington Technical Institute, London.

Opened in September 1906 to provide a course of scientific and technical training prior to entry into the engineering and building trades. Boys leaving Higher Elementary and Secondary Schools were eligible who wanted employment as foremen and managers. The training was not meant to replace apprenticeship training or workshop experience. Entry was at 14 years of age and required a recommendation from the head teacher of the previous secondary school or by examination for elementary school pupils. Course lasted two years and focussed on the particular industry the boys wished to enter. The curriculum comprised instruction on workshop practice, use of tools and drawing office methods. Curricula also included Applied Mechanics, Business methods, Chemistry, Commercial Correspondence, English Composition, Mathematics and Physics. School opened between 9.30 and 12.30 and 2 to 5 p.m. on five days a week and operated a three term year.

The fee was 15 shillings (75p) per term or £2 and 5 shillings (£2.25p) a year. In addition the County Council offered a number of scholarships for 14 to 16 year olds and provided free tuition and a maintenance grant of £10 and £15 for the first and second years respectively.

Day Technical Classes at the LCC Central School of Arts and Crafts, Regent Street, London.

Established in September 1906 provided preliminary training in silver smithing and allied trades. Number of pupils 20 and the annual fee was £1.50p with ten County Council studentships.

Technical Day School for Boys at the Shoreditch Technical Institute (LCC).

Opened in January 1902 with the objective of training boys to enter furniture or other wood-working trades e.g. cabinet-making, carpenters, draughtsmen, pattern-makers, wood-carvers and turners. In addition to the specialist subject general education was continued with subjects that included Arithmetic and Mensuration, Drawing Freehand and Model, English Composition, Geography, Geometry and Geometrical Drawing, History, Modelling in Clay. Classes were also held in experimental science (theory and practical), workshop practice, technology of materials and use of tools and extensive bench work. Special emphasis was given to acquiring knowledge of the artistic principles of design and the scientific and technological principles of the disciplines. The instruction was as follows:

Subject 1st Year 2nd Year 3rd Year
English 4.5 3.0 1.5
Art Drawing and Modelling 6.0 4.5 3.0
Mathematics 6.0 4.5 3.0
Science and Technical Subjects 6.0 4.5 4.5
Workshop and Drawing Office 7.5 15.0* 19.5

Key: * Six hours metal work

Entry levels were set at Standard VII of elementary schools for boys of 14 years of age and 25 scholarships were available for younger boys. Scholarships awarded on examination results and were available for two or three years. Course duration was for two or three years. The fee was £1. 10 shillings (£1.50p).

Technical day School for Boys at the Borough Polytechnic Institute.

The Technical Day School for Boys located at the Borough polytechnic was opened in 1897 and re-organised in 1906 to provide trade training. Instruction in a wide range of trades was offered including a number of branches in engineering, various metal trades, bakery, book-binding, chemical technologies, confectionery and tailoring. Entry was at 12 years of age with V1 th. Standard of an elementary school and the entrants needed to exhibit a commitment to a specific trade. Course duration was 3 years with an opportunity for a one year extension.

The curriculum included: English subjects, practical mathematics, freehand and model drawing, mechanical and engineering drawing, mechanics, physics and chemistry, wood and metal working, one foreign language (French or German) and physical education. A typical profile of hours spent over the three years is given below:

Subject

1st Year

2nd Year

3rd Year

Mathematics (incl. mensuration and geometry) 5 4 4.5
English incl. Special lectures and visits to museums and works. 6 3 3
Science (Chemistry and Physics) 4 4.5 6
Drawing (Freehand, Engineering and Model) 4 5 5
Art 2 1.5
Foreign Language (French or German) 3 3
Workshop Instruction 5 5 7.5
Physical Education 1.5 1.5 1
Totals: 27.5 27.5 30.0

The first year was common for all the students and in the second year they were organised depending on the boy’s chosen trade but no specialisation was allowed until the third year, the second year being a more general introduction particularly in the workshop to the trade. The optional fourth year was aimed at students who possessed a greater aptitude and wanted an extended period of more specialised training and showed special aptitude.

The LCC awarded 25 scholarships tenable for three years to thirteen year olds which allowed free tuition and maintenance. There were also Free Tuition Scholarships and scholarships provided from other sources giving free training along with £8 for the second year and £11 for the third year.

The fee for the other students was £1 per tern or £3 for a year. Again an Advisory Committee monitored the school’s progress and formed a link with local industries helping the boys to gain employment when completing the course.

The Stanley Technical Trade School:

Opened in March 1907 in South Norwood, London by W. F. Stanley who founded a successful optical and scientific instrument company. Stanley financed the setting up of the school and initially played a major role in defining its purpose. The main objective was to teach the elements of mechanics, science and applied art and manual skills and dexterity using workshop practice before entering apprenticeship programmes. The school was overseen by a board of governors with a membership of the Major of the Borough and people interested in technical education. School was open for boys between 12 and 13 with a four monthly entry for 50 with a maximum of 400 boys. Entry criteria included a proven commitment and experience in mechanical and artistic ability and a preference was given in some cases to sons of mechanics. Subjects taught included a wide range of instruction and techniques associated with wood and metal e.g. casting, electro-deposition, fitting, soldering, turning with extra tuition on carving, design, drawing, engraving, modelling, painting and printing. Half the week was devoted to practical work and the remaining half to general education. The instructors were experienced mechanics e.g. engineers, joiners and the general instruction given by qualified teachers.

The fee was 1 shilling (5p) a week for the first year then free for the second and third years. At the opening of the school Stanley suggested one way of covering the costs of the practical instruction was to make boxes of bricks, models of trucks and cranes and other toys to compete with those that were at the time being imported from Germany. He also suggested that the manufacture could be by recycling material from his own factory.

Other similar schools were established in other parts of the country e.g. Gloucestershire.

The school later became a Junior Technical School (JTS) – see the biography on this website.

The day Prepararatory Trade School for boys at the Cockburn High School, Leeds.

Opened in 1906 for boys wishing to become engineers. Again the training was meant to compensate for the disappearance of the then traditional apprenticeship. Entry was by labour certificate and for boys aged 13 or 14. The course lasted one year and strict regulations were in force to make certain the boys were still committed to the course and their intended occupation in engineering. Workshop practice, drawing, office work and practical mechanics occupied fifteen hours and another five hours for applied and workshop calculations and mathematics. Tutors and instructors were qualified and experienced practitors of engineering. The fee was 7 shillings (35p) a term. Equipment, books and stationery were provided free but other items e.g. for homework i.e. drawing apparatus etc were bought be parents. One pleasing aspect of the school was the involvement and support from local employers and that the boys easily found employment in the Leeds area.

The Holbeck Day Preparatory School Trade School, Leeds.

Opened in February 1906 and offering a two year course for boys wishing to enter the engineering trades. Aim was to develop manual dexterity skills and continue his general education.

The profile of instruction for the first year was:

Subject

Hours per week

Practical mathematics

5

Mechanics

3

Technical drawing

34.5

Metal work

6

Wood work

2

English

6

Physical education/Drill

1

Total

27.5

In addition visits to local companies and works were organised.

The second year followed a similar pattern by at a more advanced level and students who showed a particular aptitude were encouraged to specialise even more in their chosen engineering discipline.

Entry was at thirteen after leaving elementary school and parents had to give an undertaking not to withdraw their child. A fee for the term was set at 7 shilling (35p) and £1. 1 shilling (£1.10p) a year. The school provided all books, instruments and equipment free of charge.

The Pre-Apprenticeship Day School at the Bootle Technical School.

Provided training for sons of artisans, tradesmen and others wishing to enter industrial occupations and led to entry to apprenticeships at 16. The course consisted of training in the elements of science applied to the local industries e.g. mechanical engineering and building trades and general education. The course lasted two years and successful students then entered apprenticeships at 16. The curriculum consisted of mechanical and geometrical drawing, applied mathematics and workshop arithmetic, elementary chemistry, mechanics and physics and practical and experimental lessons. English was also taught with an emphasis on good and clear expression. Ten hours per week were spent on workshop practice aimed at acquiring skills in metal work. Entry began at 13 and the boys had to have gained the VI th. Standard in a public elementary school. The weekly fee was 1 shilling (5p).

The Day Craft School at the Brimscombe Polytechnic, Near Stroud, Somerset.

Opened in September 1906 and arising from a proposal in 1901 to use the workshops at the Brimscombe Polytechnic to provide manual instruction to pupils from the local elementary schools. This proposal proved a success and the provision was extended to offering day craft classes for boys in order to train boys to enter the local industries that were predominately wood-working making such items as walking sticks handles, umbrellas. The skills required included carpentry, joinery, cabinet-making, wood-carving, inlaying and marquetry and wood staining. Drawing formed a significant part of the practical work and half the time was devoted to manual instruction and the other half to general education. The curriculum was matched to the needs of the local industries and the pupils. Other aspects taught included commercial geography, accounts, mensuration, and properties of materials, simple experimental science, essay writing and physical education. Entry was set for 12 year olds and the course lasted two years. The Board of Education (BoE) recognised the day craft school as a public elementary school. It proved a great success with local industry and highlighted the advantages of co-operation between managers, teachers, parents and employers. Its success established another school in Stroud.

