Statistics for Technical and Commercial Examinations.

Updated May 2017.

In this section a miscellany of information by way of facts and figures provides additional detail on technical and commercial examinations to reinforce material in the other sections of this website. The material will where possible be provided in chronological order. I hope readers will find the information of interest. I have also started including information of the Welsh, Scottish and Irish technical education systems.

In 1839 ULCI founded.

In 1846 College of Preceptors founded

In 1847 the Union of Lancashire and Cheshire Institutes (ULCI) held its first examinations.

In 1853 the College of Preceptors began to examine boys and girls in school subjects.

In 1854 first examinations for the Indian Civil Service offered.

In 1855 first entrance examinations held for the Royal Military College, Woolwich, London.

In 1856 (Royal) Society of Arts began to offer examinations.

Examination Results for (R)SA in 1857 (Second year of operation and held at two centres namely London and Huddersfield):

Subject

Pass

(London centre)

Fail

(London centre)

Pass

Huddersfield centre

Fail

Huddersfield centre

Total number of candidates

at both centres

Arithmetic 39 4 25 8 76
Bookkeeping 11 17 5 13 46
Algebra 16 14 19 9 28
Geometry 23 5 20 4 52
Mensuration and Surveying 19 4 12 7 42
Trigonometry 13 3 10 2 28
Conic sections 9 2 3 14
Nautical Astronomy 1 1 2 4
Statics and Dynamics 3 1 4 3 11
Practical Mechanics 1 2 3 3 9
Hydrostatics and Pneumatics 4 1 4 9
Electricity 4 3 7
Heat 4 1 4 9
Chemistry 10 5 5 2 22
Physiology
Botany 2 2
Agriculture 2 2
Total (Sciences): 160 58 114 59 391
Political and Social Economy 5 1 6
English History 5 2 17 26
Geography 12 1 13 2 28
English Literature 8 7 2 17
Roman History and Latin 8 4 5 2 19
French 16 5 10 7 38
German 3 4 7 1 15
Free hand drawing 1 1 1 6
Mechanical Drawing 2 1
Total (Commercial): 60 18 61 16 155
Grand total: 220 76 546

Source: Journal of the Society of Arts. June/July 1857.

In 1858 299 candidates sat for London University matriculation examinations and by 1890 had increased to 3,000.

In 1858 Oxford University offered its ‘Middle Class Examinations’.

In 1858 Number of candidates attending SoA examinations at Huddersfield.

Institute

Candidates

Huddersfield

32

Leeds

9

Bradford

12

Halifax

10

Wakefield

11

Other Institutes

31

Print Science

17

Total

122

(Source 17th Report of the Committee of Huddersfield Mechanics’ Institution Jan. 1858)

In 1860 821 candidates entered the College of Preceptors examinations by 1870 it was 1,517, in 1880 11,208 and in 16,269.

In 1860 a Faculty in Science was established at London University and the degrees of B.Sc. and D.Sc. were introduced into England.

1862 – 1882 Teaching of Science in Schools.

Year

No. of Schools

No. of Candidates

No. of Classes

1862

70

2,543

140

1872

948

36,783

2,803

1882

1,403

68,581

4,881

In 1873 Oxford and Cambridge Examinations Board founded often called the Joint Board

In 1873 First technological examinations staged by (R)SA – only 6 candidates.

Examinations Entries for (R)SA Technological Examinations Between 1873 and 1878 Before CGLI Assumed Responsibility for the Examinations:

Subject

1873

1874

1875

1876

1877

1878

Cotton Manufacture

1

10

13

19

17

60

Paper Manufacture

Silk Manufacture

1

1

Steel Manufacture

2

14

16

26

28

36

Carriage Building

3

3

4

3

2

15

Manufacture of Pottery and Porcelain

1

1

Gas Manufacture

7

6

10

11

34

Glass Manufacture

Cloth Manufacture

2

3

2

1

8

Agriculture

2

2

Silk Dyeing

Wool Dyeing

1

1

2

4

Calico bleaching, dyeing and printing

Alkali Manufacture

6

6

Totals:

6

36

46

61

68

167

Source: Annual Report of SA on Technological Examinations 1873-1878.

(As can be seen initially examinations were not popular with very few employers interested.

In 1878 CGLI began to offer examinations transferred from (R)SA.

In 1878 London University degrees opened to women.

In the 1880s CGLI offered a number of examinations in the trades and technical subjects and had its own college in Finsbury.

In 1880 CGLI examinations: 24 subjects and 816 candidates.

In 1881 1,563 candidates and by 1890 49 subjects with 6,607 candidates.

In 1884 list of subjects offered by the Society of Arts (SoA).

Arithmetic Book-Keeping
German Italian
Domestic Economy Sanitary Knowledge
Spanish French
Theory of Music Political Economy
Commercial Geography and History Practical Music
Shorthand (Phonography) English (composition, correspondence and précis writing

In 1889 CGLI staged 100 classes with 2,639 students in Lancashire, 48 classes with 1,262 students in Yorkshire, 5 classes with 92 students in Derbyshire and 1 class with 7 students in Buckingham shire.

In 1890 Manchester Technical School started a course and examinations on Sanitary Engineering.

In 1890 over 6,000 candidates took examinations in 49 CGLI technical subjects.

In 1890 The London Chamber of Commerce began to offer examinations.

Entries/Papers Worked in (R)SA examinations between 1890 and 1949:

Year

Number of Entries/Papers Worked

1890

2,315

1900

9808

1905

23,803

1911

30,000

1919

31,000

1925

71,000

1929

100,000

1949

154,000

Source: Hudson and Luckhurst. ‘RSA 1754-1954.’

