Facts and Figures

Updated August 2017.

This section attempts to complement the other sections of this website. I have started including information on the Welsh, Scottish and Irish technical education systems.

In 1560 250,000 tons of coal mined.

In 1620 35,000 tons of pig iron produced.

In 1660 between 1660-1668 number of patents issued for inventions 31.

1n 1688 68% employed in agriculture by 1871 figure decreased to 20%.

In 1688 % of national income – Agriculture 40%, Commerce 5.6%, Manufacturing/Mining/Building 2.1%

In 1690-1699 number of patents issued for inventions 102.

In 1700 between 1700 and 1801 the populations of some of the key industrial cities increased as follows: Manchester 8,000 to 95,000. Liverpool 5,000 to 78,000. Birmingham 5,000 to 73,000. Leeds 8,000 to 53,000. Sheffield 5,000 to 45,000. Nottingham 9,000 to 28,000 and Glasgow 12,000 to 84,000. By 1830 the population of Manchester was 180,000.

In 1700 coal production in Britain 2,985,000 tons.

In 1700 Textile trade accounted for 70% of English exports – total value £5 million.

In 1700 30% of economy based on industry and 40% on agriculture. 2.7 million tons of coal mined.

In 1720 20,000 tons of cast iron produced increased to 250,000 tons by 1800.

In 1730-1739 number of patents issued for inventions 205.

1739 Average wages for a skilled artisan in London was 22 shillings.

In 1840 Steel production in Sheffield was 200 tons per year increased to 20,000 tons by 1860.

In 1750 general level of literacy in England was 60% for males and 35% for females.

In 1750 Stationary power sources in Britain: Steam – 5,000, Water – 70,000, Wind – 10,000 giving a total of 85,000.

1750 £86,000 worth of cotton produced.

In 1750 only about 15% of the population lived in towns by 1900 it was 85%. 30% of coal consumption was for industry/manufacture. 4.7 millions of coal mined.

In 1754 over 2,000 Charity Schools established.

1760-1769 number of patents issued for inventions 477.

In the 18th century there were eighty-nine guilds in the City of London.

In 1760 between 1760 and 1830 the population increased from 7.5 million to 14 million and by 1851 it stood at 21 million.

In 1760 between 1760 and 1820 number of waterwheels in England increased from 70,000 to 120,000.

1769 between 1769 and 1804 a remarkable set of inventions and innovations in iron production, steam power and textile machinery.

In 1770 British manufacturing was worth £43 million of which £10 million was exported. £248,000 worth of cotton produced.

1775 between 1775 and 1800 Boulton and watt sold 164 pumping engines of which 49 went to Cornish mines.

In 1777 -75 Newcomen steam engines operating in Cornish mines.

In 1780 by the end of 1780 40 Boulton and Watt steam engines had been installed – 20 being located in Cornwall.

In 1780 Between 1780/1789 number of patents for inventions issues 477.

In 1783 Accepted date for the introduction of the factory system.

In 1788 There were 85 furnaces in operation producing 68,000 tons, in 1806 225 furnaces producing 250,000 tons and in 1823 266 furnaces producing 455,000 tons.

In 1788 50,000 mule-spindles in Britain.

In 1790 4% of clothing in Europe made from cotton figure increased to 73% in 1890.

In 1791 there were 73 coke furnaces in England – producing 67,548 tons of iron. 12 coke furnaces in Scotland producing 12,480 tons of iron. In addition 20 charcoal furnaces in England producing 8,500 tons of iron. 2 charcoal furnaces in Scotland producing 1,000 tons of iron.

In 1797 Gold standard suspended restored  in 1821.

In 1798 Newspaper regulation and newspaper taxes increased.

In 1798 total number of students who had attended Manchester Academy was 137 of whom 89 were destined for commerce and industry.

In the early 1800s Britain produced 258,000 tons of pig iron by 1851 this had risen to 2.7 million tons most of which was converted into wrought iron.

In 1800 10 million tons of coal mined in GB. £756,000 worth of cotton produced.

In 1800 Adult literacy in England 53%.

In 1800 coal production in Britain 15,045,000 tons.

