Information on Colleges and Training Providers

 

Updated November 2016.

1582 Edinburgh University founded

1592 Trinity College Dublin founded

1596 Gresham College founded.

In 1613 Robin Hood Society founded by H. Middleton.

In 1685 Hackney Academy founded discontinued in 1820 founded by B. Morland.

In 1710 Mathematical School in Southwark founded by T. Crosby.

In 1717/1718 Soho Academy founded by M. Clare.

In 1750 Warwick Academy founded by J. C. Ryland moved to Northampton in 1759 and in 1785 to Enfield.

In 1752 Kendal Academy dissolved.

In 1763 Glasgow University provided Joseph Black with a chemical laboratory- subsequently he performed some of his classic heat experiments.

In 1763 Kensington Academy founded by J. Elphinston.

1777 Naval academy founded in Chelsea.

In 1781 Manchester Lit and Phil founded.

In 1783 The College of Arts and Science Manchester founded.

In 1786 Manchester Academy founded.

In the 1780s and 1790s there were approximately 200 Academies about 66% were in London the rest distributed across the country.

1791 Naval academy founded in Gosport by W. Burney.

In 1798 Thomas Cranfield opened a Day School in Kent Street London.

In 1798 Adult School founded in Nottingham the first.

In 1818 Leeds Lit and Phil founded.

In 1821 Edinburgh School of Arts opened. (April).

1823 Liverpool Mechanics and Apprentices’ Library opened.

1823 Glasgow Mechanics’ Institution founded.

In session 1823/24 Edinburgh School of Art enrolled 317 students in such subjects as joinery industries (91), masonry industries (24), engineering (13), printers (8) and mathematical instrument making and optics (5).

From 1824 the average attendance at London Mechanics’ Institution was: 1824-750. 1826-1,477. 1828-1,100. 1830-950 and in 1831-941.

1824 Dublin Mechanics’ Institution founded – later there were 28 Mechanics’ Institutions in Ireland.

In 1825 Greenock Institution of Art and Science charged 52.5 pennies for masters, 25 pennies for journeymen and 12.5 pennies for apprentices. At Devonport ‘operational subscribers paid 1.5 pennies per week and apprentices 1 p. Leeds Mechanics’ Institution paid 25 pennies per half year and at Newcastle Mechanics’ Institution 60 pennies per annum.

In 1825 Bradford Mechanics’ Institution founded it was renewed itself in 1832.

In 1826 100 Mechanics’ Institutions by 1850 approximately 700.

In 1828 University College London opened attained University status in 1836.

1828 between 1828 and 1843 the Todmorden Natural History Society was very active.

In 1829 Kings College School founded.

In the 1830s Mechanics’ Institutions membership comprised roughly 50% tradesmen, 33% mechanics and 13% clerks.

In 1831 Ripon Mechanics’ Institution founded by 1849 it had nearly 300 members.

In 1831 Kings College opened attained University status in 1836.

In 1831 University of Durham projected and chartered in 1837.

In 1834 the lecture programme at Liverpool Mechanics’ Institution was: Hamlet. The microscope. Stenography. Milton. Mechanics. Combustion. Music of Ireland. Production and Use of Silk. The Middle Ages. Oratory. Perspective. Phrenology. Sanitary Regulations and German Customs.

In 1834 enrolments at Manchester evening schools were 1,458.

In 1835 enrolments at Salford evening schools were 526.

In 1835 enrolments at Bury evening schools were 151.

In 1836 enrolment at Liverpool evening schools were 548.

In 1836/37 Brougham Institution founded Liverpool.

In 1837 Cornwall Polytechnic Society founded in Falmouth by the Fox family.

In 1837 66% of the London Mechanics’ Institution Management Committee had to be working class.

In 1838 Engineering Department established at Kings College London.

In 1838 membership at Huddersfield, Leeds and Manchester Mechanics’ Institutions were 310, 260 and 830 respectively.

In 1838 number of members at the Manchester Lyceuaems: Ancoats-735. Salford-1,500 and Chorlton-530.

In 1838 Salford Literary and Mechanics’ Institution founded under the title of the Salford Lyceuaem.

From 1838 number of members at the Nottingham Mechanics’ Institution were: 1838-747. 1840-899. 1845-816 and in 1850-815.

In 1839 the Museum of Economic Geology founded, in 1851 it became part of the new Government School of Mines Applied to the Arts, in 1853 became the Royal College of Chemistry incorporated as a chemistry department, in 1857 became the Government School of Mines and of Science Applied to the Arts, in 1881 became Normal School of Science and Royal College of Mines and in 1890 became Royal College of Science and Royal College of Mines.

In 1838 enrolments at Birmingham evening schools were 563.

In 1839 Museum of Economic Geology opened and went through a number of name changes e.g. in 1851 known as the Government School of Mines Applied to the Arts, In 1853 became College of Chemistry. In 1857 because the Government School of Mines and Science Applied to the Arts. In 1881 became the Normal School of Science and Royal School of Mines and in1890 became Royal College of Science and Royal School of Mines.

In 1840 Oldham had a School of Science and Art – initially called the Lyceum – started SoA examinations in 1874. In 1882 it enrolled 675 science and 110 art students with technical classes in mechanical engineering, tools and cotton manufacture reflecting the local industries.

In 1841 to 1852 17 schools of industrial design were founded.

1841 220 Mechanics’ Institutions in existence with 30,000 members

In 1841 Andrew Walker opened a Ragged School or School of Industry in Field Lane, Smithfields, London

In 1842 Peoples’ College Sheffield founded by Rev Bayley. Subjects taught included Latin, French, German, Greek, Mathematics, English Lit, Logic, Elocution and Drawing – weekly fee 9 penny (approximately 5p).

In 1842 between 1842 and 1852 21 provincial schools of design were established including in Manchester, Birmingham and Glasgow.

In 1842 Metropolitan Early Closing Association founded – encouraged opportunities for intellectual, physical and moral education and improvement.  Formed the basis for the YMCA.

In 1843 Royal Dockyard Schools opened at Woolwich, Sheerness, Portsmouth and Devonport.

In 1843 the membership at Huddersfield, Leeds and Manchester Mechanics Institutions were 190, 816 and 807 respectively.

In 1844 Young Men’s Mental Improvement Society became Huddersfield Mechanics’ Institution’

Queen’s College founded in Belfast, Cork and Galway.

In 1846 Peoples Instruction Society Birmingham founded.

In 1846 Royal Naval College founded.

In 1846 Thirsk Mechanics’ Institution established by E. Gatley and E. Jowett.

In 1848 Masham Mechanics’ Institution founded by John Fisher.

In 1849 Brighton Working Men’s Institute founded.

In 1849 The Oddfellows Literary Institute in Leeds had a library of 1,200 volumes.

In 1850 the membership at Huddersfield, Leeds and Manchester Mechanics’ Institutions were 779, 1,873 and 1,254 respectively.

In 1850 there were 44 Mechanics’ Institutions in Lancashire with 12,405 members

In 1850 there were 610 Mechanics’ Institutions in England with a subscribing membership of 102,050 and 691,500 publications in their libraries. If the Mutual Improvement Societies, Christian and Church of England Institutions and Evening Adult Schools were added the grand total for England was 700 with 107,000 members.