In 1902 After 1902 the development of grouped courses accelerated.

In 1903 Northern Universities Joint Matriculation Board established – Manchester, Liverpool, Leeds and Sheffield.

In 1908-1909 session1,500  candidates entered the three levels of the London University School Examinations along with 6,700 who entered the London Matriculation Examinations

In 1911 approximately 1,500 0f secondary school pupils took examinations offered by the Oxford Local Examinations Delegacy or the Cambridge Syndicate.

In 1911-1912 session only 2,558 candidates entered the BoE Higher Examinations with 985 passes.

In 1911 the elementary examinations were discontinued and in 1915 the advanced examinations in science.

In 1917 Secondary School Examinations Council founded.

In 1919 First School Certificate Examinations number of science candidates-8,017 (Botany), 9,110 (Chemistry), 513 (General Science) and 5,089 (Physics).

In 1920 Ordinary and Higher Certificates and Diplomas started –jointly staged by the BoE and the Institution of Mechanical Engineers – followed later by other professional bodies such as Institution of Electrical Engineering, Institute of Chemistry, Institute of Builders and Institute of Naval Architects.

In 1922 1,017 candidates from 46 schools and colleges sat for ONC Mechanical Engineering with 521 passes.

In 1922 The ‘Mechanical National’ first examination held – 1,125 candidates from 50 colleges – a prototype of the National Certificate scheme.

In 1926 First School Certificate Examinations number of science candidates-13,627  (Botany), 21,527 (Chemistry), 1,340 (General Science) and 13,255 (Physics).

Growth of Ordinary and Higher Certificates and Diplomas between 1923 and 1944:

Year 1923 1931 1944
Ordinary Awards 663 2,043 4,070
Higher Awards 168 749 1,405

Source: MoE Education 1900-1950

Examination Entries for CGLI by Industrial Groupings for 1892 and 1992:

Industrial grouping

Number of Entries

(1892)

%

Number of Entries

(1992)

%

Extractive Industries

90

1.5

293

0.01

Process Industries

358

4

53,993

2.3

Production and Maintenance Eng.

1,221

14

145,530

6.2

Electrical, Electronic and Informatics Eng.

689

8

193,841

8.3

Vehicle and Plant Maintenance

212

3

247,189

10.6

Textile, Clothing, Footwear and Leather

3,650

43

7,137

0.3

Construction and Construction Services

1,929

23

220,303

9.4

Media and Communication Industries

256

3

9582

0.4

Creative Arts, crafts and Leisure Pursuits

29

0.5

20,688

0.9

Agriculture and Allied

82,400

3.5

Furniture and Furnishing

12,340

0.5

Hotel, Catering, Travel and Recreation

152,827

6.5

Personal Services (Hairdressing, Health Education)

369,790

15.8

Retail , Wholesale, Distribution

157,408

6.7

Business and Commerce

41,343

1.8

Services to Industry and Commerce

120,838

5.2

Utilities

3,522

0.2

General Education and Work Preparation

424,698

18.2

Special Services

19,250

0.8

HM Forces

17,346

0.7

Joint CGLI/Foras Aisenna Saothair

7,497

0.3

Senior Awards

2,168

0.1

National Examining Board for Supervisory Management

25,055

1.1

Totals

8,534

100

2,335,005

100

Source: ‘CGLI History.’ ISBN 0 85193 0107. 1993.

University Population of Science and Technology Students in 1922/23 and 1938/39:

Subject

1922-23

1938-39

Science

5,970 (19.3%)

6,061 (16.2%)

Technology

3,882 (12.5%)

4,217 (11.3%)

Total number in all faculties

31,079

37,433

Interesting to note the relative stagnation in these key subjects during this period.

In 1934 from the beginning of the National Certificate and Diploma Scheme to 1934 total number of awards made 25,000 comprising: Mechanical and Engineering – 13,454 (from 1923). Chemistry – 1,584 (from 1923). Electrical Engineering – 7,688 (from 1924). Naval Architects – 106 (from 1927)  and Building – 2,202( from 1931)

In 1938 number of students studying in the 7 National Institutions in Scotland was 1,600 this increased to 2,000 in 1954.

In 1938 number of ONCs 5,797 candidates with 3,313 passes. 1,668 HNCs with 1,137 passes. 144 ONDs with 95 passes and 61 HNDs with 37 passes. see below:

In 1938 95 successful OND students and 37 HND students – note the very low take up for FT programmes!

Between 1938/39 and 1964/65 the number of craft and technician apprenticeships increased from 41,000 to 496,000 ( however only 79,000 girls were released in 1964/65!).

In 1939 3,999 ONCs and 1,331 HNCs were awarded.

Ordinary ad Higher Certificates and Diplomas in Science and Engineering awarded between 1945 and 1955:

Year

ONC

OND

HNC

HND

1945

5,135

116

1,844

60

1946

5,544

130

2,069

82

1947

5,805

110

2,479

61

1948

7,997

N/A

4,509

N/A

1949

9,483

348

4,147

287

1950

10,581

337

4,961

293

1951

10,617

299

5.564

351

1952

11,302

253

6,226

250

1953

10,898

214

6,452

312

1954

11,957

361

6,827

248

1955

13,458

412

7371

229

Sources: Annual Surveys and Technical Education Cmnd .9703 1956 MoE

(Interesting to note the relatively low entries for the full-time programmes i.e. OND/HNDs)

University Degrees awarded in Science and Technology between 1938 and 1956:

Year

Pure Science

Medicine

Dentistry

Technology

1938

7,661

11,883

1,488

5,288

1947

12,516

12,496

1,584

8,767

1948

14,544

13,414

2,144

10,146

1949

16,099

14,094

2,547

10,884

1950

16,917

14,147

2,724

10,993

1951

17,168

14,201

2,885

10,591

1952

17,053

13,910

2,889

10,215

1953

17,001

13,511

2,715

9,993

1954

16,971

13,239

2,564

10,036

1955

17,327

13,088

2,583

10,586

1956

18,133

13,341

2,651

11,379

Sources: Annual Abstract of Statistics

ONCs Awarded in Various Sciences and Technologies 1938+:

Subject

1938

1949

1955

1956

1957

1958

Mechanical Eng.