In 1801 % contribution to the national economy 32.5% from agriculture, 23.4% from manufacturing, mining and building and 17.4% from commerce.

In 1801 in England and Wales there were two universities for a population of 8.8 million whilst in Scotland there were four universities for a population of 1.6 million.

1801 English spoken by 20 million people.

In 1801 contribution to national income from coal production 1%.

In 1806 250,000 tons of pig iron produced by 1854 figure stood at 3,070,000 tons and in 1884 at 7,812,000 tons.

In 1806 Cotton industry employed 90,000 factory workers and 184,000 handloom weavers.

In 1810  Gross Public Expenditure on Education , Arts and Science was £110,000.

In 1810 250,000 tons of iron produced.

In 1810 10 million tons of coal mined.

In 1811 Luddism at its height between 1811 1nd 1812 and relatively active between 1811 and 1817.

In 1811 4,600,000 mule-spindles in Britain.

In 1811 2,100,000 houses in Britain with an average of 5.6 persons per household.

In 1811 66% of labour employed in agriculture.

In 1811 total manufacturing output was £130 million of which £40 million was exported

In 1811 33% of families in Britain worked in agriculture. 44% in trade and manufacturing and 20% unoccupied or unclassified.

In 1813 There were 2,400 power looms and 212,000 handlooms  in operation and by 1850 number of power looms was  250,000 and 43,000 respectively.

In 1815 British exports valued as £51 million.

1817 Mechanical Institution founded in London – short lived but formed basis of the London Mechanics’ institution founded in 1824.

In 1818 25% of children of the poor were receiving some form of education.

In 1819 Hazelwood School founded (1819-1837).

In 1819 Between 1819 and 1824 British exports increased by nearly 40% mainly to North and South America.

In the 1820s 4,000 miles of navigable waterways were opened.

In 1821 % distribution of the labour work force in Britain:

Agriculture/forestry/fishing 28%, Industry/mining/building 38%, Trade/transport 12%, Service/Public/all others 21%.

In 1823 ‘The Mechanics’ Magazine’ published edited by Thomas Hodgskin and Joseph Robertson.

In 1823 London had 122 miles of gas mains by 1834 this had risen to 600 miles.

In 1823 During 1823/1824 session Edinburgh School of Arts enrolled 317 students composed of the following:

91 Joiners/Carpenters/Cabinet Makers. 24 Masons/Marble-Cutters. 13 Smiths/Engineers/Iron Founders. 8 Printers. 8 Bookbinders/Stationers. 7 Tailors. 6 Millwrights. 6 Painters. 5 Farriers. 5 Plasterers. 5 Shoemakers. 5 Brass Founders. 5 Mathematical Instrument Makers/Opticians. 5 Bakers. 5 Weavers/Warpers. 5 Upholsterers. 4 Silversmiths/Jewellers. 4 Tinsmiths/Coppersmiths. 3 of each – Tanners/Engravers and Coachmakers = 9. 2 of each – Clock and Watch Makers. Architects. Hatters. Hair Dressers. Plumbers. Flax Dressers. Farmers and Brewers = 16 . 6 Teachers. 6 Pupils of Blind Asylum. 54 Shopmen/Merchants’ Clerks. 1 of each – Dentist/Musical Instrument Maker/Surveyor/Dyer/Gardener/Diecutter/Turner and Saddler = 8 and 7 with no trade identified.

In 1825 Aberdeen’s Mechanics’ Institution library held 500 volumes, Carlisle 300, Kendal 400, Liverpool 1,800, Manchester 600, Newcastle 700 and Sheffield 1,400.

In 1825 22.0 million tone of coal mined.

In 1826 Estimated that there were 109 Mechanics’ Institutions and 5 Literary and Scientific Institutions.

In 1826 Journeymen Steam Engine,Machine Makers and Millwrights Society founded.

In 1828 Society for the Protection of Children Employed in Cotton Factories introduced.

1828 Between 1828 and 1853 the price of books halved.

In 1829 Grand General Union of Operative Spinners founded.

In 1829 16 million tons of coal mined.

In the 1830s approximately 60% of all schools were private.

In 1830’s employment in the cotton industries 425,000 which represented 16% of British manufacture jobs and 8%of GDP.