In 1850 the three Irish universities were united – Queens University- in 1880 Queens University was superseded by the Royal University of Ireland.

In 1851 there were: 610 Mechanics’ Institutions in England with 102.050 members. 12 in Wales with 1,472 members. 55 in Scotland with 12,554 members and 25 in Ireland with 4,005 members. Grand totals 702 Institutions with 120,081 members. Reference:Hudson 1851 ‘History of Adult Education.’

In 1851 there were 1,017 literary and scientific institutions in England, 40 in Wales and 225 in Scotland.

In 1851 Census recorded 1,545 adult schools with approximately 40,000 students – by 1858 there were 2,036 evening schools wit approximately 81,000 students (55,000 males, 26,000 females) -majority children/adolescents.

In 1851 Science instruction in schools between 1851 and 1872 went from: Number of schools 0 to 94. Number of pupils 38 to 2,803 and number of pupils 1,330 to 36,783. (Note some science instruction went on in a very small number of institutions).

In 1851 there were 438 evening schools.

In 1851 Number of Evening Schools in Lancashire (319), in Middlesex (181) and Yorkshire (160).

In 1851 there were approximately 55 Mechanics’ Institutions in Scotland ranging with a membership from 20 to 700

In 1851 Night schools received funding for the first time.

In 1851 Owens College Manchester opened attained University status in 1903.

The total returns from the Literary and Mechanics’ Institutions in 1851 were:

Country

No. of Institutions

Subscribing Members

Volumes in libraries

News-rooms

England

610

102,050

691,500

372

Wales

12

1.472

6,855

8

Scotland

55

12,554

59,661

15

Ireland

25

4,005

57,500

13

Totals:

702

102,081

815,516

408

Source: Hudson J. W. ‘The History of Adult Education’ 1851.

In 1852 the Todmorden Botanical Society was founded by A. Stansfield and J. Nowell.

Between 1852 and 1858 the 17 Schools of Design increased to 56 and student numbers increased from 4,800 to 35,000.

In 1853 Peoples’ College opened in London subjects taught included arithmetic, algebra, geometry, astronomy, history and geography.

In 1853 the Midlands Institution founded.

In 1853 the Royal College of Chemistry became the department of chemistry at the Metropolitan School of Science and remained so until the School was renamed the Royal College of Science and Royal School of Mines.

In 1855 there were 368 Mechanics’ Institutions in membership of the Union of Institutions (facilitated by the SA and the Society of Arts Journal acted as a means of communication between them and the Society.

In 1855 King’s College London instituted an Evening Class Department.

In 1855 Haley Hill College (vocational focus cf. Working Men’s College) Halifax opened closed early 1880s.

In 1858 Salford College (vocational focus) opened closed 1886.

In 1858 at least 25 Mechanics’ Institutions in Yorkshire had erected their own buildings.

In 1859 Boston College (vocational focus) opened closed 1892.

From 1859 any pupil of the artisan class who passed an examination of the Science and Art Department gained a grant for his teacher. Payments varied depending on the grade achieved. In 1866 £5,000 was paid to teachers and by 1867 £8,000 was paid out.

In 1860 the Science and Art Department started its programme for science examinations with 30 classes and 1,340 candidates mostly in private and endowed schools. By 1873 there were 1,182 classes and 24,674 candidates.

In 1860 a Scientific Society of the Haley Hill Working Men’s College in Halifax was founded.

In 1860 Westminster Working Men’s Club founded.

In 1861 Owen College, Manchester only enrolled 88 day students.

In 1861 Liverpool School of Science founded.

In 1861 Notting Hill Working Men’s Hall founded.

In 1861 Ipswich College (vocational focus) opened closed 1890.

In 1862 the Union of Working Men’s Clubs/Colleges/Institute was established and by 1889 there were 329 clubs in membership and by 1899 there were 683 members. The majority of the club movement was from London, Home Counties, Lancashire, Cheshire, Yorkshire and the West Midlands (479 of the clubs in 1899 were from these regions very few in Scotland and Wales.

In 1862 10 females passed the SoA examination in Arithmetic, Gospel and Acts, English , History, Geography and Needle work. All had attended the Ladies Educational Institute which was part of the Leeds Mechanics’ Institution. (From the 25th report of the Yorkshire Union of Mechanics’ Institutions 1862.)

In 1862 Leicester College founded by D. J. Vaugham and called Working Men’s College in 1868 has continued to operate and now called Vaugham College an extra-mural centre of University of Leicester.

In 1862 Hartley Institute Southampton opened attained University status in 1952.

In 1864 London Working Men’s College  (founded in 1858) had 127 day and 312 evening students.

In 1865 Ovenden Naturalists’ Society in Halifax was founded.

In 1866 there were 18,139 students in 102 Schools of Art, 1,140 students in 32 night classes and 80,084 learning drawing in elementary schools.

In 1866 London Mechanics’ Institution changed its name to the Birkbeck Literary and Scientific Institution and in 1907 to Birkbeck College and in 1950 became part of University of London

In 1867 there were 212 Science Schools with 10,230 students – the so-called ‘organised science schools began in 1872.

Reported that there were 226 Sunday  Ragged Schools, 204 Day Schools and 207 Evening Schools with an average attendance of 26,000.

In 1868 London Working Men’s College, Southwark founded by T H Huxley (see biography on this website).

In 1868 Manchester Building Trades Institute of Technical Education opened with 200 students but this number declined to just 35 by 1880. (Possible explanation the ‘Master Builders’ did not support apprenticeships).

In 1869 Portsmouth and Gosport School of Science and the Arts founded.

In 1867 there were 212 science schools with 10,230 students. The so-called organised science schools date from 1872 presented pupils for the South Kensington examinations.

In 1867 Dalkeith Working Men’s Club and Institution founded.

In 1870 Blackheath Proprietary School London founded.

In 1871 Royal Indian Engineering College Coopers Hill founded.

In 1871 Newcastle College of Physical Science opened attained University status 1963.

In 1872 Crystal Palace School of Practical Engineering established.

In 1873 Institute for Boys and Youths founded at Camberwell, New Road, London.

In 1873 there were 120 schools of art spread across the UK also there were 180,000 boys and girls taught drawing in elementary schools and there were 500 night schools for teaching drawing to artisans.

In 1873 National Training School of Cookery founded in Kensington (1873-1902) became the National Training School of Cookery and Other Branches of Domestic Economy between 1902 and 1931 and then National Training College of Domestic Subjects between 1931 and 1962).

In 1873 Mather and Platt opened their own training school for their employees this continued until 1905.

In 1874 York College of Science Leeds opened attained University status in 1904

In 1874 the Artizans’ Institute founded was an offshoot of the trades Guild of Learning. It pioneered trade classes .

In 1876 number of Day Schools had declined from 195 to 74 with a decline from 23,052 to 5,678 pupils.

IN 1876 College of Science for the West of England, Bristol opened attained University status in 1909.