References:

Sadler. M. E. ‘Continuation Schools in England and Elsewhere’. Manchester. 1907.

Millis. C. T. ‘Technical Education Its Development and Aims’. Edward Arnold. London. 1925.

Millis. C.T. ‘Education for Trades and Industries’. Edward Arnold. London. 1932.

 

The Importance of Work Related Learning (WRL) for All

One of the most disappointing aspects of the Wolf Review was the recommendation that WRL should not be a statutory requirement for 14-16 year olds. Equally sad was that the government endorsed that recommendation and removed the funding from schools that has been successful in developing education business partnerships over the past few years. This decision is consistent with others of the government as it continues to narrow the curriculum and heavily prescribe and proscribe areas of it creating a bland and sanitised offering to the majority of 14 to 16 year olds. I find the decision perplexingly paradoxical as the government now seems committed to strengthen post-16 vocational programmes including apprenticeships. Evidence shows that stronger links between the education sectors and the world of work are valuable on a number of counts including:

  • The strengthening of links between education and work and teachers and employers
  • WRL programmes often create effective and lasting partnerships between schools, FE colleges and local employers which again improve students’ knowledge of post-16 opportunities
  • The contradiction of the often made accusation that the two sectors do not understand each other; such partnerships also helps to allay mutual suspicions between the sectors
  • That the various forms of work placement/shadowing/experience/sampling greatly assist learner decisions about post 16 education and work opportunities
  • WRL programmes help to strengthen the careers information, advice and guidance (CIAG) systems in schools
  • The statutory has certainly helped to develop education/business partnerships that lead to a wider range of activities; these help schools and employers bring students to a closer understanding and contact with the reality and vitality of different kinds of businesses and occupations.

Anyone who has worked in the school and college sectors knows that very often students have career or further/higher education aspirations that are unrealistic and the opportunity to experience or observe that occupation via a WRL programme can confirm or not that intention. A student might for example wish to work with old people, children or animals but after a placement realise that career was not for them –surely that cannot be a bad thing!

Many commentators have welcomed the decision to remove funding for WRL programmes which is surprising given the apparent government commitment to review and reform vocational education and training pre and post 16. These commentators see the removal of the statutory requirement as a positive development because it reduces the government intervention in schools but I fear even if this is true the decision will significantly weaken the fundamental importance of WRL at Key Stage 4. It will weaken CIAG programmes and most certainly cause a regression in education business links and partnerships undoing positive developments of the past decades. Key stage 4 should be about providing learning opportunities and experiences that help students decide on which route they should pursue post-16 e.g. the so-called academic or vocational pathway.

Sadly the current school educational reforms are reinforcing and perpetuating the myth that the best route is HE and degrees. The messages from ministers and policy makers are contradictory even paradoxical: they want on one hand to rebalance the economy and place greater emphasis on apprenticeships and vocational disciplines and yet propose a significant retrenchment to a narrower core curriculum for 14 to 16 year olds. The country urgently needs to increase numbers of students pursuing technical, commercial and vocational programmes especially at the higher levels and reduce the continuing academic drift which is being encouraged by the coalition government.

(First published by University of Warwick in March 2013 www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/cei/centrelinkmagazine)

The Richard Review of Apprenticeships

The Richard Review of Apprenticeships

Published in November 2012 this independent review makes a number of important recommendations in regard to apprenticeships. The more significant recommendations include:

  • Apprenticeships need to be ‘redefined’ having lost the essential link between the employer and the apprentice in recent times
  • The main focus should be on ‘outcomes’
  • Should be ‘more employer focused’ and with government funding to employers
  • Apprenticeships ‘should be industry led’
  • Industry standards’ are essential throughout the programme and defined by the employers
  • A new set of qualifications should be developed matched to the industry standards defined
  • Apprentices ‘should achieve level 2 in English and Mathematics’ on completion of the programme
  • Assessment regimes should be simplified and be less bureaucratic
  • Apprenticeship programmes must be promoted in a more positive way by government and employers with better quality of information to prospective apprentices
  • Pre-Apprenticeship programmes/traineeships should be expanded

The review accurately identifies the bureaucratic nature of assessment for qualifications and an obsession with box ticking characterised by ‘micro-level prescription’ often associated with government interference. Many current on-job training or retraining programmes are not strictly apprenticeships but are labelled as such. The review argues that training to improve the skills of a person who has been employed for some time or who is not yet ready to start employment should not be called an apprenticeship. It also highlights the massive variation in length of the programmes, in some cases just three months and it proposes a minimum duration of one year. The review repeatedly stresses that the future regulation of the frameworks should be light touch. This point is mentioned several times in the review and has already attracted concern from amongst awarding bodies particularly in regard to the approval of training providers whether in the public or private sectors. Clearly any training provision must be of the highest quality with the rigorous application of industry standards so any mention of light touch must be viewed with some caution. The programmes should provide a greater emphasis on outcomes, subjected to industry standards and be targeted on apprentices entering employment or are engaged in occupations that require significant and continuous training.

I hope that the government takes on board the review at this critical time if it is serious about rebalancing the economy as apprenticeships are an essential component. The technical and vocational education and training system of which apprenticeship frameworks are becoming an important part could further ensure the provision of relevancy and highly qualified people to contribute to the country’s economy. They need to be managed with a high sense of purpose and commitment though. The apprenticeship frameworks and associated qualifications must be flexible, responsive, and relevant and fit for purpose underpinned with robust delivery. Apprenticeship must form an important part of a suite of technical, commercial and vocational programmes. Sadly the vocational qualifications system is still seen as second class and all the traditional problems and negative perceptions that have bedevilled it for decades are still currently evident in government political and policy commentary*. Apprenticeships together with the vocational qualifications system must as from now been seen as equivalent to so-called academic qualifications including at higher levels and these viewed as of equal status to university awards should be explicit.

Overall the review has many good points but I feel it still lacks a fundamental analysis of what the frameworks should look like in the future. For example I would have liked to see more detail on how the programmes would be flexible enough in order to recognise and cope with the uncertain times associated with austerity, high youth unemployment and a volatile employment climate. Apprenticeships should play a major part in any rebalancing of the economy. Attention is also needed to the part key professional bodies like the CIPHE and other employer organisations would play in the development and operation of the apprenticeship programmes in the future. Hopefully the government will implement the findings and this will trigger a more thorough reform of this important element of the skills agenda.

(First published in the Education and Training Magazine (ETM) for Plumbing lecturers Spring 2013. SNG Publishers Ltd.).

Information on Colleges and Training Providers

 

Updated November 2016.

1582 Edinburgh University founded

1592 Trinity College Dublin founded

1596 Gresham College founded.

In 1613 Robin Hood Society founded by H. Middleton.

In 1685 Hackney Academy founded discontinued in 1820 founded by B. Morland.

In 1710 Mathematical School in Southwark founded by T. Crosby.

In 1717/1718 Soho Academy founded by M. Clare.

In 1750 Warwick Academy founded by J. C. Ryland moved to Northampton in 1759 and in 1785 to Enfield.

In 1752 Kendal Academy dissolved.

In 1763 Glasgow University provided Joseph Black with a chemical laboratory- subsequently he performed some of his classic heat experiments.

In 1763 Kensington Academy founded by J. Elphinston.

1777 Naval academy founded in Chelsea.

In 1781 Manchester Lit and Phil founded.

In 1783 The College of Arts and Science Manchester founded.

In 1786 Manchester Academy founded.

In the 1780s and 1790s there were approximately 200 Academies about 66% were in London the rest distributed across the country.

1791 Naval academy founded in Gosport by W. Burney.

In 1798 Thomas Cranfield opened a Day School in Kent Street London.

In 1798 Adult School founded in Nottingham the first.

In 1818 Leeds Lit and Phil founded.

In 1821 Edinburgh School of Arts opened. (April).

1823 Liverpool Mechanics and Apprentices’ Library opened.

1823 Glasgow Mechanics’ Institution founded.

In session 1823/24 Edinburgh School of Art enrolled 317 students in such subjects as joinery industries (91), masonry industries (24), engineering (13), printers (8) and mathematical instrument making and optics (5).

From 1824 the average attendance at London Mechanics’ Institution was: 1824-750. 1826-1,477. 1828-1,100. 1830-950 and in 1831-941.

1824 Dublin Mechanics’ Institution founded – later there were 28 Mechanics’ Institutions in Ireland.

In 1825 Greenock Institution of Art and Science charged 52.5 pennies for masters, 25 pennies for journeymen and 12.5 pennies for apprentices. At Devonport ‘operational subscribers paid 1.5 pennies per week and apprentices 1 p. Leeds Mechanics’ Institution paid 25 pennies per half year and at Newcastle Mechanics’ Institution 60 pennies per annum.