In 1830s Liverpool and Manchester spent £15.000 and £18.000 on building their respective Mechanics’ Institutions.

In 1830 Gross Public Expenditure on Education, Arts and Science was £100,000

In 1830 Stephenson produced his Planet locomotive.

In 1830 20 million tons of coal mined.

In 1830 700,000 tons of iron produced.

1830 4 Fellowships in Natural Science at Oxford and 3 at Cambridge. 28 Fellowships in Mathematics at Oxford and 102 at Cambridge,

In the late 1830s 107,000 children <18 years of age employed in the cotton industries – approximately 29% of the total workforce.

In 1830 Stationary power sources in Britain: Steam – 160,000, Water – 160,000, Wind – 20,000 giving a total 340,000.

In 1831 Estimated that there were 107 Mechanics’ Institutions and 6 Literary and Scientific Institutions.

In 1831 2,850,000 houses in Britain.

In 1831 Membership of the National Association for the Protection of Labour (NAPL) 100,000 in Lancashire, Yorkshire and parts of the Midlands . Occupations included miners, engineers, millwrights, potters, blacksmiths and textiles.

In 1832 Railway mileage constructed 39, in 1835 – 201 miles, in 1844 – 810 miles, 1846 – 4540 miles and by 1850 – just 7 miles.

In 1832 approximately 500 co-operative societies in existence with over 20,000 members.

In 1832 Value of British exports £36 million.

In 1833 ‘Chambers’ Information for the People’ published. Cost of teacher training £20,000, in 1852 risen to £ 164,000 and by 1870 figure stood at £895,000.

In 1833 Potters Union membership numbered 8,000.

In 1833 Total union membership in Britain numbered 800,000.

In 1833 100,000 power looms and 250,000 hand looms in Britain.

In 1835 ‘Chambers’ Educational Course’ published.

In 1835 340,000 textile workers.

In 1835 1,113 cotton mills in Britain – 934 in the North West of England.

In 1835 1,369 steam engines in textiles mills in Lancashire and West Riding. 106,000 power looms in GB. 106,000 power looms in GB.

1836 London Working Men’s Association founded.

In 1837 4,203 cotton mills registered under the 1833 Factory Act.

In 1838 there were 20 Literary and Mutual Improvement Institutions in London with 6,050 members.

In 1839 State grant for education £30,000.

In 1839 Illiterates represented 41.6% of population – 33.7% for men and 49.5% for women.

In 1839 3,051 steam engines and 2,230 water-wheels in textile industries in Britain.

In 1840 Over 1,600 coffee houses in London – the majority of customers were artisans and many houses had an educational purpose.

1841 agriculture employed approximately 1.3 million people employment reached it maximum in 1851 namely 1.7 million.

In 1841 there were 73,215 members of 17 professional groups/associations.

In 1841 only 114,000 civil servants and ‘other so-called educated people’ employed out of a total of 6.5 million working people.

In 1841 Estimated that there were 305 Mechanics’ Institutions and 44 Literary and Scientific Institutions. Another figure cited 700 Mechanical Institutions with a membership of 120,000 – 500 MI’s in England.

In 1842 Estimated Trade Union membership was 100,000 (approximately 1.5% of the labour force).

In 1843 2,000 miles of railway-lines operated.

In 1844 Rochdale Pioneers store established.

In 1845 £67 million spent on creating just over 2,000 miles of railways.

1847 teachers certificates first instituted.

1848 Railway mileage 4,600.

In 1849 there were 2,000 coffee shops some provided libraries and supported debating societies. Number of certificated teachers 681 and by 1859 this figure had risen to 6,878.

In 1849 6.031 miles of railway track in GB. Iron output 2 million tons and 60,000 tons of steel.

In 1850 there were four universities in England and Wales– Durham and University College London had joined Oxford and Cambridge – the population was then 17.9 million whilst the population of Scotland stood at just 2.8 million.  Public Libraries Act allowed the establishment of libraries from the rates.

1850 Between 1850 and 1875 Britain comprised between 20% and 25% of the world trade.

In 1850 Gross Public Expenditure on Education, Arts and Science was £370,000.