1877 between 1877 and 1886 no workshop training of any kind was provided at the National Art Training School based in South Kensington.

In 1879 70 Mechanics’ Institutions offered courses in conjunction with the Department of Science and Arts – enrolments were 1,498 in Mathematics, 1425 in Chemistry,1275 in Magnetism, 1128 in Machine Construction and Drawing, 665 in Applied Mechanics , 634 in Steam Technology and 92 in Mining.

In 1880 the Department of Science and Arts estimated that there were 4,000 students attending science classes at Mechanics’ Institutions who were eligible for ‘payment by results’ – and 1,000 attended during the day.

In 1880 first chair in mining established at The Newcastle College of Physical Sciences.

In 1880 Firth College Sheffield opened attained University status in 1905.

In 1881 University College Nottingham opened attained University status in 1948.

In 1881 Foundation stone laid for the Finsbury Technical College (CGLI) – CGLI spent £36,000 on its construction.

In 1882 there were 909,000 students in schools of art and 69,500 in schools of science (Data from Royal Commission on Technical Instruction 1884).

In 1882 University College Liverpool opened attained University status in 1903.

In 1882 the number of centres designated for CGLI examinations were as follows: 25 Mechanics’ and Working Men’s Institutions, 20 Schools of Science and Art, 9 Technical Colleges, 7 Literary, Scientific, or Library Institutes, 9 Institutes, Exeter Training College,23 Schools, 11 Board Schools and National Schools giving a grand total of 134 centres. (By 1983-4 there were 2,246 centres).

In 1883 Toynbee Hall founded.

In 1884 Central Institution at South Kensington founded.

Brunner Mond encouraged and offered their employees technical education.

In 1885 there were 3 Organised Science Schools, 125 in 1896 and 212 in 1901 and nearly 25% of these were attached to board schools.

In session 1886/87 there were 638 students at the Central Institution of the CGLI.

In 1887 Kevin Street Technical School opened – two schools one for science and the arts and the one for the technical trade subjects.

In 1887 People’s Palace opened (Mile End Road) – later became East London Technical College and is now Queens College part on London University.

In 1888 Manchester Central Higher School opened.

Between 1889 and 1902 ‘Whiskey Money’ provided 12 more Polytechnics and Technical Institutions in London and 13 in the provinces and more than 100 ‘organised science schools’.

After 1889 Technical Colleges that were run by local government came into being examples included Gravesend (1898). Dover (1900) and Dartford (1904)

In 1889 Bradford Technical College enrolled 314 day students and 1,337 evening students and Keighley Technical College enrolled 214, and 983 students on those modes of attendance. Note the large disparity between day and evening enrolments!

In the 1890s it was reckoned that <10% of skilled workers had directly experienced any formal training.

In 1891 Battersea Polytechnic founded

In 1891 Young Men’s Christian Institution became the Regent Street Polytechnic (See biography on this website)

In 1892 a Report to the L.C.C. by H. Llewellyn Smith identified there were only 24,000 evening in the whole of London. Out of 24,000 bricklayers only 90 were receiving formal training, out of 7,000 cabinet makers and upholsterers only 120 were doing any sort of training and out of 10,000 men in London tanneries only 13 were studying chemistry.

In 1892 University Extension College opened Reading attained University status in 1926.

In 1882 In 1882/1883 1,977 evening schools with 116,000 students.

In 1893 The Central Institution changed its name to Central Technical College (CGLI) and in 1901 became a School of the University of London.

In 1894 there were 113 trade classes in the London Polytechnics and by 1904 this figure had risen to 313 in such disciplines as bricklaying, painting and decorating, plastering, plumbing and printing.

In1894  Bolton a Manual Training School was linked with the Technical College.

In 1894 South Eastern Agriculture College Wye admitted first 13 students

In 1885 there were 3 Organised Science Schools in 1896 this had increased to 125 and by 1901 there were 212 – approximately 25% were  attached to School Boards.

In 1895 Exeter Technical and University College opened attained University status in 1955.

In 1896 the Northern Polytechnic Institution (Holloway) opened its mission being ‘To promote the industrial skills, general knowledge, health and wellbeing of young men and women’.

In 1896 298,724 pupils attended evening continuation schools in 1899 the figure had risen to 474,563 and approximately 14.4% were over 21 years of age.

In 1897 there were 23,256 evening students at the 9 London Polytechnics of whom approximately 33% were attending classes in building, engineering and metal trades and 1,590 on various other trade courses.

1898 between 1898 and 1904 there was an annual enrolment in book-keeping of 17,000, shorthand of 2,900, needlework of 1,800 and manual training 17,000.

In 1899 Ruskin College opened.

In 1899 In session 1899/1900 5,263 evening schools with 206.000 students.

In 1899 Brewing introduced at Birmingham University.

At the end of the 19th century 170,000 students were receiving instruction in Department of Science and Arts classes.

In 1901 Central Institutions (CIs) were designed in Scotland and by 1964/65 there were 6,000 full-time students studying in CIs.

In session 1901/02 in London only about 15% of 14 to 21 year olds enrolled in the Boards evening schools.

In 1901 Coal Gas and Fuel Industries introduced at Leeds University.

Number of Students Attending Evening Schools in England and Wales between 1902 and 1905:

Number

1902/03

1903/04

1904/05

Number of Evening Schools Recognised by BoE

5,624

5,579

5,706

Number of Students

657,594

696,882

718,562

Source: Statistics 1902-06. Cd3255. BoE.

In 1902 the first town to adopt the course system throughout its Evening Continuation Schools was in Halifax.

In 1902 Biochemistry introduced at Liverpool University.

1902 between 1902 and 1918 ONLY ten technical schools were built! (G A N Lowndes).

In 1902 total number of students at Bradford Technical College was 1,136 of whom 188 attended textiles classes, 158 dyeing classes and 567 engineering classes.

In 1902/03 number of students in evening schools (on government paid grants) was 440,718, number on full-time and part-time study attending BoE recognised provision operating under the FE regulations was 977,000 and Adult Regulations the number was 47,283 this figure increased significantly to 1,025,000 by 1934.

In 1903/04 Liverpool Municipal Technical School there were 1,005 class entries for engineering metal trades programmes but only 155 were for anything higher than the ordinary grade of CGLI.

In 1904 Liverpool out of 1,313 entries for science and technology only 150 were on ‘advanced courses’.

In 1904 the London Polytechnics comprised:

North of the Thames: East London Technical College. Mile End Road with branch at Bow and Bromley.

The Northern Polytechnic. Holloway. The Regent Street Polytechnic. The South West London Polytechnic. Manresa Road.

The Sir John Cass Institute. Jewry Street.

The City Polytechnic comprising- The Northampton Institute, Clerkenwell. The Birkbeck College, Chancery Lane and the City of London College, White Street, Moorfield.

South of the Thames:

The Battersea Polytechnic, Battersea Park Road. The Borough Polytechnic, Borough Road – two branches Herold’s Institute, Bermondsey and Norwood Institute, Knights Hill. The Goldsmiths’ Institute, Lewisham High Street and The Woolwich Polytechnic, William Street.

In 1905 Junior Technical Schools launched and re-launched in 1913.