In 1825 Bradford Mechanics’ Institution founded it was renewed itself in 1832.

In 1826 100 Mechanics’ Institutions by 1850 approximately 700.

In 1828 University College London opened attained University status in 1836.

1828 between 1828 and 1843 the Todmorden Natural History Society was very active.

In 1829 Kings College School founded.

In the 1830s Mechanics’ Institutions membership comprised roughly 50% tradesmen, 33% mechanics and 13% clerks.

In 1831 Ripon Mechanics’ Institution founded by 1849 it had nearly 300 members.

In 1831 Kings College opened attained University status in 1836.

In 1831 University of Durham projected and chartered in 1837.

In 1834 the lecture programme at Liverpool Mechanics’ Institution was: Hamlet. The microscope. Stenography. Milton. Mechanics. Combustion. Music of Ireland. Production and Use of Silk. The Middle Ages. Oratory. Perspective. Phrenology. Sanitary Regulations and German Customs.

In 1834 enrolments at Manchester evening schools were 1,458.

In 1835 enrolments at Salford evening schools were 526.

In 1835 enrolments at Bury evening schools were 151.

In 1836 enrolment at Liverpool evening schools were 548.

In 1836/37 Brougham Institution founded Liverpool.

In 1837 Cornwall Polytechnic Society founded in Falmouth by the Fox family.

In 1837 66% of the London Mechanics’ Institution Management Committee had to be working class.

In 1838 Engineering Department established at Kings College London.

In 1838 membership at Huddersfield, Leeds and Manchester Mechanics’ Institutions were 310, 260 and 830 respectively.

In 1838 number of members at the Manchester Lyceuaems: Ancoats-735. Salford-1,500 and Chorlton-530.

In 1838 Salford Literary and Mechanics’ Institution founded under the title of the Salford Lyceuaem.

From 1838 number of members at the Nottingham Mechanics’ Institution were: 1838-747. 1840-899. 1845-816 and in 1850-815.

In 1839 the Museum of Economic Geology founded, in 1851 it became part of the new Government School of Mines Applied to the Arts, in 1853 became the Royal College of Chemistry incorporated as a chemistry department, in 1857 became the Government School of Mines and of Science Applied to the Arts, in 1881 became Normal School of Science and Royal College of Mines and in 1890 became Royal College of Science and Royal College of Mines.

In 1838 enrolments at Birmingham evening schools were 563.

In 1839 Museum of Economic Geology opened and went through a number of name changes e.g. in 1851 known as the Government School of Mines Applied to the Arts, In 1853 became College of Chemistry. In 1857 because the Government School of Mines and Science Applied to the Arts. In 1881 became the Normal School of Science and Royal School of Mines and in1890 became Royal College of Science and Royal School of Mines.

In 1840 Oldham had a School of Science and Art – initially called the Lyceum – started SoA examinations in 1874. In 1882 it enrolled 675 science and 110 art students with technical classes in mechanical engineering, tools and cotton manufacture reflecting the local industries.

In 1841 to 1852 17 schools of industrial design were founded.

1841 220 Mechanics’ Institutions in existence with 30,000 members

In 1841 Andrew Walker opened a Ragged School or School of Industry in Field Lane, Smithfields, London

In 1842 Peoples’ College Sheffield founded by Rev Bayley. Subjects taught included Latin, French, German, Greek, Mathematics, English Lit, Logic, Elocution and Drawing – weekly fee 9 penny (approximately 5p).

In 1842 between 1842 and 1852 21 provincial schools of design were established including in Manchester, Birmingham and Glasgow.

In 1842 Metropolitan Early Closing Association founded – encouraged opportunities for intellectual, physical and moral education and improvement.  Formed the basis for the YMCA.

In 1843 Royal Dockyard Schools opened at Woolwich, Sheerness, Portsmouth and Devonport.

In 1843 the membership at Huddersfield, Leeds and Manchester Mechanics Institutions were 190, 816 and 807 respectively.

In 1844 Young Men’s Mental Improvement Society became Huddersfield Mechanics’ Institution’

Queen’s College founded in Belfast, Cork and Galway.

In 1846 Peoples Instruction Society Birmingham founded.

In 1846 Royal Naval College founded.

In 1846 Thirsk Mechanics’ Institution established by E. Gatley and E. Jowett.

In 1848 Masham Mechanics’ Institution founded by John Fisher.

In 1849 Brighton Working Men’s Institute founded.

In 1849 The Oddfellows Literary Institute in Leeds had a library of 1,200 volumes.

In 1850 the membership at Huddersfield, Leeds and Manchester Mechanics’ Institutions were 779, 1,873 and 1,254 respectively.

In 1850 there were 44 Mechanics’ Institutions in Lancashire with 12,405 members

In 1850 there were 610 Mechanics’ Institutions in England with a subscribing membership of 102,050 and 691,500 publications in their libraries. If the Mutual Improvement Societies, Christian and Church of England Institutions and Evening Adult Schools were added the grand total for England was 700 with 107,000 members.

In 1850 the three Irish universities were united – Queens University- in 1880 Queens University was superseded by the Royal University of Ireland.

In 1851 there were: 610 Mechanics’ Institutions in England with 102.050 members. 12 in Wales with 1,472 members. 55 in Scotland with 12,554 members and 25 in Ireland with 4,005 members. Grand totals 702 Institutions with 120,081 members. Reference:Hudson 1851 ‘History of Adult Education.’

In 1851 there were 1,017 literary and scientific institutions in England, 40 in Wales and 225 in Scotland.

In 1851 Census recorded 1,545 adult schools with approximately 40,000 students – by 1858 there were 2,036 evening schools wit approximately 81,000 students (55,000 males, 26,000 females) -majority children/adolescents.

In 1851 Science instruction in schools between 1851 and 1872 went from: Number of schools 0 to 94. Number of pupils 38 to 2,803 and number of pupils 1,330 to 36,783. (Note some science instruction went on in a very small number of institutions).

In 1851 there were 438 evening schools.

In 1851 Number of Evening Schools in Lancashire (319), in Middlesex (181) and Yorkshire (160).

In 1851 there were approximately 55 Mechanics’ Institutions in Scotland ranging with a membership from 20 to 700

In 1851 Night schools received funding for the first time.

In 1851 Owens College Manchester opened attained University status in 1903.

The total returns from the Literary and Mechanics’ Institutions in 1851 were:

Country

No. of Institutions

Subscribing Members

Volumes in libraries

News-rooms

England

610

102,050

691,500

372

Wales

12

1.472

6,855

8

Scotland

55

12,554

59,661

15

Ireland

25

4,005

57,500

13

Totals:

702

102,081

815,516

408

Source: Hudson J. W. ‘The History of Adult Education’ 1851.

In 1852 the Todmorden Botanical Society was founded by A. Stansfield and J. Nowell.

Between 1852 and 1858 the 17 Schools of Design increased to 56 and student numbers increased from 4,800 to 35,000.

In 1853 Peoples’ College opened in London subjects taught included arithmetic, algebra, geometry, astronomy, history and geography.

In 1853 the Midlands Institution founded.

In 1853 the Royal College of Chemistry became the department of chemistry at the Metropolitan School of Science and remained so until the School was renamed the Royal College of Science and Royal School of Mines.

In 1855 there were 368 Mechanics’ Institutions in membership of the Union of Institutions (facilitated by the SA and the Society of Arts Journal acted as a means of communication between them and the Society.

In 1855 King’s College London instituted an Evening Class Department.

In 1855 Haley Hill College (vocational focus cf. Working Men’s College) Halifax opened closed early 1880s.

In 1858 Salford College (vocational focus) opened closed 1886.

In 1858 at least 25 Mechanics’ Institutions in Yorkshire had erected their own buildings.

In 1859 Boston College (vocational focus) opened closed 1892.

From 1859 any pupil of the artisan class who passed an examination of the Science and Art Department gained a grant for his teacher. Payments varied depending on the grade achieved. In 1866 £5,000 was paid to teachers and by 1867 £8,000 was paid out.

In 1860 the Science and Art Department started its programme for science examinations with 30 classes and 1,340 candidates mostly in private and endowed schools. By 1873 there were 1,182 classes and 24,674 candidates.

In 1860 a Scientific Society of the Haley Hill Working Men’s College in Halifax was founded.

In 1860 Westminster Working Men’s Club founded.

In 1861 Owen College, Manchester only enrolled 88 day students.

In 1861 Liverpool School of Science founded.

In 1861 Notting Hill Working Men’s Hall founded.

In 1861 Ipswich College (vocational focus) opened closed 1890.

In 1862 the Union of Working Men’s Clubs/Colleges/Institute was established and by 1889 there were 329 clubs in membership and by 1899 there were 683 members. The majority of the club movement was from London, Home Counties, Lancashire, Cheshire, Yorkshire and the West Midlands (479 of the clubs in 1899 were from these regions very few in Scotland and Wales.