1,449

5,245

7,013

7528

8,063

8,599

Chemistry

151

512

985

1,176

1,263

1,437

Electrical Eng.

917

2,468

3,227

3,512

3,595

4,271

Naval Architecture

16

64

103

97

75

100

Building

544

1,035

1,216

1,381

1,436

1,597

Textiles

104

150

136

105

132

129

Commerce

132

106

328

377

381

380

Production Eng.

Not awarded

Civil Eng.

Not awarded

Applied Physics

29

143

183

254

405

Metallurgy

107

275

296

288

373

Applied Chemistry

23

19

23

20

22

Chemical Eng.

Not awarded

Mining

477

540

669

715

Mine Surveying

Not awarded

Totals:

3,313

9,739

13,922

15,218

16,176

18,028

HNCs Awarded in Various Sciences and Technologies 1938+:

Subject

1938

1949

1955

1956

1957

1958

Mechanical Eng.

502

2,113

2,924

3,260

3,590

3,926

Chemistry

62

194

646

670

755

852

Electrical Eng.

379

1,116

2,036

2,153

2,048

2,165

Naval Architecture

23

37

46

76

47

Building

137

369

690

677

758

929

Textiles

57

74

131

106

94

49

Commerce

20

5

1

9

7

Production Eng.

232

422

425

521

542

Civil Eng.

32

234

243

270

278

Applied Physics

48

94

112

169

Metallurgy

59

138

205

222

269

Applied Chemistry

9

28

43

32

30

Chemical Eng.

17

24

36

61

Mining

103

147

181

205

Mine Surveying

48

79

92

118

Totals:

1,137

4,241

7,507

8,173

8,796

9,647

ONDs Awarded in various Technologies 1938+:

Subject

1938

1949

1954

1955

1956

1957

1958

Building

17

195

69

90

91

95

77

Electrical Eng.

33

42

42

43

21

19

11

Mechanical Eng.

45

111

250

279

305

245

290

Mining

Total:

95

348

361

412

417

359

378

HNDs Awarded in Various Technologies 1938+:

Subject

1938

1949

1954

1955

1956

1957

1958

Building

7

143

55

81

65

66

77

Electrical Eng.

9

55

86

89

87

126

110

Mechanical Eng.

21

89

107

117

187

190

246

Mining

52

70

104

135

Production Eng.

3

5

Total:

37

287

248

339

409

489

573

In 1943 1,051 first degrees gained and 65 higher degrees in applied science. (Subsequently reached a maximum of 1,600 per annum). It was estimated at the time that the demand would be 3,000 per annum.

In 1944 1,225 HNCs awarded in electrical and mechanical engineering.

Between 1945 and 1952 teacher certificates (CGLI) had been awarded in Dressmaking-1,149, Needlework-401, Tailoring-8, Millinery-25 and 532 in cookery.

In 1945 some technical science subjects taught in universities included:

Aeronautics – Cambridge, London and Southampton.

Brewing – Birmingham, Manchester.

Building – London, Manchester.

Colour Technology and Dyeing – Leeds and Manchester.

Concrete Technology – London.

Diary Technology – Reading.

Fuel Technology – Leeds, London, Nottingham and Sheffield.

Glass Technology – Sheffield.

Leather – Leeds.

Metallurgy – London, Manchester, Sheffield, Birmingham, Cambridge, Leeds and Liverpool.

Oil Technology – Birmingham and London.

Technical Optics – London.

Textiles – Leeds, Manchester and Nottingham.

In 1946 number of part-time students in the Scottish National Institutions were: 1,238 day, evening only 5,844 giving a grand total of 7,082.

In 1948 7,997 ONCs and 4,509 HNCs awarded.

In 1949 Number of institutions offering degrees – 69, DipTech -, HND (full-time) 20, HNC (part-time) 143, OND (full-time) 24 and ONC (part-time) 252.

Entries for City and Guilds (CGLI) and the Regional Examining Boards (REBs) for Craft Qualifications in 1952 and 1955:

Awarding Body

1952 Entries

1955 Entries

City and Guilds (CGLI)

70,856

88,511

Union of Lancashire and Cheshire Institutes (ULCI)

46,300

56,926

Northern Counties Technical Examination Council (NCTEC)

21,059

24,403

East Midlands Educational Union (EMEU)

20,525

30,122

Union of Educational Institutions (UEI)

24,165*

38.944

Total:

182,905

238,906

  • Includes some double counting as the figure refers to worked examination papers and not students.

(These important examinations recognized the competence in craftsmanship and were highly valued by employers. The examinations were robust tests of the student’s grasp of his/her trade as the results show below).

Number of Entries and Passes in the CGLI Craft Examinations between 1952 and 1955:

Year

Entries

Passes

%

1952

70,856

44,390

62.6

1953

75,363

47,510

63.0

1954

82,094

49,922

60.8

1955

88,511

54,973

62.1

In 1950 technical degrees and diplomas awarded 3,593.