In 1850 Value of British exports £71 million.

In 1850 570,000 textile workers.

In 1850 6,621 miles of railways operated carrying 73 million passengers.

In 1850 2 million tons of iron produced costing £3/4 per ton. 60,000 tons of steel produced costing £50 per ton.

In 1851 Estimated that there were 698 Mechanics’ Institutions and 136 Literary and Scientific Institutions

In 1851 2.5 million tons of iron ore produced and by 1870 it was 12 million tons.

In 1851 % of national income Agriculture 20.3%, Commerce 18.7% and Manufacturing/Mining/Building 34.3%.

In 1851 there were 8 universities in UK and only two schools of engineering at London and Glasgow. 50% 0f the British population lived in towns.

In 1851 Great Exhibition housed in Crystal Palace designed by Joseph Paxton measured 1,848 feet long and 454 feet wide. Joseph Paxton received a reward of £5,000 for this work in the Crystal Palace.

In 1851 300,000 panes of glass produced for the Crystal Palace, 4,500 tons of cast/wrought iron and 6,000,000 cubic feet of timber used in its construction. Employed 2,260 men at the peak of its construction.

In 1851 2.7 million tons of pig iron produced.

In 1851 the profit from the Great Exhibition was said to be £186,436.

1851 % of children aged between 10 and 15 employed in England and Wales was 30% and in Scotland 25%.

In 1851 30% of children aged between 10 and 15 were working and 42,000 were under 10 years of age.

In 1851 manufacturing represented approximately 32.7% of the total labour force this decreased to 30.7% by 1881.

In 1851 the national census stated that in England and Wales there were 1,545 evening schools for adults with 39,783 pupils and for Scotland 438 schools with 15,071 pupils. Subjects in England and Wales included mathematics (135 schools), arithmetic (127) and geography (344) schools).

In 1851 Census reported 2.14 million learners with an average of over 4 years schooling. The Newcastle Commission reported that there were 2.54 million in 1859.

In 1851 there were 14,000 dame schools in existence.

1851 1,100 teachers had obtained teacher certificate.

1851 Percentage of employment in England and Wales – Agriculture 20.9% (In 1881 11.5%), Mining 4.0% (1881 4.8%), Building 5.5% (1881 6.8%) and Manufacturing 32.7%  (1881 30.7%).

In Scotland – Agriculture 22.7% (In 1881 14.2%), Mining 4.0% (1818 5.0%), Building 5.2% (1881 6.7%) and Manufacturing 36.5% (1881 33.8%).

In Ireland Agriculture 48.4% (In 1881 41.1%) Mining 0.4% (1881 0.4%), Building 2.0% (In 1881 2.4%) and Manufacturing 22.8% (1881 16.0%).

1851 Proportion of children aged 10 to 15 employed: England and Wales and Scotland.

England and Wales 30% (1851), 19% (1881) and 14% (1911).

Scotland 25% (1851), 16% (1881) and 9% (1911).

1851 Estimated percentage of the British labour force:

Agriculture, forestry and fishing – 21.7%, Manufacture, mining and industry – 42.9%. Trade and transport – 15.8%. Domestic and personal – 13.0% and Public, professional and all other – 6.7%.

In 1851 1.8 million employed in agriculture, 1.0 million domestic service, 811,000 in cotton/woolen industries, 243,000 shoemakers and 216,000 in coalmines.

In 1851 Great Exhibition – Open for 141 days, 6 million visitors, 7,351 exhibitors from Britain and 6,556 from other countries.

In 1854 64.7 million tone of coal mined.

1855 Tax on newspapers abolished.

1855 Between 1855 and 1859 overseas trade as proportion of national income was 17.9%.

1856 Coal mined was 65 million tons

In 1857 between 1857 and 1866 the total number of honours graduates in chemistry was 11 at University College London and 14 at Owens College Manchester.

In 1858 Treasury disburses over £663,000 for schools.

London Working Men’s Colleges Enrolments between 1854 and 1860:

Occupation

1854

1855

1856

1857

1858

1859

1860

Operatives

72

101

103

119

109

121

150

Clerks etc.