In 1862 10 females passed the SoA examination in Arithmetic, Gospel and Acts, English , History, Geography and Needle work. All had attended the Ladies Educational Institute which was part of the Leeds Mechanics’ Institution. (From the 25th report of the Yorkshire Union of Mechanics’ Institutions 1862.)

In 1862 Leicester College founded by D. J. Vaugham and called Working Men’s College in 1868 has continued to operate and now called Vaugham College an extra-mural centre of University of Leicester.

In 1862 Hartley Institute Southampton opened attained University status in 1952.

In 1864 London Working Men’s College  (founded in 1858) had 127 day and 312 evening students.

In 1865 Ovenden Naturalists’ Society in Halifax was founded.

In 1866 there were 18,139 students in 102 Schools of Art, 1,140 students in 32 night classes and 80,084 learning drawing in elementary schools.

In 1866 London Mechanics’ Institution changed its name to the Birkbeck Literary and Scientific Institution and in 1907 to Birkbeck College and in 1950 became part of University of London

In 1867 there were 212 Science Schools with 10,230 students – the so-called ‘organised science schools began in 1872.

Reported that there were 226 Sunday  Ragged Schools, 204 Day Schools and 207 Evening Schools with an average attendance of 26,000.

In 1868 London Working Men’s College, Southwark founded by T H Huxley (see biography on this website).

In 1868 Manchester Building Trades Institute of Technical Education opened with 200 students but this number declined to just 35 by 1880. (Possible explanation the ‘Master Builders’ did not support apprenticeships).

In 1869 Portsmouth and Gosport School of Science and the Arts founded.

In 1867 there were 212 science schools with 10,230 students. The so-called organised science schools date from 1872 presented pupils for the South Kensington examinations.

In 1867 Dalkeith Working Men’s Club and Institution founded.

In 1870 Blackheath Proprietary School London founded.

In 1871 Royal Indian Engineering College Coopers Hill founded.

In 1871 Newcastle College of Physical Science opened attained University status 1963.

In 1872 Crystal Palace School of Practical Engineering established.

In 1873 Institute for Boys and Youths founded at Camberwell, New Road, London.

In 1873 there were 120 schools of art spread across the UK also there were 180,000 boys and girls taught drawing in elementary schools and there were 500 night schools for teaching drawing to artisans.

In 1873 National Training School of Cookery founded in Kensington (1873-1902) became the National Training School of Cookery and Other Branches of Domestic Economy between 1902 and 1931 and then National Training College of Domestic Subjects between 1931 and 1962).

In 1873 Mather and Platt opened their own training school for their employees this continued until 1905.

In 1874 York College of Science Leeds opened attained University status in 1904

In 1874 the Artizans’ Institute founded was an offshoot of the trades Guild of Learning. It pioneered trade classes .

In 1876 number of Day Schools had declined from 195 to 74 with a decline from 23,052 to 5,678 pupils.

IN 1876 College of Science for the West of England, Bristol opened attained University status in 1909.

1877 between 1877 and 1886 no workshop training of any kind was provided at the National Art Training School based in South Kensington.

In 1879 70 Mechanics’ Institutions offered courses in conjunction with the Department of Science and Arts – enrolments were 1,498 in Mathematics, 1425 in Chemistry,1275 in Magnetism, 1128 in Machine Construction and Drawing, 665 in Applied Mechanics , 634 in Steam Technology and 92 in Mining.

In 1880 the Department of Science and Arts estimated that there were 4,000 students attending science classes at Mechanics’ Institutions who were eligible for ‘payment by results’ – and 1,000 attended during the day.

In 1880 first chair in mining established at The Newcastle College of Physical Sciences.

In 1880 Firth College Sheffield opened attained University status in 1905.

In 1881 University College Nottingham opened attained University status in 1948.

In 1881 Foundation stone laid for the Finsbury Technical College (CGLI) – CGLI spent £36,000 on its construction.

In 1882 there were 909,000 students in schools of art and 69,500 in schools of science (Data from Royal Commission on Technical Instruction 1884).

In 1882 University College Liverpool opened attained University status in 1903.

In 1882 the number of centres designated for CGLI examinations were as follows: 25 Mechanics’ and Working Men’s Institutions, 20 Schools of Science and Art, 9 Technical Colleges, 7 Literary, Scientific, or Library Institutes, 9 Institutes, Exeter Training College,23 Schools, 11 Board Schools and National Schools giving a grand total of 134 centres. (By 1983-4 there were 2,246 centres).

In 1883 Toynbee Hall founded.

In 1884 Central Institution at South Kensington founded.

Brunner Mond encouraged and offered their employees technical education.

In 1885 there were 3 Organised Science Schools, 125 in 1896 and 212 in 1901 and nearly 25% of these were attached to board schools.

In session 1886/87 there were 638 students at the Central Institution of the CGLI.

In 1887 Kevin Street Technical School opened – two schools one for science and the arts and the one for the technical trade subjects.

In 1887 People’s Palace opened (Mile End Road) – later became East London Technical College and is now Queens College part on London University.

In 1888 Manchester Central Higher School opened.

Between 1889 and 1902 ‘Whiskey Money’ provided 12 more Polytechnics and Technical Institutions in London and 13 in the provinces and more than 100 ‘organised science schools’.

After 1889 Technical Colleges that were run by local government came into being examples included Gravesend (1898). Dover (1900) and Dartford (1904)

In 1889 Bradford Technical College enrolled 314 day students and 1,337 evening students and Keighley Technical College enrolled 214, and 983 students on those modes of attendance. Note the large disparity between day and evening enrolments!

In the 1890s it was reckoned that <10% of skilled workers had directly experienced any formal training.

In 1891 Battersea Polytechnic founded

In 1891 Young Men’s Christian Institution became the Regent Street Polytechnic (See biography on this website)

In 1892 a Report to the L.C.C. by H. Llewellyn Smith identified there were only 24,000 evening in the whole of London. Out of 24,000 bricklayers only 90 were receiving formal training, out of 7,000 cabinet makers and upholsterers only 120 were doing any sort of training and out of 10,000 men in London tanneries only 13 were studying chemistry.

In 1892 University Extension College opened Reading attained University status in 1926.

In 1882 In 1882/1883 1,977 evening schools with 116,000 students.

In 1893 The Central Institution changed its name to Central Technical College (CGLI) and in 1901 became a School of the University of London.

In 1894 there were 113 trade classes in the London Polytechnics and by 1904 this figure had risen to 313 in such disciplines as bricklaying, painting and decorating, plastering, plumbing and printing.

In1894  Bolton a Manual Training School was linked with the Technical College.

In 1894 South Eastern Agriculture College Wye admitted first 13 students

In 1885 there were 3 Organised Science Schools in 1896 this had increased to 125 and by 1901 there were 212 – approximately 25% were  attached to School Boards.

In 1895 Exeter Technical and University College opened attained University status in 1955.

In 1896 the Northern Polytechnic Institution (Holloway) opened its mission being ‘To promote the industrial skills, general knowledge, health and wellbeing of young men and women’.

In 1896 298,724 pupils attended evening continuation schools in 1899 the figure had risen to 474,563 and approximately 14.4% were over 21 years of age.

In 1897 there were 23,256 evening students at the 9 London Polytechnics of whom approximately 33% were attending classes in building, engineering and metal trades and 1,590 on various other trade courses.

1898 between 1898 and 1904 there was an annual enrolment in book-keeping of 17,000, shorthand of 2,900, needlework of 1,800 and manual training 17,000.

In 1899 Ruskin College opened.

In 1899 In session 1899/1900 5,263 evening schools with 206.000 students.

In 1899 Brewing introduced at Birmingham University.

At the end of the 19th century 170,000 students were receiving instruction in Department of Science and Arts classes.

In 1901 Central Institutions (CIs) were designed in Scotland and by 1964/65 there were 6,000 full-time students studying in CIs.

In session 1901/02 in London only about 15% of 14 to 21 year olds enrolled in the Boards evening schools.

In 1901 Coal Gas and Fuel Industries introduced at Leeds University.

Number of Students Attending Evening Schools in England and Wales between 1902 and 1905:

Number

1902/03

1903/04

1904/05

Number of Evening Schools Recognised by BoE

5,624

5,579

5,706

Number of Students

657,594

696,882

718,562

Source: Statistics 1902-06. Cd3255. BoE.

In 1902 the first town to adopt the course system throughout its Evening Continuation Schools was in Halifax.

In 1902 Biochemistry introduced at Liverpool University.

1902 between 1902 and 1918 ONLY ten technical schools were built! (G A N Lowndes).

In 1902 total number of students at Bradford Technical College was 1,136 of whom 188 attended textiles classes, 158 dyeing classes and 567 engineering classes.

In 1902/03 number of students in evening schools (on government paid grants) was 440,718, number on full-time and part-time study attending BoE recognised provision operating under the FE regulations was 977,000 and Adult Regulations the number was 47,283 this figure increased significantly to 1,025,000 by 1934.

In 1903/04 Liverpool Municipal Technical School there were 1,005 class entries for engineering metal trades programmes but only 155 were for anything higher than the ordinary grade of CGLI.