In 1951 number of students on London University internal degrees in Engineering 504, Pure Science 571, Commerce and Econimics 109, and Arts 27 – total 1,211.

In 1951 number of students on London University external degrees in applied sciences 504 this declined to 333 in 1953 and 218 in 1955.

In session 1951/52 class entries for needle crafts and entries to CGLI examinations: Dressmaking-307,278 CGLI entries 1,275. Millinery-4,846 CGLI entries 28. Needlework and Embroidary-130,561 CGLI entries 475 and Tailoring-29,125 CGLI 79. Grand total 470,810.

1951 Between 1951/52 and 1956/57 London University degrees awarded to non-university students declined from 731 (internal) to 460 and rom 1727 (external) to 1174.

In 1952 only 130 entries for CGLI housecraft examinations.

In 1952 some qualifications gained by Technical College Students: London University degrees- internal-591, external 1,102 – grand total 1,693). Other University degrees 338, ARIC 179, HNDs 250 and 6,311 HNCs.

In 1952 number of students on HND 250, HNC 6,311 and other university degrees 338 (Awarded by other universities affiliated with the colleges.

In 1952 the number of advanced programmes (> GCE A level) gained in technical colleges in science was approximately 1,000 and 500 in the technologies.

In 1953 number of students on London external degrees: Engineering 336, Pure Science 598, Commerce 136, and Arts 32 – total 1,102.

In 1952/53 The Associateship of the Royal Institute of Chemistry (ARIC) awarded to 179 candidates out of 615 entries.

In 1952 23,052 candidates for NCTEC examinations.

In 1952 First Insignia Award in Technology awarded (CGLI).

In 1952/53 23% of successful students taking HNC Mechanical Engineering came from secondary modern schools -(total of successful students 2,700).

In 1952 during session 1952/53 ONC/HNC in Mechanical Engineering.

Previous education of candidates: Grammar Schools ONC – 47% and HNC – 45%.

Secondary Technical Schools ONC – 29% and HNC – 32%

Secondary Modern Schools ONC – 26% and HNC – 23%.

Total nuber of ONCs 5,872.

In 1953 number of GCE candidates from secondary modern schools was 4,068 this increased to 41,621 by 1960.

In 1953 90 FT students attended the Heating and Ventilation National Colleges.

In 1953 there were approximately 800 examination centres for RSA.

Up to 1953 76,000 candidates had taken CGLI examinations in the so-called women’s subjects with 8,800 gaining the teachers certificate.

In 1953 444 Intermediate and Final Diplomas were awarded for the DMS.

In 1954 HNCs in Chemistry awarded 637. HNCs in Applied Chemistry awarded 16.

ONCs in Chemistry awarded 937. ONC in Applied Chemistry 18.

In 1954 >15% of Scottish students gaining National Certificate in Chemistry were girls and in pharmacy 40% were females.

In 1954 number of Scottish students in National Institutions were: 4,422 day, 10,349 giving a grand total of 14,771.

In 1954 the number of students taking the Scottish Leaving Certificates 7,418 sat mathematics, 8,499 English and 4,861 science.

In 1954 technical degrees and diplomas awarded 3,359.

In 1954 approximately 900 short post graduate courses taught in science and technology subjects.

In 1954 637 HNCs in Chemistry awarded compared with just 16 in Applied Chemistry.

In 1954 in the UK 2,800 university graduates in engineering and other applied sciences and holders of diplomas awarded at university also 8,100 awarded HNCs.

In 1954 Average student hours per annum FT-833hrs. number of students 56,481. PT-153hrs. number of students 353,049. Evening programmes: Technical-64hrs. number of students 700,158. Art-63hrs.  number of students 92,508. Evening Institutions-41hrs. number of students 1,036,519.

In 1954/55 number of sandwich course students was 1,400 and this increased to 9,000 in 1959/60.

In 1954/55 output from advanced classes from technical colleges in England and Wales was 9,500 of which 50% became professional scientists and technologists.

In 1956/57 31,835 candidates for ONC examinations (16,176 passed). 12,568 candidates for HNCs examinations (8,796 passed).

In 1956 approximately 4,200 pure science degrees were awarded and 1,850 in technology.

Number of Students in Universities and Institutes of Technology in 1955/56 and 1957/58:

Year

Pure Science

(University)

Technology

(University)

Dip Tech

Degree

HND

College Diploma and others

Totals

1955-56

17,500

11,200

2,971

2,279

1,616

35,566

1957-58

21,707

13,850

1,391

3,576

3,927

3,691

48,141

Results in 1956 and 1958 for Other National Examinations Provided in some Technical Colleges:

Subject

1956

1958

National Bakery Diploma

91

72

Higher National Bakery Diploma

4

7

National Craftsman’s Certificate

(motor vehicle repair)

677

858

Diploma in Management Studies

276

324

Intermediate Certificate in management Studies

490

681

National Retail Distribution Certificate

101

120

National Diploma in Design *

968

1,085

  • 187 publicly maintained art establishments prepared students for this award.

Numbers of Students Enrolled on Sandwich Courses Between 1954/55 and 1957/58:

 

Year

Courses approved

Dip Tech

London

University

College Associates*

HNDS?HNCS

Others

Totals;

1954/55

70

4

140

1,125

150

1.419

1955/56

103

52

571

1,373

331

2,327

1956/57

148

510

207

728

2,142

392

3,979

1957/58

203

1,391

307

973

3,254

539

6,464

 

In 1957 first cohort of Dip. Tech students 965 students from 37 courses. Dip Tech was created in 1956.