73

132

113

151

133

181

246

While:

Manchester Working Men’s Colleges Enrolments in 1858 Terms:

Occupation

Autumn

Spring

Summer

Clerks, book-keepers, warehousemen shop-keepers, shop-assistants and teachers

149

135

109

Miscellaneous

24

3

0

Operatives

70

57

54

In 1860 between 1860 and 1897 the number of honours chemists in English universities and university colleges totalled only 859.

In 1860 between 1860 and 1897 only 859 chemistry students graduated in English Universities and University Colleges.

In the 1860s the ratio of average wages between ‘skilled’, ‘semi-skilled’ and unskilled workers was approximately 5.00: 3.3: 2.4 and in cash terms skilled £60-£67 per annum, semi-skilled £46-52 and for unskilled £20-41.

In 1861 between 1861 and 1911 the number of students in the civic universities increased from 560 to 14,042. (Civic universities Manchester (1850), Leeds (1874), Sheffield (1879), Liverpool (1881) and Bristol (1876). Tax on paper abolished.

In 1861 Between 1861 and 1898 total amount of funding for the provision of technical schools buildings was £94,339.

In 1861 there were 400,000 power looms in operation.

In 1862 there were 15,000 miles of telegraph lines in Britain.

In 1862 the cotton industry employed 452,00 factory workers and 3,000 handloom weavers.

In 1862 3,450 university students in Scotland.

In 1863 over 450 retail stores had been founded on the pattern established by the Rochdale Pioneers.

In 1863 first underground railway system created – Paddington to Victoria Street.

1863 By 1863 450+ stores based on the pattern/model of that establishes by the Rochdale Pioneers (Coop).

In 1863 Membership of Friendly Societies around 200,000.

In 1864 population in England and Wales 21,000,000.

In 1866 Total electorate population 1 million increased to 2 million in 1869.

In 1867 there were 226 Sunday Ragged Schools, 204 day schools and 207 evening schools providing free education to 26,000 poor children.

In 1867 at the Paris Exhibition Britain only gained 10 honours out of a possible 90.

In 1867 212 Science Schools with 10,230 students.

In 1867 there were 1.3 million ‘skilled’ workers , 5.0million ‘semi/lower skilled’ and 4.5 million unskilled workers.

In 1868/69 Liverpool Working Men’s Association had over 1,500 paying members.

In 1868 Joseph Whitworth offered £3,000 per year to endow 30 scholarships  ‘for the future education of young men in the theory and practice of mechanics and its cognate sciences’

In 1868 memberships for various professional bodies were: Royal Zoological Society 2,923. Royal Botanical Society 2,422. Anthropological Society 1,031. Royal Society 528. Meteorological Society 306. Entomological Society 208. Ethnological Society 219 and Chemical Society 192.

In 1870 between 1870 and 1875 42% of men employed in the engineering crafts had fathers in the same trade. Figures for boilermaker and shipbuilder crafts were 46% and 64% respectively.

1870 Coal mined was 110 million tons.

1870 Railway mileage 13,600.

1870 World manufacturing output by Britain 33% and in 1913 was 14.1%.

In 1870 Gross Public Expenditure on Education, Arts and Science was £1,620,000.

In 1870 Stationary power sources in Britain: Steam – 2,060,000, Water – 230,000, Wind – 10,000 giving a total of 2,300,000.

In 1870 the Ragged Schools Union had 132 school members – others existed outside the Union.

1870 Between 1870 and 1874 overseas trade as a proportion of national income was 22.1%.

In 1870 number of Fellowships in Oxford and Cambridge was Classics 145 (Oxford) 67 (Cambridge). Mathematics 28 (Oxford)  102 (Cambridge) . Science 4 (Oxford) 3 (Cambridge).

In 187o there were 15 training colleges for men, 15 for women and 3 colleges with mixed membership.

In 1870 between 1870 and 1885  School Boards provided new accommodation for 2,211,299 pupils.

Actual Expenditure on Education and Science between 1871 and 1890:

Year

Education Spend (£)

Science and Art Spend (£)

1871/72

1,107,430

211,083

1872/73

1,313,078

230,420

1873/74

1,424,877

257,788

1874/75

1,566,275

262,637

1875/76

1,881,630

285,234

1876/77

2,127,522

301,620

1877/78

2,463,287

299,494

1878/79

2,732,534

305,324

1879/80

2,854,067

317,086

Source: ED 23/71.