In 1904 Liverpool out of 1,313 entries for science and technology only 150 were on ‘advanced courses’.

In 1904 the London Polytechnics comprised:

North of the Thames: East London Technical College. Mile End Road with branch at Bow and Bromley.

The Northern Polytechnic. Holloway. The Regent Street Polytechnic. The South West London Polytechnic. Manresa Road.

The Sir John Cass Institute. Jewry Street.

The City Polytechnic comprising- The Northampton Institute, Clerkenwell. The Birkbeck College, Chancery Lane and the City of London College, White Street, Moorfield.

South of the Thames:

The Battersea Polytechnic, Battersea Park Road. The Borough Polytechnic, Borough Road – two branches Herold’s Institute, Bermondsey and Norwood Institute, Knights Hill. The Goldsmiths’ Institute, Lewisham High Street and The Woolwich Polytechnic, William Street.

In 1905 Junior Technical Schools launched and re-launched in 1913.

Manchester College of Science and Technology linked with Manchester University, (As a faculty of the University).

Between 1905 and 1913 number of JTSs and Trade Schools increased to 37 with 2,900 pupils and by 1918 number was 61.

1906 Elmham Watts Naval School (Norfolk) opened.

In 1906 Shoreditch Technical Institute founded a Girls Trade School. This later merged with Clapham Trade School to become the Shoreditch College for the Garment Trades. Renamed Shoreditch College for the Clothing Industry in1966 and in 1967 the college amalgamated with the Barrett Street Technical College  (formerly the Barrett Street Trade School)  to form the London College of Garment Trades and finally renamed the London College of Fashion

In 1907 Imperial College of Science and Technology created by the amalgamation of the Royal College of Science, Royal School of Mines and the Central Technical College of the CGLI.

In 1907 15 Day Technical Schools had been founded in LEAs in the North of England.

In 1907 Naval Architecture introduced at Newcastle University.

In 1907/08 student numbers at the Glasgow and West of Scotland Technical College 605 day and 4,621 part-time/evening.

In 1907 15 day technical schools were founded in LEAs in the North of England but London had the largest concentration of full-time classes.

In 1907 600 full-time students read science and technology at Imperial College this figure increased to 800 by 1914.

In 1908 Only 3,000 students attended full-time courses at technical schools and provincial universities.

In 1908 there were 23 Polytechnics in London and 110 in the provinces.

In 1908 Imperial College , London linked  with London University, (As a School of the University)

In 1908 National University of Ireland formed from the Queen’s College of Cork and Galway with the addition in 1909 of University College Dublin.

In 1909 there were 4,000 FT students and 750,000 PT students in colleges – by 1930 these figures had increased to 42,000 and 1,280,000 respectively.

In 1909 Belfast College became Queens University of Belfast.

In 1912 111 Trade Schools existed – the LCC maintained 16 trade schools 10 for boys and 6 for girls.

In 1912 Royal College of Science and Technology (Glasgow) linked with Glasgow University.

Between 1912 and 1923 number of trade schools for girls increased from 6 to 32. (Subjects taught included dressmaking, millinery, photography, cookery and hairdressing).

In session 1913/14 there were 37 JTSs – 27 JTSs for boys and 10 for girls and by 1920 there were 67 for boys and 13 for girls. There were 1,027 secondary schools.

In 1913 part-time classes staged for the employees of Bournville Company – initially called the ‘The Day School for Young Employees.’

In 1914 Strode School opened for employees of C and T Clarke.

In 1914 it was estimated that only 250 teachers and 400 full-time students were carrying out research which had any relationship with industry or industrial practice.

In 1914 Reckitt and Sons Day Continuation School established in Hull.

In session 1916/17 there were 174 students enrolled at the Stanley Trade School. Was the second largest such trade school enrolments.

In 1917 of the 226 engineering firms surveyed 43 maintained a pupillage system and 62 took on secondary school boys for an apprenticeship that included part-time study.

In 1918 there were 51 Central Schools in London.

In 1918 Lever Brothers, Port Sunlight established a Day Continuation School.

In 1918 Tootal Broadhurst Lee Company opened a Day Continuation School for its young workers at the Bolton Mills site.

In 1918 W and R Jacob of Dublin opened a day Continuation Schools for their workers.

In session 1919/20 number of enrolments in English Universities were- 3,827 (Pure Science), 4,202 (Technology) and 236 (Agriculture).

In 1919 there were only 30 Higher Elementary Schools in England and Wales.

In session 1917/18 there were 82 6th form science related courses in England and Wales

In 1920 Day Continuation School opened in Rugby.

In 1920 Boots’ Day Continuation School founded in Nottingham.

In 1920 Day Continuation School held classes at Falmouth Technical School – opened with 92 apprentices aged 16 to 18.

In 1921 there were nearly 100 Day Continuation Schools providing part-time day study for over 16,000 learners.

In 1921 the qualifications held by teachers in JTSs were: Graduates- 780 (Male) and 145 (Female). Non-graduate assistants- 562 (Male) and 99 (Female). Non-graduate instructors- 1,189 (Male) and 508 (Female).

In session 1922/23 12,600 boys and 10,800 girls in attendance in Day Continuation Schools (DCSs).

In 1923 Army Education/Training started a system of centralised Technical Schools.

In session 1923/24 number of pupils in the 74 Day Continuation Schools (DCSs) was 11,558 boys and 10,917 girls giving a grand total of 22,475. Girls were in attendance at 36 out of the 74 schools and in 27 schools instruction was given in domestic science.

In 1924 total population in London Central Schools was 27,179 and in secondary (Aided and Maintained) 31,282. (LCC Stats. 1929/30. 1931).

In 1924 Courses in JTSs were: Engineering- 24 in the provinces and 5 in London. Construction-7 in the provinces and 2 in London. Needle trades-7 in the provinces and 8 in London. Commercial-22 in the provinces and 2 in London. Domestic science-9 in the provinces and 4 in London. Nautical-3 in the provinces and none in London. (ED 10/143).

In 1925 there were 37 commercial-bias schools in London and 20 dual-biased schools.

In 1925/26 33% of under 21 s in the engineering industry were apprenticed with approximately another 11% learners.

Information on Junior Technical Schools (JTSs) Between 1926/27 and 1937/38 in Wales and England:

England England Wales Wales

Year

JTSs

Pupils

JTSs

Pupils

1926/27

101

18,704

3

629

1927/28

104

19,541

3

659

1928/29

108

18,243

4

634

1929/30

115

19,537

5

680

1930/31

177

21,066

12

932

1931/32

182

21,003

12

942

1932/33

191

21,445

12

1,025

1933/34

200

23,090

13

1,040

1934/35

208

24,532

15

1,077

1935/36

216

26,071

16

1,283

1936/37

226

27,395

17

1,352

1937/38

230

29,036

18

1,421

Source: BoE Annual Reports.

In session 1927/28 there were 4,178 engineering students attending part-time classes this increased to 6,968 in the session 193o/31.

In session 1924/25 there were 235 6th form science courses in England and Wales.

In 1930-1 there were 110 JTSs for Boys and 34 for Girls and also 33 for Boys and Girls.

IN 1930 Technical College , Sunderland linked with Durham University.

In 1930 there were 10 JTSs in London for girls.

In 1930 proportion of pupils in various types of school: Senior Schools-828,000 (42.1%). All age elementary schools-672,000 (32.3%). Grant-Aided secondary (grammar schools)-440,000 (22.4%) and Junior Technical Schools (JTSs)-27,000 (1.4%). ED 136/214.

In 1930-1 there were 40 Junior Commercial Schools (JCSs) with 5,000 pupils of whom approximately 60% were girls.

In 1931 approximately 3,000 teachers involved in full-time in technical and commercial schools.

In session 1931/32 there were approximately 2,200 pupils attending part-time day classes on advanced commerce courses.

In 1931 the number of students attending classes operated under the 1931 Regulations for Further Education (FE) were: Day Continuation Schools 20,600, Junior Technical Schools 21,000, Senior Full-Time Courses 8,000 and Technical day Classes 27,000 giving a total of 76,600 and there were 905,000 in Evening Classes giving a grand total of 981,600 students.

In 1931 the Number of Students in Technical Colleges on Senior Full-Time Courses* :

  • Does not include students on Commercial subjects

Subject

Number o Students

Number of Courses

Engineering

1,476

69

Arts (76), Preliminary (537) and

Science (379)

992

31

Pharmacy

659

38

Architecture and Building

615

10

Domestic

327

13

Chemistry and Chemical Trades

221

14

Mining

163

8

Printing and Photography

133

5

Textiles

116

14

Food and Drink Trades

116

5

Physical Training

103

2

Optics, technical

57

3

Leather Industries

51

2

Music trades

41

1

Boot and Shoe Manufacture

20

3

Naval Architecture

5

1

Clothing Trades (2)

2

1

Miscellaneous

49

8

Totals

5,146

228

In 1933 Junior Technical Schools were carried out in 102 separate schools with 177 recognised courses.