In 1957/58 there were 1,700 full-time university agricultural and forestry students and there were 1,100 students in agricultural colleges.

In 1957 24,972 ONCs and 848 ONDs awarded.

In 1958 Number of HNDs awarded in Science 0, In Engineering 298. Number of HNCs awarded in Science 25. In Engineering 3,953. Number of Professional Association Awards in Science 237. In Engineering 814. Other Awards (CGLI et.al.) in Science 5. In Engineering 1,181. (Interesting to note the low numbers in science).

In 1958 34 candidates gained Dip.Tech. and by 1964 this number had risen to 1,221.

In 1958 Number of institutions offering: degrees 62, DipTech 12, HND (full-time) 39, HNC (part-time 187, OND (full-time) 40 and ONC (part-time) 291.

1958 An award higher than the examination Diploma in Technology. NCTA. Oct.

In 1958 During 1958/59 session there were 263 sandwich courses offered in 95 technical colleges. (Salford Royal Technical College offered 17 courses).

In 1958 35,572 ONC entrants only 18,028 passed. 13,854 HNC entrants only 9,647 passed. Note very low pass rate 50% for ONC and 30% for HNC.

In 1958 failure rates for OND were approximately 44% and for HNDs approximately 19%. These are better than the rates for ONCs and HNCs but still very high.

In 1958 18,000 National Certificates and 10,000 Higher National Certificates were awarded to students on day-release or part-time-evening mode of attendance.

In 1958/59 session  > 50,000 students on Preliminary Courses in FE. 200,000 students on courses for craftsmen and technicians. 140,000 students on ONCs and <40,000 on HNCs. 1,600 students on ONDs and 3,100 on HNDs.

In 1959 first examinations for the Mechanical Engineers Craft courses staged. CGLI.

Enrolment Data for Dip Tech in 1959:

Subject

Number of Courses

1st year

2nd year

3rd year

4th year

Total

Aeronautical Eng.

5

64

22

86

Applied Biology

1

9

6

15

Applied Biochemistry

1

5

5

Applied Pharmacology

1

5

5

Applied Chemistry/Chemical Technology/Industrial Chemistry

10

103

58

34

9

204

Building

1

8

8

Chemical Eng.

3

37

22

2

61

Civil Eng.

3

23

3

2

28

Electrical Eng.

13

358

299

143

67

867

Instrument and Control Eng.

1

10

9

19

Mathematics

4

40

14

54

Mechanical and Production Eng.

10

361

274

127

40

802

Metallurgy

4

32

34

26

6

98

Physics

9

116

88

47

15

266

Grand totals:

66

1,171

829*

381

137

2,518

*Includes 145 students not recognized by the NACEIC.

In 1959 66 Dip.Tech courses in existence in CATs – 13 FT and 53 Sandwich. Distribution across the CATs Birmingham 9 Sandwich, Bradford 2 FT and 5 Sandwich, Bristol 5 Sandwich, London – Battersea 8 FT, 6 Sandwich, Chelsea 2 FT, 1 Sandwich and Northampton 8 Sandwich, Loughborough 2 FT, 4 Sandwich,, Salford 7 Sandwich and Wales 3 Sandwich. Grand totals 14 FT and 48 Sandwich,

1960 ONC Business Studies introduced.

In 1961 the National Council for Diplomas in Art and Design (NCDAD) established.

In 1961 80,862 candidates took 231,757 papers in FE colleges for the examinations offered by the Union – REBs.

In 1961 the Scottish Council for Commercial Education (SCCE) established.

In 1961 there were 23 CGLI schemes for end-on T courses – 26 in 1968.

In 1961 138,000 candidates from Britain and the Commonwealth sat CGLI examinations at 1,200 centres

In 1961 OND Business Studies introduced.

In 1961 G1 courses in Engineering started.

In 1961 Students on advanced technology courses was 15,150 from degrees 125, Dip Tech 619, HND 1,054, NC 11,717 and other courses 650.

In 1962 HND in Business Studies introduced with 380 enrolled and by 1964 this had increased to 1,848.

In 1962 G* and G2 courses started in Textiles.

In 1962/63 between 1962/63 and 1976/77 number of day and evening students on HE (excluding teacher training) increased from 100,000 to 125,000.

In 1963 qualifications included ONC which comprised 3 years of part-time study with at least 150 hours of instruction per year (S1, S2 and S3).

OND which comprised 2 years full-time study (OND1, OND2). HNC which comprised 2 years part-time study (A1, A2 or HC1,HC2). HND which comprised 3 years sandwich or 2/3 years full-time (HD1,HD2 etc).

In 1963/64 there were 124 Dip Tech courses at 30 colleges mostly at CATs and Regional Colleges.

In 1963 Certificate of Office Studies introduced.

In 1963-1964 session 405,000 pursuing CGLI courses.

In 1963-1964 session CGLI offered 24 courses foe operatives in such areas as boiler operatives’ certificate, concrete practice and power plant operation etc.

IN 1963 Majority of certificates holders were engineers – 21,318 ONCs and 12,130 HNCs.

In 1963 608,000 part-time students enrolled in colleges.

In 1963 G courses started in Mining.

In 1963-1964 session 3,207 1st year students from 124 courses for Dip. Tech. programmes – 1,069 graduated in this session.

In 1963/64 CGLI offered 24 operative courses in such subjects as boiler operatives’ certificate, concrete practice and flour milling.

In 1964 the National Examinations Board in Supervisory Studies (NEBSS) established.