Manchester College of Science and Technology linked with Manchester University, (As a faculty of the University).

Between 1905 and 1913 number of JTSs and Trade Schools increased to 37 with 2,900 pupils and by 1918 number was 61.

1906 Elmham Watts Naval School (Norfolk) opened.

In 1906 Shoreditch Technical Institute founded a Girls Trade School. This later merged with Clapham Trade School to become the Shoreditch College for the Garment Trades. Renamed Shoreditch College for the Clothing Industry in1966 and in 1967 the college amalgamated with the Barrett Street Technical College  (formerly the Barrett Street Trade School)  to form the London College of Garment Trades and finally renamed the London College of Fashion

In 1907 Imperial College of Science and Technology created by the amalgamation of the Royal College of Science, Royal School of Mines and the Central Technical College of the CGLI.

In 1907 15 Day Technical Schools had been founded in LEAs in the North of England.

In 1907 Naval Architecture introduced at Newcastle University.

In 1907/08 student numbers at the Glasgow and West of Scotland Technical College 605 day and 4,621 part-time/evening.

In 1907 15 day technical schools were founded in LEAs in the North of England but London had the largest concentration of full-time classes.

In 1907 600 full-time students read science and technology at Imperial College this figure increased to 800 by 1914.

In 1908 Only 3,000 students attended full-time courses at technical schools and provincial universities.

In 1908 there were 23 Polytechnics in London and 110 in the provinces.

In 1908 Imperial College , London linked  with London University, (As a School of the University)

In 1908 National University of Ireland formed from the Queen’s College of Cork and Galway with the addition in 1909 of University College Dublin.

In 1909 there were 4,000 FT students and 750,000 PT students in colleges – by 1930 these figures had increased to 42,000 and 1,280,000 respectively.

In 1909 Belfast College became Queens University of Belfast.

In 1912 111 Trade Schools existed – the LCC maintained 16 trade schools 10 for boys and 6 for girls.

In 1912 Royal College of Science and Technology (Glasgow) linked with Glasgow University.

Between 1912 and 1923 number of trade schools for girls increased from 6 to 32. (Subjects taught included dressmaking, millinery, photography, cookery and hairdressing).

In session 1913/14 there were 37 JTSs – 27 JTSs for boys and 10 for girls and by 1920 there were 67 for boys and 13 for girls. There were 1,027 secondary schools.

In 1913 part-time classes staged for the employees of Bournville Company – initially called the ‘The Day School for Young Employees.’

In 1914 Strode School opened for employees of C and T Clarke.

In 1914 it was estimated that only 250 teachers and 400 full-time students were carrying out research which had any relationship with industry or industrial practice.

In 1914 Reckitt and Sons Day Continuation School established in Hull.

In session 1916/17 there were 174 students enrolled at the Stanley Trade School. Was the second largest such trade school enrolments.

In 1917 of the 226 engineering firms surveyed 43 maintained a pupillage system and 62 took on secondary school boys for an apprenticeship that included part-time study.

In 1918 there were 51 Central Schools in London.

In 1918 Lever Brothers, Port Sunlight established a Day Continuation School.

In 1918 Tootal Broadhurst Lee Company opened a Day Continuation School for its young workers at the Bolton Mills site.

In 1918 W and R Jacob of Dublin opened a day Continuation Schools for their workers.

In session 1919/20 number of enrolments in English Universities were- 3,827 (Pure Science), 4,202 (Technology) and 236 (Agriculture).

In 1919 there were only 30 Higher Elementary Schools in England and Wales.

In session 1917/18 there were 82 6th form science related courses in England and Wales

In 1920 Day Continuation School opened in Rugby.

In 1920 Boots’ Day Continuation School founded in Nottingham.

In 1920 Day Continuation School held classes at Falmouth Technical School – opened with 92 apprentices aged 16 to 18.

In 1921 there were nearly 100 Day Continuation Schools providing part-time day study for over 16,000 learners.

In 1921 the qualifications held by teachers in JTSs were: Graduates- 780 (Male) and 145 (Female). Non-graduate assistants- 562 (Male) and 99 (Female). Non-graduate instructors- 1,189 (Male) and 508 (Female).

In session 1922/23 12,600 boys and 10,800 girls in attendance in Day Continuation Schools (DCSs).

In 1923 Army Education/Training started a system of centralised Technical Schools.

In session 1923/24 number of pupils in the 74 Day Continuation Schools (DCSs) was 11,558 boys and 10,917 girls giving a grand total of 22,475. Girls were in attendance at 36 out of the 74 schools and in 27 schools instruction was given in domestic science.

In 1924 total population in London Central Schools was 27,179 and in secondary (Aided and Maintained) 31,282. (LCC Stats. 1929/30. 1931).

In 1924 Courses in JTSs were: Engineering- 24 in the provinces and 5 in London. Construction-7 in the provinces and 2 in London. Needle trades-7 in the provinces and 8 in London. Commercial-22 in the provinces and 2 in London. Domestic science-9 in the provinces and 4 in London. Nautical-3 in the provinces and none in London. (ED 10/143).

In 1925 there were 37 commercial-bias schools in London and 20 dual-biased schools.

In 1925/26 33% of under 21 s in the engineering industry were apprenticed with approximately another 11% learners.

Information on Junior Technical Schools (JTSs) Between 1926/27 and 1937/38 in Wales and England:

England England Wales Wales

Year

JTSs

Pupils

JTSs

Pupils

1926/27

101

18,704

3

629

1927/28

104

19,541

3

659

1928/29

108

18,243

4

634

1929/30

115

19,537

5

680

1930/31

177

21,066

12

932

1931/32

182

21,003

12

942

1932/33

191

21,445

12

1,025

1933/34

200

23,090

13

1,040

1934/35

208

24,532

15

1,077

1935/36

216

26,071

16

1,283

1936/37

226

27,395

17

1,352

1937/38

230

29,036

18

1,421

Source: BoE Annual Reports.

In session 1927/28 there were 4,178 engineering students attending part-time classes this increased to 6,968 in the session 193o/31.

In session 1924/25 there were 235 6th form science courses in England and Wales.

In 1930-1 there were 110 JTSs for Boys and 34 for Girls and also 33 for Boys and Girls.

IN 1930 Technical College , Sunderland linked with Durham University.

In 1930 there were 10 JTSs in London for girls.

In 1930 proportion of pupils in various types of school: Senior Schools-828,000 (42.1%). All age elementary schools-672,000 (32.3%). Grant-Aided secondary (grammar schools)-440,000 (22.4%) and Junior Technical Schools (JTSs)-27,000 (1.4%). ED 136/214.

In 1930-1 there were 40 Junior Commercial Schools (JCSs) with 5,000 pupils of whom approximately 60% were girls.

In 1931 approximately 3,000 teachers involved in full-time in technical and commercial schools.

In session 1931/32 there were approximately 2,200 pupils attending part-time day classes on advanced commerce courses.

In 1931 the number of students attending classes operated under the 1931 Regulations for Further Education (FE) were: Day Continuation Schools 20,600, Junior Technical Schools 21,000, Senior Full-Time Courses 8,000 and Technical day Classes 27,000 giving a total of 76,600 and there were 905,000 in Evening Classes giving a grand total of 981,600 students.