In 1871 there were 5,560 students in British universities and 38,015 in technical education.

1871 Number of people employed in agriculture 1.6 million (20% 0f labour force).

1871-1872 actual expenditure on education in Britain £1,107,430 of which £211,083 was on science and art (19%).

In 1872 only 12 persons were reading for the natural science tripos at Cambridge whilst in Germany there were11 Technical Universities and 20 other Universities.

In 1872 42 million spindles at work in cotton mills.

In 1872 of the 449 Fellowships in Oxford and Cambridge 212 (46%) were in the classics, 125 (27%) in mathematics and just 7 in the natural sciences. (Devonshire Commission findings).

In 1875 Agricultural Engineers Association founded.

In 1875 expenditure on education was £2,200,000 and by 1884 had increased to 2,800,000. Expenditure on museums and libraries in 1884 was £130,000.

In 1875 average wage earned by boys in cotton mills was 24.5p and adults £1.13.

In 1875 6 million tons of iron produced costing £3/4 per ton. 2 million tons of steel produced costing £30 per ton.

In 1875 Iron output 6 million and 2 million of steel.

In 1876 school leaving age was 10.

1878-1879 actual expenditure on education in Britain was £2,732,534 of which 305,324 was on science and art (11%).

In 1880 the UK’s share of manufactured goods was 41.4% of the world output by 1913 it was 29.9%.

In 1880 Institute of Chemistry membership was 324. Institution of Mechanical Engineers 1,178 membership increased to 1,566 and 5,583 respectively in 1900.

In 1880 only 40,000 employed in the chemical industries – very small when compared with those employed in textiles.

1880 16% of children attended Board Schools. Legal school leaving age was 10.

In 1880 600,000 number of Co-operative movement,1,780,000 in 1900, 3,000,000 in 1914 and 4,500,000 in 1920

In 1881 Census data showed that there were 9,400 engineers and 1,200 scientists – first time this detail was sought in a national census.

In 1881 there were 148,302 members of professional groups/associations.

In 1881 Between 1881 and 1914 non-manual wage-earning jobs increased from 2 million to 4 million.

In 1881 % of children aged between 10 and 15 employed in England and Wales was 14% and in Scotland 9%.

In 1882 there were 909,000 students in schools of art and 69,500 in schools of science.

In 1883 Tonnage of shipping launched 1,250,000

In 1884 number of companies 9,344.

In 1886 Tonnage of shipping launched 473,000.

Amount of Whisky Money spent in London between 1890 and 1902/03:

Year

Whisky Money given to L.C.C.

£

Amount spent on technical education £

1890-92

342,000

Nil

1893

200,000

29,000

1902-03

200,000

180,000

The money grants made available by South Kensington of the Whiskey money tended in many cases to be spent more on science than on technology. (G. Balfour, Educational systems of GB and Ireland. Clarendon Press 1903). However the whiskey money was instrumental in bringing into existence 12 polytechnics in London, 13 in the provinces and more than 100 science schools.

1888 Trade Union membership stood at 750,000.

In 1888 Membership of Boot and Shoe Operatives 11,000.

1889 between 1889 to 1902 Whiskey Money provided 12 more Polytechnics and technical institutions in London and 13 more in the provinces and more than 100 organised science schools.

In 1889 only 40,000 people employed in the British chemical industry – indicated the indifference by Britain towards to the ‘newer industries’ also low figures in the developing the electrical industries – particularly of interest when compared with the numbers employed in America and Germany.

In 1890 probably fewer than 10% of skilled workers in engineering had experienced any form of formal training.

In the 1890s Department of Science was spending £200,000 a year on technical education with approximately 170,000 students.

In 1890 Britain’s share in world trade in manufacturing decreased from 40.7% in 1890 to 29.9% in 1913, to 19.8% in 1955 and to 8.7% in 1976. Provincial universities produced approximately 100 graduates.