In 1964 there were 113 craft and 110 technician courses being run by CGLI.

In 1964 G courses started in Science, Shipbuilding and Construction.

In 1964 Council for National Academic Awards (CNAA) received its Royal Charter. Students on Business Courses  leading to Recognised Qualifications:

1964/65 Students on Business Courses leading to recognised qualifications: Certificate in Office Studies 5,686, ONC in Business Studies 12,734, OND in Business Studies 5,188 and Other non-advanced business courses 52,642 giving a grand total of 76,250.

In 1964 number of ONCs awarded 23,030, ONDs awarded 1,174, HNCs awarded 12,790 and HNDs awarded 1,550 in England and Wales.

In 1964 number of ONCs awarded 1,749, ONDs awarded 49, HNCs 1,119 and HNDs 18 in Scotland  (Source for these stats DES 1965).

1964/65  Students on Business Courses leading to recognised higher qualifications– HNC in Business Studies 2,956, HND in Business 1,848, First degrees in Business Studies 1,399, other advanced Business Studies 21,978  giving a grand total for advanced business courses  28,181.

In1964 198,000 examination entries for CGLI, with 27,000 from overseas (66% overall pass rate achieved).

1964 Some Examinations Schemes Modelled on National Certificate and Diploma Schemes (England and Wales:

Course Title

No. awarded

National bakery Diploma

98

HND National Bakery Diploma

4

National Craftsman’s Certificate in Motor Vehicle Service Mechanics

1,542

National Diploma in Hotel-Keeping and Catering

140

National Retail Distribution Certificate

368

Certificate in Retail Management Principles

56

Diploma in Management Studies (new scheme)

498

In 1964 Advanced Qualifications at Central Institutions:

Course

Entries

Successes

University degrees

144

College associateships and diplomas

1,346

1,236

HNC

1,828

1,119

HNC (supplementary certificates)

1,091

777

HND

23

18

SCCE Advanced Commercial and Secretarial Certificates

208

96

Diploma in Management Studies

13

Certificate in Business Administration

19

College associateships and diplomas (supplementary certificates)

38

38

Sec of State for Scotland: Education in Scotland in 1964. 1965.

In 1965 Honours Degrees introduced in Business Studies.

In 1964/65 16,000 of the 20,000 advanced sandwich students in colleges were either studying for a Dip Tech or HND.

1966 G courses started in Printing. Interestingly to note G courses not staged in Scotland.

In 1967-68 Students on Business Courses leading to recognised qualifications: Certificate in Office Studies 8,807, ONC in Business Studies 13,962, OND in Business Studies 6,458 and Other non-advanced business courses 61,671 giving a grand total of 90,898.

1967/68 Students on Business Courses leading to recognised higher qualifications – HNC in Business Studies 5,247, HND in Business Studies 4,364, First degrees in Business Studies 7,604, other advanced Business Studies 35,047 giving a grand total for all advanced business courses  52,262.

In 1968 Number of Candidates for Business Qualifications:

ONC Business Studies: Entries 3,935 – passes 2,188. OND Business Studies: Entries 2,366 – passes 1,684. HNC Business Studies: Entries 1,695 – passes 1,310. HND Business Studies: Entries 1,554 – passes 1,216.

National Certificate Retail Distribution Certificate: Entries 723 – passes 348. Certificate in Retail Management Principles Part A:  Entries 117 – passes 79. Part B: Entries 133 – passes 97.

Certificate in Office Studies: Entries: 2,632 – passes 2,114.

In 1968 number of students in art establishments in England and Wales were:

Men: 14,653 (full-time), 36 Short full-time < 18 weeks, 126 Sandwich, 14,451 Day release,  2,960 Other part-time, Evening only 17,254 giving a grand total of 49,480 students.

Women: 11,866 (full-time), 117 (Short full-time), 55 Sandwich, 1,556 day release, 18,473 Other part-time, 30,281 Evening only giving a grand total of 62,348 students.

Above figures do not include university departments.

 

In 1969/70 81,000 students in Full-time and Sandwich Public Sector HE. Also there were 109,000 students in teacher training.

In 1970/71 total student numbers on art and design courses were:

9,844 full-time, 3,551 part-time giving a grand total of 13,39

Institutions offering art and design provision:

54 Art Colleges, 20 Polytechnics, 7 Specialist Colleges and 95 other FE Institutions giving a grand total of 176 Institutions.

In the 1970s 60% of CGLI awards were in Engineering.

In the 1970s degree courses were offered in 48 universities and university colleges, 28 polytechnics and 12 other institutions

In 1974 there were 6,500 subject entries for the Certificate of Extended Education (CEE).

In session 1974/75 first Dip. HE programmes started and by 1980 there were 45 programmes in operation.

In 1974/75 there were 102,000 students in full-time and sandwich courses and 108,000 in teacher training.

In 1975 30,000 students taking courses leading to recognised qualifications in Art and Design of whom 18,000 were on non-advanced courses – art and design students only constituted 1.5% of all the students enrolled on recognised courses in FE colleges.

In 1975 there were approximately 22,000 students taking agriculture courses leading to recognised qualifications in over 40 FE Colleges in England and Wales – 15,000 on part-time day release mode.

In 1975 (Nov) CGLI courses enrolled 235,000 students in the 16-19 age group  16% were on full-time or sandwich programmes

In 1974 (Nov) 25,700 students taking OND programmes – 10,500 on Business Studies, approximately 9,000 on Engineering and Technology programmes.

In 1977/78 session 3 FE Colleges were offering the International Bacc with approximately 100 students most from overseas.