In 1931 the Number of Students in Technical Colleges on Senior Full-Time Courses* :

  • Does not include students on Commercial subjects

Subject

Number o Students

Number of Courses

Engineering

1,476

69

Arts (76), Preliminary (537) and

Science (379)

992

31

Pharmacy

659

38

Architecture and Building

615

10

Domestic

327

13

Chemistry and Chemical Trades

221

14

Mining

163

8

Printing and Photography

133

5

Textiles

116

14

Food and Drink Trades

116

5

Physical Training

103

2

Optics, technical

57

3

Leather Industries

51

2

Music trades

41

1

Boot and Shoe Manufacture

20

3

Naval Architecture

5

1

Clothing Trades (2)

2

1

Miscellaneous

49

8

Totals

5,146

228

In 1933 Junior Technical Schools were carried out in 102 separate schools with 177 recognised courses.

In 1933 technical colleges enrolled approximately 200,000 students and evening institutes of various kinds >650,000.

In 1933 the number of students in grant-aided classes for Adult Education was 25,321 for men and 25,711 for women.

In 1933 Harriot Watt College Edinburgh linked with Edinburgh University.

In 1933 there were 317 LEAs.

In 1934 in Technical Day Schools there were 2,589 students in 96 full-time courses and 25,427 students in 1,335 part-time courses – mainly studying engineering/building/printing/photography

In 1934 a survey of occupations of pupils in Day Continuation Schools showed the following percentages (Survey of 800 pupils from 200 separate employers):

In session 1934 there were 527 engineering apprentices and 40 probationers enrolled at Coventry Technical College.

Engineering – Boys 47.9%, Girls 22.9%.

Clerical Boys -4.2%, Girls 19.8%

Distributive trades – Boys 30.0%, Girls 8.6%

Domestic:

Institutional – Boys 3.0%, 0.9%

Private – Boys 0% , Girls 16.3%

At home – Boys 0%, Girls 10.9%

Building trades – Boys 3.4%, Girls 0%

Printing – Boys 1.6%, Girls 1.5%

Agriculture – Boys 1.6%, Girls 0%

Laundry – Boys 0%, 9.0%

Corset manufacture – Boys 0%. Girls 5.2%

Miscellaneous – Boys 8.3%, Girls 4.9%.

In 1934 Percentage Participation among Different Age-Groups:

Age-group

Full-time

Part-time

14-15

40.6

14.6

15-16

15.4

14.1

16-17

8.1

14.8

17-21

1.6

9.2

In 1934 45% of Selective Central School teachers were graduates.

In 1935 First sandwich course in UK started in conjunction with the Ministry of War.

In 1935/6 Junior Technical Schools (JTSs) and Number of Students:

Types of School

Number of Schools

Boys

Girls

Total

Junior Technical

97

13,972

13,972

Junior Technical

(Trade)

37

859

2,419

3,278

Junior Housewifery

10

495

495

Junior Commercial

50

2,184

3,915

6,099

Total

194

17,015

6829

23,844

Source: Educational Pamphlet No. 111 BoE. 1937.

In 1935 9,100 students in technical education over the age of 17 and 1,600 over 21 – mostly part-time and the wastage rate was approximately 50%.

In 1935 12 universities with 40,392 students  and approximately 3,079 staff in teaching departments.

In 1935 there were 52 Day Continuation Schools – 47 LEA and 7 under private providers.

In 1935 there were 7 schools providing industrial bias courses and 49 with commercially biased courses in London.

In 1936 the Number of Students in Higher/Further Education:

Type

Male

Female

Universities

38,127

11,886

Art Schools

33,087

31,511

Technical Colleges

280,748

71,927

Evening Institutes

352,125

388,665

Day Continuation Schools

8,564

10,506

Agriculture

11,000

2,000

Adult Education

3,,939

4,726

Totals:

727,590

521,221

Grand total:

1,248,811

In the 1930s Curricula Offered in Different Institutions in Weekly Hours:

Curriculum

Sec. School

Literary

Sec.

School

Scientific

Technical

Sec.

School

J.C.S.

J.T.S

Junior

Art

School

Junior

House-

Wifery

School

Trade

School

General Subjects

8

7

9

7

6

6

6

5

Foreign Languages

7

4

4

4

0

0

0

0

Mathematics

4

4

4

3

6

3

0

3

Science

2

6

3

0

6

0

1

2

Practical Subjects

3

3

5

12

10

15

19

18

Physical Training

2

2

5

2

2

6

2

2

Totals:

26

26

30

28

30

30

28

30

Key: JCS – Junior Commercial School. JTS-Junior Technical School.

Junior Schools- the BoE classified Junior Schools as follows:

  1. Junior Technical Schools (JTSs) are of two types. In the first boys enter for a specified industry or group of industries, such as the building trades, the mercantile marine (Schools of Navigation), mining. In the other type there is a more generalised technical training and the industry for which the school exists is unspecified. Such a school is suitable for any area where there are a number of small industries.
  2. Trade Schools (TSs).Boys and girls enter them to train for a specified occupation, such as cabinet-making, printing, hairdressing.
  3. Junior Housewifery Schools (JHSs). Girls study courses in home management. In the character of their outlook they correspond more to JTSs than to TSs.
  4. Junior Commercial Schools (JCSs). These are similar to the more general type of JTS, but the study of the office arts takes the place of the practical industrial instruction.
  5. Junior Schools of Art (JSA). In these schools general education is continued with a broad based education aimed at the development of artistic skill, and of capacity for design, together with training in certain artistic crafts. These schools are designed to supply recruits to those industries which need artistic ability, or in which it is desirable.

In 1936 the Number of enrolments in He/FE/other were:

Universities – 38,127  (Male). 11,886 (Female). Art Colleges – 33,087 (M). 31,511 (F). Technical Colleges – 280,748 (M). 71,927 (F). Evening Institutes – 352,125 (M). 388,665 (F). Day Continuation Schools – 8,564 (M). 10,506 (F). Agriculture 11,000 (M). 2,000 (F). and Adult Education 3,939  (M). 4,726 (F).  Totals 727,590 (M). 521,221 (F) and the grand total 1,248,811.

In 1937 there were approximately 700 technical and vocational institutions in England – under a wide range of titles.

In 1937  Welsh College of Advanced Technology liked with University of Wales.

In 1937/38 number of students in FE in Scotland was 5,000 full-time, 3,000 part-time and 174,000 evening only giving a grand total of 182,000).

In 1937/38 number of students in grant-aided FECs 20,000 full-time, 89,000 part-time day and evening only 1,094,000.

In 1938 there were approximately 144 Colleges of FE, 191 Art Colleges, 66 Technical Institutions, 162 Evening Institutions and 175 Junior Schools of Art, Technology, Commerce and Housecraft. In addition there more than 4,500 smaller evening institutions.

In session 1938/39 number of full-time students in Britain were: 6,000 (Further Education), 13,000 (Teacher Training) and 50,000 (Universities).