In 1933 technical colleges enrolled approximately 200,000 students and evening institutes of various kinds >650,000.

In 1933 the number of students in grant-aided classes for Adult Education was 25,321 for men and 25,711 for women.

In 1933 Harriot Watt College Edinburgh linked with Edinburgh University.

In 1933 there were 317 LEAs.

In 1934 in Technical Day Schools there were 2,589 students in 96 full-time courses and 25,427 students in 1,335 part-time courses – mainly studying engineering/building/printing/photography

In 1934 a survey of occupations of pupils in Day Continuation Schools showed the following percentages (Survey of 800 pupils from 200 separate employers):

In session 1934 there were 527 engineering apprentices and 40 probationers enrolled at Coventry Technical College.

Engineering – Boys 47.9%, Girls 22.9%.

Clerical Boys -4.2%, Girls 19.8%

Distributive trades – Boys 30.0%, Girls 8.6%

Domestic:

Institutional – Boys 3.0%, 0.9%

Private – Boys 0% , Girls 16.3%

At home – Boys 0%, Girls 10.9%

Building trades – Boys 3.4%, Girls 0%

Printing – Boys 1.6%, Girls 1.5%

Agriculture – Boys 1.6%, Girls 0%

Laundry – Boys 0%, 9.0%

Corset manufacture – Boys 0%. Girls 5.2%

Miscellaneous – Boys 8.3%, Girls 4.9%.

In 1934 Percentage Participation among Different Age-Groups:

Age-group

Full-time

Part-time

14-15

40.6

14.6

15-16

15.4

14.1

16-17

8.1

14.8

17-21

1.6

9.2

In 1934 45% of Selective Central School teachers were graduates.

In 1935 First sandwich course in UK started in conjunction with the Ministry of War.

In 1935/6 Junior Technical Schools (JTSs) and Number of Students:

Types of School

Number of Schools

Boys

Girls

Total

Junior Technical

97

13,972

13,972

Junior Technical

(Trade)

37

859

2,419

3,278

Junior Housewifery

10

495

495

Junior Commercial

50

2,184

3,915

6,099

Total

194

17,015

6829

23,844

Source: Educational Pamphlet No. 111 BoE. 1937.

In 1935 9,100 students in technical education over the age of 17 and 1,600 over 21 – mostly part-time and the wastage rate was approximately 50%.

In 1935 12 universities with 40,392 students  and approximately 3,079 staff in teaching departments.

In 1935 there were 52 Day Continuation Schools – 47 LEA and 7 under private providers.

In 1935 there were 7 schools providing industrial bias courses and 49 with commercially biased courses in London.

In 1936 the Number of Students in Higher/Further Education:

Type

Male

Female

Universities

38,127

11,886

Art Schools

33,087

31,511

Technical Colleges

280,748

71,927

Evening Institutes

352,125

388,665

Day Continuation Schools

8,564

10,506

Agriculture

11,000

2,000

Adult Education

3,,939

4,726

Totals:

727,590

521,221

Grand total:

1,248,811

In the 1930s Curricula Offered in Different Institutions in Weekly Hours:

Curriculum

Sec. School

Literary

Sec.

School

Scientific

Technical

Sec.

School

J.C.S.

J.T.S

Junior

Art

School

Junior

House-

Wifery

School

Trade

School

General Subjects

8

7

9

7

6

6

6

5

Foreign Languages

7

4

4

4

0

0

0

0

Mathematics

4

4

4

3

6

3

0

3

Science

2

6

3

0

6

0

1

2

Practical Subjects

3

3

5

12

10

15

19

18

Physical Training

2

2

5

2

2

6

2

2

Totals:

26

26

30

28

30

30

28

30

Key: JCS – Junior Commercial School. JTS-Junior Technical School.

Junior Schools- the BoE classified Junior Schools as follows:

  1. Junior Technical Schools (JTSs) are of two types. In the first boys enter for a specified industry or group of industries, such as the building trades, the mercantile marine (Schools of Navigation), mining. In the other type there is a more generalised technical training and the industry for which the school exists is unspecified. Such a school is suitable for any area where there are a number of small industries.
  2. Trade Schools (TSs).Boys and girls enter them to train for a specified occupation, such as cabinet-making, printing, hairdressing.
  3. Junior Housewifery Schools (JHSs). Girls study courses in home management. In the character of their outlook they correspond more to JTSs than to TSs.
  4. Junior Commercial Schools (JCSs). These are similar to the more general type of JTS, but the study of the office arts takes the place of the practical industrial instruction.
  5. Junior Schools of Art (JSA). In these schools general education is continued with a broad based education aimed at the development of artistic skill, and of capacity for design, together with training in certain artistic crafts. These schools are designed to supply recruits to those industries which need artistic ability, or in which it is desirable.

In 1936 the Number of enrolments in He/FE/other were:

Universities – 38,127  (Male). 11,886 (Female). Art Colleges – 33,087 (M). 31,511 (F). Technical Colleges – 280,748 (M). 71,927 (F). Evening Institutes – 352,125 (M). 388,665 (F). Day Continuation Schools – 8,564 (M). 10,506 (F). Agriculture 11,000 (M). 2,000 (F). and Adult Education 3,939  (M). 4,726 (F).  Totals 727,590 (M). 521,221 (F) and the grand total 1,248,811.

In 1937 there were approximately 700 technical and vocational institutions in England – under a wide range of titles.

In 1937  Welsh College of Advanced Technology liked with University of Wales.

In 1937/38 number of students in FE in Scotland was 5,000 full-time, 3,000 part-time and 174,000 evening only giving a grand total of 182,000).

In 1937/38 number of students in grant-aided FECs 20,000 full-time, 89,000 part-time day and evening only 1,094,000.

In 1938 there were approximately 144 Colleges of FE, 191 Art Colleges, 66 Technical Institutions, 162 Evening Institutions and 175 Junior Schools of Art, Technology, Commerce and Housecraft. In addition there more than 4,500 smaller evening institutions.

In session 1938/39 number of full-time students in Britain were: 6,000 (Further Education), 13,000 (Teacher Training) and 50,000 (Universities).

In session 1938/39 number of enrolments in English Universities were- 5,955 (Pure Science), 4,217 (Technology) and 671 (Agriculture).

In 1939 9,100 students in technical education were over the age of 17 and 1,600 (25%) over 21 – mostly part-time and with a wastage rate of 50%!

In 1939 number of day release in Scotland 600 this increased to 5,000 in 1946, 20,000 in 1951 and 25,500 in session 1954/55.

In 1939 there were 16 farm institutes with 774 students.

In 1939 Army Education and Training established Arborfield Army Technical School it changed its name over the next few decades to reflect the changing nature of training e.g. 1939-1946 called Army Technical School. 1946-1966 Army Apprentices School. 1966-1981 Army Apprentices College. 1982-1995 Princess Marina College. 1995-2000 Army Apprentice School (again!) and 2000-2004 Army Technical Foundation College. Closed in 2004.

In 1940 there were 19,809 pupils in JTSs and 6,999 in JCSs.

1945 between 1945 and 1949 218 higher degrees were awarded in 31 of the larger colleges of FE/technology.

Between 1946/47 and 1964/65 the number of maintained art institutions/establishments decreased from 207 to 157.

In 1946 85% of JTSs were located in technical colleges/institutions.

1946 between 1946 and 1954 the Technical Teachers Training Centres enrolled 2,249 students – 862 at the Bolton Centre, 732 at the  London Centre  and 645 at the Huddersfield centre.

In1946 between 1946 and 1964 53 art institutions closed.

In 1946/47 number of students in grant-aided FECs 45,000 full-time, 200,000 part-time day and 1,166,000 evening only.

In 1946/47 there were three FE teacher Training Colleges at Garnett College (London), Bolton and Huddersfield. A fourth one was established at Wolverhampton later.

National College of Horology founded (Following recommendation of the Percy Committee).

In 1946/47 number of students in FE colleges in Scotland was 9,000 full-time, 9,000 part-time and 180,000 evening only giving a grand total of 198,000.

In 1947 there were 37 farm institutes.

In 1947 Number of evening institutes 5,076 enrolling 826,000 students.

In 1949 the Royal College of Art became a National College.

In 1949 there were 20,000 day students in colleges studying for university degrees.

In 1948 the National College of Rubber Technology opened.

In 1948 National Foundry College found within Wolverhampton and Staffordshire Technical College.

In 1950 there were 72,449 students in technical schools.

In 1951 In a total workforce of 23,912 million only 60,930 scientists and 80,770 engineers in Britain.

In 1951 % of young people in work force (15-44)- 43.1%. Older workers (45-59) -21.0%, Total workers- 64.1%. Children <15- 22.4% and Older people -13.5% note for men 65+ and Women 60+. Corresponding figures in 1971 – 40.3%, 22.3%, Total-62.6%, 19,7% and 17.7%.

In 1952 Hatfield College of Technology opened.