In 1977/78 session approximately 50 Dip HE courses existed with approximately validated by CNAA and the remainder by universities.

In 1977 350 colleges introduced 1,200 new TEC programmes with approximately 37,500 students.

In 1977 over 1,200 candidates from more than 200 courses were assessed for the SIAD diploma.

In 1977 there were 182 CNAA first degrees in Art and Design with approximately 13,350 students.

In 1977 CGLI Foundation courses enrolled 1,700 candidates in over 150 programmes.

In session 1977/78 6,442 candidates were enrolled on 169 DMS courses.

In 1978 TEC appointed 2 full-time moderators and 230 part-time moderators.

In 1980 approximately 1,000 CNAA degree programmes existed.

In 1983/84 approximately 4,000 students enrolled on Dip Tech in England and Wales – note it was not adopted in Scotland.

In 1986 approximately 250 professional bodies examining and awarding qualifications.

In 1989 school leavers highest qualifications in UK were: 15% (2 or more GCE ‘A’ levels). 40% (1 ‘A’ level or below i.e. ‘O’ level). 35% (below ‘O’ level) and 10% with no qualification. Compare these figures with similar for France namely 35%. 55%. 10%. (CBI 1989).

In 1990 NCVQ had accredited 170 NVQs in over 40 major UK industries and occupations representing 30% of UK employers.

1991 between 1991/2 and 1995/96 number of NVQs and SVQs awarded increased by 354,000.

In 1992 in session 1992/93 number of NVQS/SVQS awarded in UK was 153,00 – 67.5% at level 2, 23.1% at level 3 and 5.9% at level 1.

In 1992 GNVQs introduced.

In 1993 -1994 session  70,000 students enrolled on GNVQs increased to 165,000 by session 1994-1995 – mainly in the 16-19 age range.

In 1994 there were 500 NVQs covering 150 0ccupations this represented 80% of all jobs.

In 1994/95 13% of HE was delivered in England by FE colleges – equivalent figures in Wales 5%, 16% in NI and 27% in Scotland.

Up to 1995 986,907 NVQ certificates awarded compared with 346,528 in 1995/96 and 444,117 in 1996/97.

In 1995 43% of 16 year olds in education and training studied at FE or 6th form colleges – 14% of year olds in education and training chose the work-based route.

In 1995 240,000 NVQs awarded while in 1997 the figure was 368,000 and in 1996 446,000 awarded each year.

In 1995 75% of 16-18 year olds on some form of structured education or training scheme – in 1990 the figure was 66%.

In 1995/96 354,000 NVQs/SVQs awarded and 84,000 GNVQs.

In 1995/96 percentage of females taking NVQ/SVQs approx. 53%, GNVQ/GSVQs approx. 53% and other vocational qualifications approx. 51%. Most NVQ awards were in service sector with only 50,000 engineering programmes. Other vocational awards namely 219,000 were in areas of computers, electrical and electronic engineering and 32,00o in engineering production and industrial design.

In 1995/96 423,000 other vocational awards (OVAs) awarded.

In 1996/97 459,000 NVQs/SVQs awarded and 93,000 GNVQs.

In 1996/97 439,000 other vocational awards given.

In 1996/97 CGLI awarded certificates in: GNVQs 16,393, Customised 19,229, Other general education 85,442, NVQs 192,442, Other vocational 350,998 and at the following levels: at level 1 -235,785, at level 2 – 267,052. at level 3- 105,834, at level – 4 44,565 and at level – 5 1,443.

In 1996/97 RSA started introducing text processing awards (Stages II and III).

In 1997 there were 11 NVQs at level 5, 125 at level 4, 316 at level 3, 357 at level 2 and 110 at level 1.

In 1997 over 45,000 candidates achieved NCFE competence based certificates.

In 1997/88 number of entries to SVQs was 35,000.

In 1998/99 the top three FMA programmes being studied were Business Admin 17%, Retail 14% and Hairdressing 12%.

In 1998 2,223,523th NVQ awarded.

In 1998 other qualifications by level awarded were as follows: Entry- 164. Level- 1 1,378. Level 2-1,765. Level 3-2,015. Level 4 and above- 584.

Examples of areas of award 1st aid, Hygiene and Nutrition, Key Skills, Language Certificates. Office Skills/Secretarial and Sports Coaching etc.

In 1998 NCFE offered over 70 qualifications.

In 1998 26,600 young people had begun national traineeships (Nov.).

In 1998 320,000 applicants for university places.

In 1998 Number of NVQs/SVQs programme areas: 11 at level 5, 125 at level 4, 316 at level 3, 357 at level 2 and 110 at level 1.

In 1998 Qualifications listed in FEFC Qualification database: GCSE 1,598, GCE ‘A’ and ‘AS’ 1,752, Access to HE 1,155, NVQ 1,811, GNVQ 216 and Other Qualifications (OQs)  7,881. (Note Other Qualifications  in spite of government attempts to reduce them continue to dominate the qualification scene).

In 1998/99 number of FMA starts in England and Wales 41,900 an increased to 96,000 in session 1999/2000, 81 approved sectors for AMAs and 50 for FMAs. Percentages for FMAs by programme : 17% Business Admin. 14% Retailing and 12% Hairdressing.

Percentages for AMAs by programme: 13% Engineering Manufacturing and 12% Business Admin.

In 1998/99 session NOCN recorded that OCNs more than 630,000 learner registrations (an increase of 27% on session 1997/98), awarded over 1,200,000 credits to learners, worked with over 3,100 members or user organisations and reached and provided certification for a wide range of learners with 87% were over 18 years of age and 42% were unwaged or unemployed.