In session 1938/39 number of enrolments in English Universities were- 5,955 (Pure Science), 4,217 (Technology) and 671 (Agriculture).

In 1939 9,100 students in technical education were over the age of 17 and 1,600 (25%) over 21 – mostly part-time and with a wastage rate of 50%!

In 1939 number of day release in Scotland 600 this increased to 5,000 in 1946, 20,000 in 1951 and 25,500 in session 1954/55.

In 1939 there were 16 farm institutes with 774 students.

In 1939 Army Education and Training established Arborfield Army Technical School it changed its name over the next few decades to reflect the changing nature of training e.g. 1939-1946 called Army Technical School. 1946-1966 Army Apprentices School. 1966-1981 Army Apprentices College. 1982-1995 Princess Marina College. 1995-2000 Army Apprentice School (again!) and 2000-2004 Army Technical Foundation College. Closed in 2004.

In 1940 there were 19,809 pupils in JTSs and 6,999 in JCSs.

1945 between 1945 and 1949 218 higher degrees were awarded in 31 of the larger colleges of FE/technology.

Between 1946/47 and 1964/65 the number of maintained art institutions/establishments decreased from 207 to 157.

In 1946 85% of JTSs were located in technical colleges/institutions.

1946 between 1946 and 1954 the Technical Teachers Training Centres enrolled 2,249 students – 862 at the Bolton Centre, 732 at the  London Centre  and 645 at the Huddersfield centre.

In1946 between 1946 and 1964 53 art institutions closed.

In 1946/47 number of students in grant-aided FECs 45,000 full-time, 200,000 part-time day and 1,166,000 evening only.

In 1946/47 there were three FE teacher Training Colleges at Garnett College (London), Bolton and Huddersfield. A fourth one was established at Wolverhampton later.

National College of Horology founded (Following recommendation of the Percy Committee).

In 1946/47 number of students in FE colleges in Scotland was 9,000 full-time, 9,000 part-time and 180,000 evening only giving a grand total of 198,000.

In 1947 there were 37 farm institutes.

In 1947 Number of evening institutes 5,076 enrolling 826,000 students.

In 1949 the Royal College of Art became a National College.

In 1949 there were 20,000 day students in colleges studying for university degrees.

In 1948 the National College of Rubber Technology opened.

In 1948 National Foundry College found within Wolverhampton and Staffordshire Technical College.

In 1950 there were 72,449 students in technical schools.

In 1951 In a total workforce of 23,912 million only 60,930 scientists and 80,770 engineers in Britain.

In 1951 % of young people in work force (15-44)- 43.1%. Older workers (45-59) -21.0%, Total workers- 64.1%. Children <15- 22.4% and Older people -13.5% note for men 65+ and Women 60+. Corresponding figures in 1971 – 40.3%, 22.3%, Total-62.6%, 19,7% and 17.7%.

In 1952 Hatfield College of Technology opened.

In 1952/53 number of enrolments in so-called classes for women- Full-time 1,198, Part-time day 19,113 and evening classes 555,072.

In 1952/03 7,188 students attended part-time catering courses in the evening.

In 1952 Brymore School of Rural Technology, Bridgewater, Somerset established as a Secondary Technology School (STS).

Degrees and HNC/Ds Awarded in Technical Colleges in 1949:

Award

Science

Engineering

Other Technologies

Internal degree

296

413

External degree

155

308

Total

451

721

HNC

203

3,851

525

HND

144

143

Total

203

3,995

688

Grand total

654

4,716

668

Source: PRO/Ed 46/753. MoE.

Technical College Students as Percentage of University Students in 1949:

Award

Pure Science

Engineering

Degrees

2,9%

7.1%

Degrees, HNCs and HNDs

4.7%

34.6

Evening Class Entries in Major Establishments (excl. Art) and Evening Institutes in the Sciences and in Subjects Related to Manufacturing in 1949-50 and 1956-57:

Subjects

Major establishments

1949-50

Evening institutes

1949-50

Total

1949-50

Total

1956-57

Science:

Mathematics

150,100 104,000 254,100 299,800

General science

9,450 28,300 37,750 50,100

Physics

34,150 2,500 36,650 45,000

Chemistry

30,200 1,350 31,550 33,000

Metallurgy

4,750 200 4,950 6,300

Biology

4,000 800 4,800 6,100

Physiology

2,600 550 3,150 3,700

Botany

2,800 200 3,000 2,400

Zoology

1,600 20 1,620 2,300

Geology

1,050 50 1,100 1,900

Nature study

350 400 750 400

Totals:

241,000 138,400 379,400 451,000

Subjects related

to manufacturing

Industries:

Nonmetalliferous

In 1952 63,000 of the 267,000 boys who left school between the ages of 15 and 17 became apprentices or skilled learners – 23.4% entered engineering/ship building and electrical goods industries. 20.6% entered building and contracting. 13.7% entered the vehicle industry and 3.6% entered printing.

1952 in the session 1952-1953 there were 1,446,000 students in Secondary Modern Schools, 686,600 in Grammar Schools and 97,600 in Secondary Technical Schools giving ratios of 14.34: 7.57: 1.00

In 1953 massive expansion of student numbers at Imperial College London proposed – from 1,650 to 3,000.

Full-Time Students at National Colleges between 1953 and 1957:

College/Date

Of founding

1953

1954

1955

1956

1957

Horology/1947

32

29

34

37

34

Foundry/1947

42

36

42

45

62

Rubber Technology/1948

50

59

63

87

93

Heating and Ventilating/1948

90

80

87

100

97

Leathersellers/1951

30

28

35

43

45

Food Technology/1951

24

26

44

49

62

Aeronautics/1946

170

175

166

190

242

Royal College of Art

/1837 as School of Industrial Design

379

372

396

402

406

Total:

817

805

867

953

841

In 1954 Government announced the following universities would offer specialised provision in: Chemistry (Birmingham, Leeds, Newcastle, Sheffield). Chemical Engineering (Birmingham, Cambridge, Manchester College of Technology). Engineering (Bristol, Glasgow, Manchester, Newcastle, Southampton). Fluid Mechanics (Cambridge). Fuel Technology (Leeds, Sheffield) Mining Engineering (Sheffield) and Physics (Birmingham, Leeds).

In 1954/55 there were 355,000 students on day release in England.

In session 1954/55 number of full-time students in Britain were: 12,000 (Further Education), 28,000 (Teacher Training) and 82,000 (Universities).

In 1954-55 session there were 85,750 students in Public Sector HE.

In 1954/55 number of students in FE in Scotland 10,000 full-time, 25,000 part-time and 206,000 evening only giving a grand total of 241,000.

In 1954 Colleges that had received approval to run Advanced Technical programmes and receive 75% grants: Acton Technical College. Birmingham College of Technology. Bradford Technical College. Brighton Technical College. Cardiff College of Technology. Glamorgan Technical College. Huddersfield Technical College. Leicester College of Technology and Commerce. City of Liverpool College of Building. Battersea Polytechnic. Brixton School of Building. Chelsea Polytechnic. Northampton Polytechnic. Northern polytechnic. Sir John Cass College. Woolwich Polytechnic. Manchester College of Technology. North Staffordshire Technical College. Nottingham and District Technical College. Rugby College of Technology. Salford Royal Technical College. Sunderland Technical College and West Ham College of Technology.