In 1890 Between 1890/92 £342,000 whisky money raised and given to LCC but nothing for technical education.

In 1890 Gross Public Expenditure on Education, Arts and Science was £5,800,000

In 1890 35,000 miles of railway track in GB.

In 1891 tramway system created in Leeds – Roundhay Park.

In 1891 Census it was reported that the number people employed in:

Professional and their subordinate services was 507,870. (In 1931 Census 746,085).

General and Local Government was 144,300. (In 1931 Census 293,108).

Commercial occupations 416,365. (In 1931 Census 2,071,420).

In 1893 school leaving age was 11.

In 1893 expenditure on education was £5,400,000 and on museums and libraries was £290,000.

In 1893 £200,000 whisky money raised and given to LCC £ 29,000  spent on technical education.

In 1894 Agricultural Education Association founded.

In 1885 first tramway system started in Blackpool.

In 1890 35,000 miles of railway track in GB.

In 1891 tramway system created in Leeds – Roundhay Park.

In 1892 Trade Union membership stood at 1,576,000.

1893 Association of Technical Institutions (ATI) founded initial membership 17.

In 1895 out of 53,000 certified teachers only 29,000 had received two years’ training in a training college the rest having passed the Acting Teachers’  Certificate Examination.’

In 1897 there were 23,256 evening students enrolled in the London Polytechnics.

In 1898 between 1898 and 1904 there was an annul enrolment in book-keeping of 17,000, shorthand of 29,000 , needlework of 18,000 and manual training of 1,700.

In 1899 of the 24,145 boys leaving London’s elementary schools approximately 66% went into unskilled jobs.

In 1899 school leaving age was 12.

In the late 1800s Department of Science spent approximately £200,000 per year nontechnical education.

In 1900 the number of full-time technical students per 100,000 0f population was: 12.8 in USA. 7.9 in Germany and 5 in England.

In 1900 estimated number of TU members was 750,000.

In 1900 Germany was producing five times more scientists and technologists than in England.

In 1900/1901 5.9% of central government revenue spent on education.

1900 Number of scientists and technologists produced in German Universities and Technical High Schools was 500% greater than produced in English Universities and University Colleges.

In 1900 polytechnics in London increased to 8.

In 1900 expenditure on education was £8,800,000 and on museums and libraries was £400,000.

In 1901 population of UK 38.237 million.

In 1900 the population of London was 4.5 million, Glasgow was 760,000, Liverpool 685,000 and approximately 500,000 in Manchester and Birmingham.

In 1901/02 the public expenditure on technical education in England was £1,008,947 of which £862,002 came from the State grant under the C|ustoms and Excise Act and £146,945 from local rates.

In 1901 there were 17,839 students in British universities and 285,444 in technical education.

In 1901  % share of employment – agriculture/forestry/fishing 6% and in manufacturing/mining/building 40%.

1901 Number of people employed in agriculture 1.3 million.

In 1901 contribution to national income from coal 6%.

In 1901/02 107,000 students of technology studied in German technical universities compared with fewer than 3,000 students in Britain.

In 1902 Between 1901/02 £200,000 whisky money raised and given to LCC £180,000 spent on technical education.

In session 1904/05 approximately 50 students attended classes at Sunderland Technical College in engineering and shipbuilding.

In 1904 500 polytechnic students were studying for London degrees.

In 1904 ATTI founded.

In 1904 In Liverpool out of 1,313 entries for science and technology only 150 were enrolled for ‘advanced classes’.

In 1905 of a survey conducted by ATI with 59 firms only 19 allowed some form of day-release i.e. just 30%.

In 1905/06 there were 83 engineering apprentices at Manchester school of Technology.

in 1905 236 million tons of coal mined in GB.

In 1906 23 Polytechnics in London and 110 in the Provinces.

In 1906 in session 1906/07 approximately 500,000 students over 17 years of age enrolled in evening classes.

In 1906 it was estimated that 14.6% of the workforce in engineering, shipbuilding and railway carriage and wagon building were apprentices. Harland and Wolff’s shipbuilding in Belfast reported 13% of their workforce were apprentices.

In 1906 in session 1906/07 the % of evening students to day students in Manchester (30.2). Halifax (31.6) and London (29.3).