In 1952/53 number of enrolments in so-called classes for women- Full-time 1,198, Part-time day 19,113 and evening classes 555,072.

In 1952/03 7,188 students attended part-time catering courses in the evening.

In 1952 Brymore School of Rural Technology, Bridgewater, Somerset established as a Secondary Technology School (STS).

Degrees and HNC/Ds Awarded in Technical Colleges in 1949:

Award

Science

Engineering

Other Technologies

Internal degree

296

413

External degree

155

308

Total

451

721

HNC

203

3,851

525

HND

144

143

Total

203

3,995

688

Grand total

654

4,716

668

Source: PRO/Ed 46/753. MoE.

Technical College Students as Percentage of University Students in 1949:

Award

Pure Science

Engineering

Degrees

2,9%

7.1%

Degrees, HNCs and HNDs

4.7%

34.6

Evening Class Entries in Major Establishments (excl. Art) and Evening Institutes in the Sciences and in Subjects Related to Manufacturing in 1949-50 and 1956-57:

Subjects

Major establishments

1949-50

Evening institutes

1949-50

Total

1949-50

Total

1956-57

Science:

Mathematics

150,100 104,000 254,100 299,800

General science

9,450 28,300 37,750 50,100

Physics

34,150 2,500 36,650 45,000

Chemistry

30,200 1,350 31,550 33,000

Metallurgy

4,750 200 4,950 6,300

Biology

4,000 800 4,800 6,100

Physiology

2,600 550 3,150 3,700

Botany

2,800 200 3,000 2,400

Zoology

1,600 20 1,620 2,300

Geology

1,050 50 1,100 1,900

Nature study

350 400 750 400

Totals:

241,000 138,400 379,400 451,000

Subjects related

to manufacturing

Industries:

Nonmetalliferous

In 1952 63,000 of the 267,000 boys who left school between the ages of 15 and 17 became apprentices or skilled learners – 23.4% entered engineering/ship building and electrical goods industries. 20.6% entered building and contracting. 13.7% entered the vehicle industry and 3.6% entered printing.

1952 in the session 1952-1953 there were 1,446,000 students in Secondary Modern Schools, 686,600 in Grammar Schools and 97,600 in Secondary Technical Schools giving ratios of 14.34: 7.57: 1.00

In 1953 massive expansion of student numbers at Imperial College London proposed – from 1,650 to 3,000.

Full-Time Students at National Colleges between 1953 and 1957:

College/Date

Of founding

1953

1954

1955

1956

1957

Horology/1947

32

29

34

37

34

Foundry/1947

42

36

42

45

62

Rubber Technology/1948

50

59

63

87

93

Heating and Ventilating/1948

90

80

87

100

97

Leathersellers/1951

30

28

35

43

45

Food Technology/1951

24

26

44

49

62

Aeronautics/1946

170

175

166

190

242

Royal College of Art

/1837 as School of Industrial Design

379

372

396

402

406

Total:

817

805

867

953

841

In 1954 Government announced the following universities would offer specialised provision in: Chemistry (Birmingham, Leeds, Newcastle, Sheffield). Chemical Engineering (Birmingham, Cambridge, Manchester College of Technology). Engineering (Bristol, Glasgow, Manchester, Newcastle, Southampton). Fluid Mechanics (Cambridge). Fuel Technology (Leeds, Sheffield) Mining Engineering (Sheffield) and Physics (Birmingham, Leeds).

In 1954/55 there were 355,000 students on day release in England.

In session 1954/55 number of full-time students in Britain were: 12,000 (Further Education), 28,000 (Teacher Training) and 82,000 (Universities).

In 1954-55 session there were 85,750 students in Public Sector HE.

In 1954/55 number of students in FE in Scotland 10,000 full-time, 25,000 part-time and 206,000 evening only giving a grand total of 241,000.

In 1954 Colleges that had received approval to run Advanced Technical programmes and receive 75% grants: Acton Technical College. Birmingham College of Technology. Bradford Technical College. Brighton Technical College. Cardiff College of Technology. Glamorgan Technical College. Huddersfield Technical College. Leicester College of Technology and Commerce. City of Liverpool College of Building. Battersea Polytechnic. Brixton School of Building. Chelsea Polytechnic. Northampton Polytechnic. Northern polytechnic. Sir John Cass College. Woolwich Polytechnic. Manchester College of Technology. North Staffordshire Technical College. Nottingham and District Technical College. Rugby College of Technology. Salford Royal Technical College. Sunderland Technical College and West Ham College of Technology.

Designations/Names of Major Institutions of FE in Britain in 1955:

Designation

Number

Polytechnics

12

Technical Colleges

150

Technical Institutes

90

Colleges of Technology, Art and Commerce

20

Colleges of Further Education

39

Colleges and Schools of Commerce

24

Colleges of Art

32

Schools of Art and Craft

135

Miscellaneous

90

Totals:

592

In 1955 80% of students attending technical college in the evening and only 2.3% attended full-time.

In 1995 >75% of the students who obtained professional qualifications through college of technology did so by part-time study – 4,000 in 1955 and 5,500 in 1957.

In 1956 the MoE Circular 305/56 designated four main types of college:

  1. Local colleges. These undertook courses usually part-time up to ONC level.
  2. Area colleges. These undertook NC courses and some more advanced part-time work and were required to continue their existing full-time and sandwich courses.
  3. Regional colleges. These had substantial amounts of full-time and sandwich advanced work. Some of these colleges offered Dip Tech awards.
  4. Colleges of advanced technology. These had a substantial volume of exclusively advanced work mainly full-time and sandwich.

In the1950s there were only 340 technical schools out of a total of 5,400 secondary schools in Britain. Many of these were old Junior Technical Schools (JTSs) which had to retain their original trade functions and share unsuitable accommodation with technical colleges.

Enrolments by Subject in 1956-57 in Major Establishments and Evening Institutes (England and Wales):

Subjects

Full-time

Part-time

Evening classes

Subjects of a general education value:

Mathematics

83

1,867

299,792

Science

3,506

12,194

151,263

All others

12,405

71,306

1,252,870

Subjects related to specific occupations:

Agriculture

145

2,027

8,819

Mining

610

31,272

16,232

Book, paper and printing

478

6,578

22,907

Chemical

1,054

16,378

6,881

Clothing and textiles

1,068

6,264

20,399

Engineering

10,926

181,658

298,289

Food and drink

375

2,300

6,940

Furniture

49

674

2,513

Miscellaneous manufacturing

15

1,310

2,992

Building and construction

1,986

50,222

134,109

Commercial, professional, personal services and miscellaneous

31,109

83,205

945,486

Total (excl. Art)

63,809

467,253

3,169,492

Courses in art establishments

12,185

37,910

171,666

Grand total:

75,994

505,163

3,341,158

Note: For art establishments in addition to genera art courses (4,500 f-t and 3,000 p-t) and painting (800 f-t and 3,800 p-t) students were also studying industry-oriented courses in dress and allied trades (1,000; 5,600), printing and allied crafts (50; 5,300),interior decorating (100; 4,600), illustration and commercial design (1,500; 1,000), architecture (900; 1,500), and other pursuing silversmithing, sculpture, furniture design, photography etc.

Figures include students following more than one course so double counting exists.

1956 Number of full-time students in FECs 64,000. Part-time 402,000 and evening 1,575,000

1956 100 sandwich programmes with 2,300 students,

In 1958 only 3.7% of secondary pupils were enrolled in Secondary Technical Schools (STSs) – 279 schools with 95,194 pupils and in 1948 there had been 319 STSs and by 1960 the number had decreased to 268. Maximum number of STSs was 319 in 1948.

In 1958 there were 37 farm institutes with 2,000 students.

In 1959 Number of evening institutes 8,299 enrolling 977,000 students.

Proportion of Population in Various Institutions in 1959 for Males:

Age

Schools

Universities

Teacher Training Colleges

Full-time*

Part-time*

Evening

Only*

Totals

20

6.1

1.2

1.4

9.4

9.8

27.9

19

0.7

2.9

0.2

1.6

13.6

13.0

32.0

18

4.5

1.3

0.1

1.9

18.1

17.8

43.7

17

11.1

1.9

24.6

23.8

61.4

16

20.0

2.1

24.5

25.3

71.9

15

37.4

2.4

16.2

24.5

80.5

  • Technical, Commercial and Art Colleges and Evening Institutes.

Proportion of Population in Various Institutions in 1959 for Females:

Age

Schools

Universities

Teacher Training Colleges

Full-time*

Part-time*

Evening Only*

Totals

20

2.0

1.8

0.4

0.7

9.5

14.4

19

0.4

1.3

3.6

0.6

1.2

11.2

18.3

18

2.3

0.8

1.3

1.1

2.2

14.9

22.6

17

8.8

2.0

6.0

20.3

37.1

16

18.5

3.5

7.1

23.7

52.8

15

35.7

4.0

5.2

23.1

68.0

  • Technical, Commercial and Art Colleges and Evening Institutes.