Designations/Names of Major Institutions of FE in Britain in 1955:

Designation

Number

Polytechnics

12

Technical Colleges

150

Technical Institutes

90

Colleges of Technology, Art and Commerce

20

Colleges of Further Education

39

Colleges and Schools of Commerce

24

Colleges of Art

32

Schools of Art and Craft

135

Miscellaneous

90

Totals:

592

In 1955 80% of students attending technical college in the evening and only 2.3% attended full-time.

In 1995 >75% of the students who obtained professional qualifications through college of technology did so by part-time study – 4,000 in 1955 and 5,500 in 1957.

In 1956 the MoE Circular 305/56 designated four main types of college:

  1. Local colleges. These undertook courses usually part-time up to ONC level.
  2. Area colleges. These undertook NC courses and some more advanced part-time work and were required to continue their existing full-time and sandwich courses.
  3. Regional colleges. These had substantial amounts of full-time and sandwich advanced work. Some of these colleges offered Dip Tech awards.
  4. Colleges of advanced technology. These had a substantial volume of exclusively advanced work mainly full-time and sandwich.

In the1950s there were only 340 technical schools out of a total of 5,400 secondary schools in Britain. Many of these were old Junior Technical Schools (JTSs) which had to retain their original trade functions and share unsuitable accommodation with technical colleges.

Enrolments by Subject in 1956-57 in Major Establishments and Evening Institutes (England and Wales):

Subjects

Full-time

Part-time

Evening classes

Subjects of a general education value:

Mathematics

83

1,867

299,792

Science

3,506

12,194

151,263

All others

12,405

71,306

1,252,870

Subjects related to specific occupations:

Agriculture

145

2,027

8,819

Mining

610

31,272

16,232

Book, paper and printing

478

6,578

22,907

Chemical

1,054

16,378

6,881

Clothing and textiles

1,068

6,264

20,399

Engineering

10,926

181,658

298,289

Food and drink

375

2,300

6,940

Furniture

49

674

2,513

Miscellaneous manufacturing

15

1,310

2,992

Building and construction

1,986

50,222

134,109

Commercial, professional, personal services and miscellaneous

31,109

83,205

945,486

Total (excl. Art)

63,809

467,253

3,169,492

Courses in art establishments

12,185

37,910

171,666

Grand total:

75,994

505,163

3,341,158

Note: For art establishments in addition to genera art courses (4,500 f-t and 3,000 p-t) and painting (800 f-t and 3,800 p-t) students were also studying industry-oriented courses in dress and allied trades (1,000; 5,600), printing and allied crafts (50; 5,300),interior decorating (100; 4,600), illustration and commercial design (1,500; 1,000), architecture (900; 1,500), and other pursuing silversmithing, sculpture, furniture design, photography etc.

Figures include students following more than one course so double counting exists.

1956 Number of full-time students in FECs 64,000. Part-time 402,000 and evening 1,575,000

1956 100 sandwich programmes with 2,300 students,

In 1958 only 3.7% of secondary pupils were enrolled in Secondary Technical Schools (STSs) – 279 schools with 95,194 pupils and in 1948 there had been 319 STSs and by 1960 the number had decreased to 268. Maximum number of STSs was 319 in 1948.

In 1958 there were 37 farm institutes with 2,000 students.

In 1959 Number of evening institutes 8,299 enrolling 977,000 students.

Proportion of Population in Various Institutions in 1959 for Males:

Age

Schools

Universities

Teacher Training Colleges

Full-time*

Part-time*

Evening

Only*

Totals

20

6.1

1.2

1.4

9.4

9.8

27.9

19

0.7

2.9

0.2

1.6

13.6

13.0

32.0

18

4.5

1.3

0.1

1.9

18.1

17.8

43.7

17

11.1

1.9

24.6

23.8

61.4

16

20.0

2.1

24.5

25.3

71.9

15

37.4

2.4

16.2

24.5

80.5

  • Technical, Commercial and Art Colleges and Evening Institutes.

Proportion of Population in Various Institutions in 1959 for Females:

Age

Schools

Universities

Teacher Training Colleges

Full-time*

Part-time*

Evening Only*

Totals

20

2.0

1.8

0.4

0.7

9.5

14.4

19

0.4

1.3

3.6

0.6

1.2

11.2

18.3

18

2.3

0.8

1.3

1.1

2.2

14.9

22.6

17

8.8

2.0

6.0

20.3

37.1

16

18.5

3.5

7.1

23.7

52.8

15

35.7

4.0

5.2

23.1

68.0

  • Technical, Commercial and Art Colleges and Evening Institutes.

In 1960 of the 268 STSs that existed 145 admitted at age 11, 14 at age 12 and 101 at age 13.

In 1960 there were 101,9113 students in technical schools.

In 1961 there were 9,000 students in over 140 technical and commercial colleges studying for supervisory qualifications.

In 1962/63 165 Art Schools enrolled 8,000 full-time students

In 1962 National College of Agricultural Engineering opened at Boreham moved to Silsoe in 1964,

In the session 1962-63 approximately 1,400 first degrees of London University (external degrees) were awarded to students attending FE colleges of which 1,100 were in Science and Technology.

In 1964-1965bsession there were 719 maintained orassisted major institutions in England and Wales.

In 1964/65 135,000 evening institute students (approximately 12.5%) were under the age of 16.

In 19664/65 there were in England: 7 National Colleges, 10 CATs. 25 Regional Colleges. 158 Art Institutions. 5 Agricultural Colleges. 40 Farm Institutes and 514 other major establishments – totalling in all 759. In addition there were 7,783 evening institutions. In Scotland there were 11 Central Institutions but no numbers are available at present for other institutions. (The figures include establishments that were direct grant and Authority maintained).

In 164-1965 there art institutions comprised Royal College of Art, 4 Central Art Institutions, 157/8 maintained colleges of art (often referred to as schools of art).

In 1964/65 there were 7,783 evening institutes with 1 million students with 66% women.

Between 1964 and 1969 the number of day release for young workers increased by nearly 30%.

In 1965 there were 25 Regional Colleges – which enrolled 36,000 students pursuing advanced work mainly in technology and commerce – 66% were part-time.

In 1966 30 Polytechnics created from existing colleges.

In 1966 Guide lines were issued for class sizes namely 24 for full-time (including sandwich) courses, 15 for part-time courses which included a large element of workshop practice and 20 for all other part-time courses.

In 1968 apprenticeships in Britain peaked at 236,000 (25% of young workers in: 40% of all boys and 10% of all girls).

In 1969. Between 1969 and 1975 the number of full-time students in Welsh colleges increased from 12,390 to 19,587 and part-time from 54,843 to 56,528.

In 1969 the seven Scottish National Institutions were: Aberdeen. Robert Gordon’s Technical College,  Dundee Institute of Art and Technology, Edinburgh, Heriot-Watt College, Galashiels. The Scottish Woollen Technical College, Glasgow. The Royal Technical College, Leith Nautical Technical College and Paisley Technology College.

