Celebrating 160 Years of the Society of Arts (SA) and Royal Society of Arts (RSA) Examinations

  (First published in the Royal Society of Arts  William Shipley Group Bulletin 49 March 2016). Introduction: 2016 marks the 160th anniversary of the beginning of the Society examinations. A Short History: The history of examinations provides a fascinating insight into how the education system developed in Britain.  Various assessment methods had been introduced by… Read more »

Definitions of “Technical Education” and “Industrial Workers”.

 (An interesting definition of technical education given in the Technical Instruction Act 1889). “The expression ‘technical education’ shall mean instruction in the principles of science and art applicable to industries, and in the application of special branches of science and art to specific industries or employments. It shall not include teaching the practice of any… Read more »

Union of Lancashire and Cheshire Institutes Examinations Papers

 These examination papers were kindly sent to me by Pam Cruise and were taken by her Uncle Alfred Edward Audas. The certificates gained by Alfred are shown in another biography on this web site. After graduating he worked as a draughtsman at ICI in Warrington (NW England). I am very grateful to Pam for her… Read more »

A Perspective on the Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was a significant characteristic of life in Britain during the 18th century. Major rapid changes occurred across many areas e.g. machine-labour in factories took the place of hand-labour in people’s homes and large-scale agriculture based on scientific principles replaced the medieval system of tillage on small plots of land. This Revolution was… Read more »

Union of Lancashire and Cheshire Institutes Examination Certificates.

These were kindly sent to me by Pam Cruise and gained by her Uncle Alfred Edward Audas. After graduating he worked as a draughtsman at ICI in Warrington. I am very grateful to Pam for her generosity. An uncle to be proud of. Below are copies of certificates : They provide a fascinating insight to… Read more »

Richard Trevithick (1771-1833).

Richard Trevithick, (image shown opposite), deserves a place alongside the other pioneers of steam engine developments like Thomas Newcomen and James Watt. He is credited with inventing the first high-pressured steam engine and the first operational steam locomotive (1803). He was born in Carn Brea in Cornwall which was at the centre of the then thriving… Read more »

Eleanor Marx (1855-1898)

Eleanor Marx was a remarkable individual who contributed to a number of causes and influenced not only her own generation but later ones. She was the youngest daughter of Karl Marx, born in London on 16th January 1855. By the time Eleanor was sixteen she acted as her father’s secretary, accompanying him to international conferences… Read more »

The Factory Acts

  The period of the Industrial Revolution witnessed unprecedented changes and transitions in society. Massive numbers of people moved from the country to the emerging industrial cities and towns. People who previously worked on the land or in cottage industries (e.g. hand spinning and weaving) became workers in factories undertaking largely non-skilled manual jobs. The… Read more »

University of London External Degrees

(An external degree is a degree offered by a university or a university approved centre to students where the students’ learning takes place outside the direct supervision of the university/college). The external degree is offered alongside the traditional internal degree programmes for those students who can attend the University full time). External degrees were established… Read more »

Dates of Inventions, Discoveries and other Developments

Dates of Inventions, Discoveries and other Developments. This section complements the pen portraits ‘Great Engineers and Pioneers and their Education’ on this website. Again it must be stressed that the industrial revolution was driven by craftsmen like James Watt, self- taught business people like Matthew Boulton and artisans like Henry Maudslay. It did not develop… Read more »