In 1999 number of students taking National Certificate modules decreased by 7% with 60% studying at FE colleges in Scotland (SQA). Entries for Higher National units and awards increased by 2%.

In 1999 the highest qualification level held by people of working age was as follows:

Age 16 – 19: Level 4/5 – 1%. Level 3 – 20%. Level 2 – 42%. <Level2 – 24%. None – 13%.

Age 20 -24: Level 4/5 – 23%. Level 3 – 30%. Level 2 – 22%. <Level 2- 18%. None – 7%.

Age 25 – 29: Level 4/5 – 30%. Level 3 – 18%. Level 2 – 22%. <Level 2 – 22%. None – 8%.

Age 30 – 39: Level 4/5 – 26%. Level 3 – 17%. Level 2 – 21%. <Level2 – 26%. None – 10%.

Age 40 – 49: Level 4/5 – 26%. Level 3 – 17%. Level 2 – 20%. <Level – 19%. None – 17%.

Age 50 – 59: Level 4/5 – 21%. Level 3 – 16%. Level 2 – 19%. <Level – 17%. None – 27%.

Age 60 – 64: Level 4/5 – 18%. Level 3 – 22%. Level 2 – 21%. < Level 2 – 11%. None – 28%.

All 16+:                      23% (4/5)             18% (3)             22% (2)               11% (<2) and     15% (None) .

In 1999/2000 the top 12 registrations for subjects for CGLI examinations  (in ‘000s) were: General education 210, Business and Commerce 172, IT Services and Services to Industry 151, Care and Related Occupations 70, Education and Training 60, Engineering 58, Construction 55, Management 46, Hairdressing and Beauty 43, Hotel and catering 35, Retail Wholesale and Distribution 34 and Creative Art and Craft 21.Registration by level: 25.62% at level 1, 44.14% at level 2, 26.62% at level 3, 3.32% at level 4 and 0.32% at level 5.

In 1999/2000 80.3% of students on FEFC provision were adults but only 7.3% were on full-time full-year programmes whilst 19.7% of students under 19 years of age were on FEFC provision of whom 71% were on full-time full-year programmes.

In 2000 drop outs overall 11-12%, For MAs 5%, NTs 10% and other training programmes 20%.

In 2000 entries for GNVQ Part 1 increased by 41% to 32,350.

In 2000 Pass rate in summer examinations was 58.8% for Advanced GNVQs.

In 2000 achievement rates for distance learning mode was: for GCE ‘A’ Level 36% (all modes of learning 77%), GCE ‘AS’ 46% (all modes of learning 58% and for GCSE (Grade C+) 33% (All modes of learning 42%).

In 2001 (March). Just over 3.2 million NVQ Certificates had been awarded with 60% at level 2 and 19% at level 3.

In 2001 Vocational ‘A’ level results: Advanced VCE Double Award entries 6,949 with pass rate of 54.4%, Advanced GNVQ Double Award 70,717 entries with pass rate of 59.8% and ‘AS’ level/VCE 5,719 entries with pass rate of 66.4%.

In 2001 4,229 students had studied foundation degrees – 70 FD programmes available in 90 UK institutions.

In 2001 since 2001 4,229 students started foundation degrees – with over 52% with vocational or work-based qualifications.

In 2001/02 3,775 enrolled on Foundation Degrees increased to 12,000 in session 2002/03.

In 2001/02 705 level 4/5 students enrolled on NVQ courses – 2.5% of all NVQ 4/5s were awarded by HEIs.

In 2002 up to June total number of NVQs awarded 3,715,057 (An increase since 2001 of 365,000).

In 2002 there were 527 different Scottish Vocational Qualifications.

In 2002 approximately 200,000 students were studying for HE qualifications in FECs.

In 2002 vocational ‘A’ level results:

Advanced VCE Double Award 42,291 entries with pass rate 82.7%. Advanced VCE Single Award 32,246 entries with pass rate 78.7% and ‘AS’ level/VCE 12,411 entries with pass rate of 74.6%.

In 2003 Number of entries to GCE ‘A’ levels in physics and Mathematics 31,543 and 50,602 respectively.

In  2008 in session 2008/09 number of NVQs/SVQs awarded in UK was 958,000.

In 2009/10 There were 1,215,900 under graduate students in UK HE Institutions and 298,000 post graduate students.

IN 2013 over 340,000 learners from over 2,000 colleges, schools and training providers took NCFE awards.

In 2013 Number of entries to GCE ‘A’ level Physics and Mathematics 35,569 and 88,060 respectively. In 2013/14 there were 1,351,800 under graduates in UK HE Institutions and 305,400 post graduates.

In  2014 41% of the work force had a qualification at NVQ level 4 or better – 41% in England, 36% in Wales, 32% in Northern Ireland and 45% in Scotland held a qualification at SCQF level 7 or higher.

42% of females had a qualification at NVQ level or higher compared with 39% of males .

50% of 30 to 39 year olds had a qualification NVQ level 4 or higher compared with 29% of 19 to 24 year olds and 35% of 50 to 64 year olds.

Total expenditure on education £83.4 billion in 2014. 6% of 16-19 year olds started apprenticeships in 2014/2015.

In 2015 There are 19,00 regulated adult vocational qualifications in England. 47% of graduates were employed in jobs that did not normally require higher education qualifications.

532,300 people entered HE the highest number recorded so far. 35% of 18 year olds applied for university. There are 8 vocational qualifications for every GCSE.

In 2016 30% of UK students take vocational training compared with 75% in Germany.

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