1971 between 1971 and 1977 there was a decline of 20% in the number of day and block release enrolments.

In 1971/72 distribution of full-time and sandwich HE students in GB was: Universities: 198,000 (England and Wales), 38,000 (Scotland) – total of 236,000 in GB. Advanced FE: 90,000 (England and Wales), 9,000 (Scotland) -total 99,000 in GB. Colleges of Education: 114,000 (England and Wales), 14,000 (Scotland) – total 128,000 in GB. Totals 402,000 (England and Wales, 61,000 (Scotland) – grand totals 463,000 in GB.

In 1974-75 session there were 210,230 students in Public Sector HE.

In 1976 there were 76,403 FT teachers in FE institutions, 14,029 in Polys and 57,867 in other maintained institutions.

In 1976 there were 563 major establishments of technical education in England and Wales, 61 Independent Colleges and 6,242 Adult Education Centres in England and Wales.

In 1976 number of students aged 16, 17 and 18 in FE colleges:

Full-time – 191,000 (44% Male).( 56% F).

Part-time – 268,000 (79% M). (21% F).

Evening only – 109,000 (38% M). (62% F).

Totals:        568,000 (60% M). (40% F).

In 1977 the annual budget for the FEU was just £o.25 million.

1978 in session 1978-79 the budget for the MSC reached £643 million.

In 1978 there were 143,983 FT equivalent poly students and 41,914 FT equivalent students studying advanced courses at other institutions.

In 1978 there were 16 tertiary colleges in existence.

In 1979 there were 47 FE/HE institutions in Wales – comprising Polytechnic of Wales, 3 National Institutions, 6 colleges of HE and 37 major institutions (i.e. FECs/technical colleges, college of horticulture, college of agriculture, college of art and a college of technology).

In 1980 there were 11,327 students in technical schools.

In 1980 in session 1980/81 total number of students in HE 827,000 – 526,00 men and 491,000 women.

In 1983/84 in the UK there were 53 Universities, 31 Polytechnics14 Scottish Central Institutions and 411 other colleges (maintained), 56 direct grant/voluntary colleges and the Open University – a total of 566.

more detail on the above statistics for session 1983/84 HEIs in UK:

Universities 53 – number of f-t/sandwich students 301,000, p-t 36,000 giving total 337,000

Polytechnics 31 – number of f-t/sandwich students 157,000, p-t 71,000 giving a total of 228,000

Scottish Central Institutions 14 – number of f-t/sandwich students 14,000, p-t 1,000 giving a total of 15,000.

Other Colleges (Maintained) 411 – number of f-t/sandwich students 79,000, p-t 125,000 giving a total of 204,000.

Direct Grant/Voluntary 56 – number of f-t/sandwich students 30,000, p-t 7,000 giving a total of 37,000.

Open University 1 – number of p-t students 76,000 giving a total of 76,000.

Totals: Institutions 566, Number of f-t/sandwich students 581,000, p-t students 316,000 giving a grand total of 897,000 students.

In 1985 in UK there were 46 publically funded universities including the OU.

In 1985 there were 2,502 students in technical schools.

In 1985 In England: 29 Polytechnics and 73 colleges (including 31 voluntary or direct grant colleges) engaged in HE and 298 other colleges (including one direct grant college) with a proportion of HE work.

In Wales 1 polytechnic, 9 colleges engaged in mainly HE and 16 other colleges with a proportion of HE work.

In Scotland 16 Central Institutions, 7 Colleges of Education and 3 Local Authorites engaged mainly in HE  and 43 other colleges with a proportion of HE work.

In Northern Ireland 15 colleges (these included voluntary and grant aided colleges and colleges funded by the education and library boards.

In 1987 Garnett College incorporated.

In session 1987/88 colleges enrolled 3.5 million students in various education and training programmes with a mainly vocational, technical and commercial bias – students from 16-19 age range as well as adults.

In 1988 the first City Technology College opened followed by 14 more over the next four years.

In 1990 following amalgamations and re-organisations the number of 700 FECs declined to<400 – HE institutions increased on the other hand from 25 to 124 – an example of academic drift!

In 1992 University of Greenwich founded.

In 1992 67 tertiary colleges in England and Wales with approximately 450,000 students.

In 1992/93 there were for the first time more students in their first post-compulsory year in England studying full-time in colleges – FE accounted for 55% of all 16-19 year olds and overall 62% of all 16-19 year olds were participating in some form of education and training.

IN 1994/5  456 FECs in England and Wales of which 347 offered programmes in engineering and technology.

In 1996 in session 1996/97 enrolments in Welsh FECs were: Full-time and Sandwich 17,625 (Male), 20.569 (Female). Block-Release and Part-Time day 17,566 (Male) 28,785 (Female) and Part-Time Evening and Other 17,029 (male) 331,716 (Female).

1998/99 60 colleges of art and design inspected.

In 1999/2000 112 FE colleges were inspected by the FE Inspectorate.

In 2001 there were 70 NTOs.

In 2001/02 £3.7 billion made available for FE sector to fund young people and adults. Average level of funding (ALF) was £17.22

In 2002 there were 310 specialist schools.

In 2002 there were 26 colleges in Wales.

In 2005 in session 2005/06 number of apprenticeships were 99,500 (<19). 75,200 (19-24) and 300 (>25). 1228,800 at level 2 and 52,100 at levels 3/4.

In 2008 in session 2008/09 total number of students in HE was 2.6 million – 1,106,00 men and 1,451,000 women.

In 2009 in session 2009/10 number of completed apprenticeships was 171,500.

In 2009 there were 203 academies.

In 2010 there were 3,068 specialist schools out of a total of 4,403 maintained by the State. Proportion of people Not in Education, Employment, Training (NEETs) in UK 15.9%

Proportion of NEETs in UK 13.2%. In session 2010/11 number of f-t staff in FECs 51,000 and in HEIs 117,000.

In 2011/12 there were 402 FECs in UK this figure shows the declining numbers of colleges. 67% of HE students were full-time – 85% at undergraduate level and 54% at post graduate level. 4.22 million students in FECs compared with 4.26 in 2010/11. In Scotland corresponding numbers were 256,500 and 311,000 respectively, In Wales the corresponding figures were 211,300 and 212,700. In Northern Ireland the corresponding figures were 141,700 and 144,400.

In session 2013/14 number of full-time staff in FECs 76,000 and in HEIs 127,000.

 

In 2015 Number of HE Institutions in England 127 and number of FE Institutions 339

For Scotland the respective figures were 18 HE and 27 FE. For Wales 8 HE and 13 FE. For Northern Ireland 4 HE and 6 FE.

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  • Kate Argyle

    Dear Sir,

    As part of the Heritage Schools programme, I am working with students at Ormiston venture Academy (formerly Oriel High School) in Gorleston Norfolk to research the history of their school. Your website contains a wealth of information on secondary technical schools, which this school seems to have been when built. Can you point me in the right direction to find a list of the schools that were built as technical schools?

    Many thanks

    Kate Argyle
    Historic England