In 1960 of the 268 STSs that existed 145 admitted at age 11, 14 at age 12 and 101 at age 13.

In 1960 there were 101,9113 students in technical schools.

In 1961 there were 9,000 students in over 140 technical and commercial colleges studying for supervisory qualifications.

In 1962/63 165 Art Schools enrolled 8,000 full-time students

In 1962 National College of Agricultural Engineering opened at Boreham moved to Silsoe in 1964,

In the session 1962-63 approximately 1,400 first degrees of London University (external degrees) were awarded to students attending FE colleges of which 1,100 were in Science and Technology.

In 1964-1965bsession there were 719 maintained orassisted major institutions in England and Wales.

In 1964/65 135,000 evening institute students (approximately 12.5%) were under the age of 16.

In 19664/65 there were in England: 7 National Colleges, 10 CATs. 25 Regional Colleges. 158 Art Institutions. 5 Agricultural Colleges. 40 Farm Institutes and 514 other major establishments – totalling in all 759. In addition there were 7,783 evening institutions. In Scotland there were 11 Central Institutions but no numbers are available at present for other institutions. (The figures include establishments that were direct grant and Authority maintained).

In 164-1965 there art institutions comprised Royal College of Art, 4 Central Art Institutions, 157/8 maintained colleges of art (often referred to as schools of art).

In 1964/65 there were 7,783 evening institutes with 1 million students with 66% women.

Between 1964 and 1969 the number of day release for young workers increased by nearly 30%.

In 1965 there were 25 Regional Colleges – which enrolled 36,000 students pursuing advanced work mainly in technology and commerce – 66% were part-time.

In 1966 30 Polytechnics created from existing colleges.

In 1966 Guide lines were issued for class sizes namely 24 for full-time (including sandwich) courses, 15 for part-time courses which included a large element of workshop practice and 20 for all other part-time courses.

In 1968 apprenticeships in Britain peaked at 236,000 (25% of young workers in: 40% of all boys and 10% of all girls).

In 1969. Between 1969 and 1975 the number of full-time students in Welsh colleges increased from 12,390 to 19,587 and part-time from 54,843 to 56,528.

In 1969 the seven Scottish National Institutions were: Aberdeen. Robert Gordon’s Technical College,  Dundee Institute of Art and Technology, Edinburgh, Heriot-Watt College, Galashiels. The Scottish Woollen Technical College, Glasgow. The Royal Technical College, Leith Nautical Technical College and Paisley Technology College.

1971 between 1971 and 1977 there was a decline of 20% in the number of day and block release enrolments.

In 1971/72 distribution of full-time and sandwich HE students in GB was: Universities: 198,000 (England and Wales), 38,000 (Scotland) – total of 236,000 in GB. Advanced FE: 90,000 (England and Wales), 9,000 (Scotland) -total 99,000 in GB. Colleges of Education: 114,000 (England and Wales), 14,000 (Scotland) – total 128,000 in GB. Totals 402,000 (England and Wales, 61,000 (Scotland) – grand totals 463,000 in GB.

In 1974-75 session there were 210,230 students in Public Sector HE.

In 1976 there were 76,403 FT teachers in FE institutions, 14,029 in Polys and 57,867 in other maintained institutions.

In 1976 there were 563 major establishments of technical education in England and Wales, 61 Independent Colleges and 6,242 Adult Education Centres in England and Wales.

In 1976 number of students aged 16, 17 and 18 in FE colleges:

Full-time – 191,000 (44% Male).( 56% F).

Part-time – 268,000 (79% M). (21% F).

Evening only – 109,000 (38% M). (62% F).

Totals:        568,000 (60% M). (40% F).

In 1977 the annual budget for the FEU was just £o.25 million.

1978 in session 1978-79 the budget for the MSC reached £643 million.

In 1978 there were 143,983 FT equivalent poly students and 41,914 FT equivalent students studying advanced courses at other institutions.

In 1978 there were 16 tertiary colleges in existence.

In 1979 there were 47 FE/HE institutions in Wales – comprising Polytechnic of Wales, 3 National Institutions, 6 colleges of HE and 37 major institutions (i.e. FECs/technical colleges, college of horticulture, college of agriculture, college of art and a college of technology).

In 1980 there were 11,327 students in technical schools.

In 1980 in session 1980/81 total number of students in HE 827,000 – 526,00 men and 491,000 women.

In 1983/84 in the UK there were 53 Universities, 31 Polytechnics14 Scottish Central Institutions and 411 other colleges (maintained), 56 direct grant/voluntary colleges and the Open University – a total of 566.

more detail on the above statistics for session 1983/84 HEIs in UK:

Universities 53 – number of f-t/sandwich students 301,000, p-t 36,000 giving total 337,000

Polytechnics 31 – number of f-t/sandwich students 157,000, p-t 71,000 giving a total of 228,000

Scottish Central Institutions 14 – number of f-t/sandwich students 14,000, p-t 1,000 giving a total of 15,000.

Other Colleges (Maintained) 411 – number of f-t/sandwich students 79,000, p-t 125,000 giving a total of 204,000.

Direct Grant/Voluntary 56 – number of f-t/sandwich students 30,000, p-t 7,000 giving a total of 37,000.

Open University 1 – number of p-t students 76,000 giving a total of 76,000.

Totals: Institutions 566, Number of f-t/sandwich students 581,000, p-t students 316,000 giving a grand total of 897,000 students.

In 1985 in UK there were 46 publically funded universities including the OU.

In 1985 there were 2,502 students in technical schools.

In 1985 In England: 29 Polytechnics and 73 colleges (including 31 voluntary or direct grant colleges) engaged in HE and 298 other colleges (including one direct grant college) with a proportion of HE work.

In Wales 1 polytechnic, 9 colleges engaged in mainly HE and 16 other colleges with a proportion of HE work.

In Scotland 16 Central Institutions, 7 Colleges of Education and 3 Local Authorites engaged mainly in HE  and 43 other colleges with a proportion of HE work.

In Northern Ireland 15 colleges (these included voluntary and grant aided colleges and colleges funded by the education and library boards.

In 1987 Garnett College incorporated.

In session 1987/88 colleges enrolled 3.5 million students in various education and training programmes with a mainly vocational, technical and commercial bias – students from 16-19 age range as well as adults.

In 1988 the first City Technology College opened followed by 14 more over the next four years.

In 1990 following amalgamations and re-organisations the number of 700 FECs declined to<400 – HE institutions increased on the other hand from 25 to 124 – an example of academic drift!

In 1992 University of Greenwich founded.

In 1992 67 tertiary colleges in England and Wales with approximately 450,000 students.

In 1992/93 there were for the first time more students in their first post-compulsory year in England studying full-time in colleges – FE accounted for 55% of all 16-19 year olds and overall 62% of all 16-19 year olds were participating in some form of education and training.

IN 1994/5  456 FECs in England and Wales of which 347 offered programmes in engineering and technology.

In 1996 in session 1996/97 enrolments in Welsh FECs were: Full-time and Sandwich 17,625 (Male), 20.569 (Female). Block-Release and Part-Time day 17,566 (Male) 28,785 (Female) and Part-Time Evening and Other 17,029 (male) 331,716 (Female).

1998/99 60 colleges of art and design inspected.

In 1999/2000 112 FE colleges were inspected by the FE Inspectorate.

In 2001 there were 70 NTOs.

In 2001/02 £3.7 billion made available for FE sector to fund young people and adults. Average level of funding (ALF) was £17.22

In 2002 there were 310 specialist schools.

In 2002 there were 26 colleges in Wales.

In 2005 in session 2005/06 number of apprenticeships were 99,500 (<19). 75,200 (19-24) and 300 (>25). 1228,800 at level 2 and 52,100 at levels 3/4.

In 2008 in session 2008/09 total number of students in HE was 2.6 million – 1,106,00 men and 1,451,000 women.

In 2009 in session 2009/10 number of completed apprenticeships was 171,500.

In 2009 there were 203 academies.

In 2010 there were 3,068 specialist schools out of a total of 4,403 maintained by the State. Proportion of people Not in Education, Employment, Training (NEETs) in UK 15.9%

Proportion of NEETs in UK 13.2%. In session 2010/11 number of f-t staff in FECs 51,000 and in HEIs 117,000.

In 2011/12 there were 402 FECs in UK this figure shows the declining numbers of colleges. 67% of HE students were full-time – 85% at undergraduate level and 54% at post graduate level. 4.22 million students in FECs compared with 4.26 in 2010/11. In Scotland corresponding numbers were 256,500 and 311,000 respectively, In Wales the corresponding figures were 211,300 and 212,700. In Northern Ireland the corresponding figures were 141,700 and 144,400.

In session 2013/14 number of full-time staff in FECs 76,000 and in HEIs 127,000.

 

In 2015 Number of HE Institutions in England 127 and number of FE Institutions 339

For Scotland the respective figures were 18 HE and 27 FE. For Wales 8 HE and 13 FE. For Northern Ireland 4 HE and 6 FE.