In 1906 there were about 1,200 Adult Schools in England-850 for Males and 350 for females.

In 1907 between 1914 out of 3,318 science graduates 1,077 (33%) were teaching in elementary schools. Shows again the indifference employers had for science and technology graduates. Cardwell stated at this time 70% to 75% chemistry graduates were teachers.

In 1907 600 full-time students reading science and technology at Imperial College, London.

In 1908 only 3,000 students attended full-time courses at technical schools and provincial universities.

In 1908/09 number of pupils from grant-earning schools in England and Wales progressing to university 695 (Boys) and 361 (Girls)

In 1909  29% of engineering apprentices and 51% shipbuilding apprentices were indentured.

In 1909 1,168 Trade Unions in Britain with a membership of 2,369,000 members.

In 1909 there were 4,000 Ft and 750,000 PT students in technical institutions.

In 1909 75% of youths below 14 and 17 received no kind of education.

In 1910 in 1910/11 session there were 639,000 students attending grant aided establishments of FE (mainly evening classes/institutions).

In 1910 4% of children attended grammar schools.

In 1910 Provincial universities produced 500 to 600 graduates.

In 1910 there were 16,000 engineering students in German Technical High Schools and only 4,000 in British Universities. 5,500 graduate chemists in German industry compared with 1.500 in British industry.

In 1911 there were 221.729 members of professional groups/associations.

In 1911 life expectancy for men 47 and for women 55.

In 1911 National income in Britain and Northern Ireland £2,022,000,000.

In 1912 111 Trade Schools existed in Britain.

In 1911 a survey showed that there were approximately 14,000 day students in technical institutions and 765,000 evening students. (Cotgrave).

In 1913 5.8% of the 14-16 age cohort were in full-time education in grant aided schools/colleges.

In 1913 Britain share of world trade in manufacturing was 25.4% compared with 37% in 1883.

In 1913 37 Junior Technical Schools with 2,900 students.

In 1913 187,000 students in grant aided secondary schools.

In 1913 chemical industries in Britain accounted for only 11% of the world trade output compared with 34% by US and 24% by Germany.

In 1913 287 million tons of coal mined over 98 million tons exported.

1913 1,500 Building Societies existed lending out £9,000,000.

In 1913 174,000 school population in England and Wales. In 1935 was 457,000.

In 1913 Total exports of metals and engineering industries, (e.g. ships, motor cars and aircraft), was £138,011,000.

In session 1913/14 number of students in university and technical institutions: Scotland-8,000 (population 4.8 million), Germany-90,000 (population 65 million), Ireland-3,000 (population 4.4 million), Wales-1,200 (population 2.0 million) and England-17,000 (population 34 million).

In session 1913/14 number of full-time students of science and technology Germany-17,000 (population 65 million) and in Britain-6,456 (population 40.8 million)

In 1914 there were 2,500 FT students in engineering and technology in English universities and technical institutions.

In 1914 estimated number of  TU members was 4,145,000.

In 1914 800 full-time reading science and technology at Imperial College, London.

In 1914 number of companies 62,762 (77% private).

In 1914 Trade Union membership was approximately 4 million. , 6,500,000 in 1919 and 8,334,000 in 1920.

In 1914 expenditure on education was £31,800,000 and on museums and libraries was £ 700,000.

In 1914 only about 7% of the male population were receiving any form of trade instruction. (Thomson Committee 1918).

% of Full-time Students in Science and Technology in 1913/14 and 1922/23:

Year

Science

Technology

1913/14

16.8%

19.9%

1922/23

20.4%*

16.4%*

  • Not all institutions made returns so figures are not precise.

In 1914 a solicitor in Britain earned an average of £568 per year, a doctor £395 whilst an engineer earned £292 per year.

In 1914 47.000 cars in Britain.

In 1914 Total tonnage of steam and motor shipping was 18,892,000.

In 1918 school leaving age was 14.

In 1920 650,148 cars on British roads.

In 1920 Gross Public Expenditure of Education, Arts and Science was £43,2000,000

In 1921 population of UK was 44.027 million.

In 1921 220,000 students attended technical colleges.

In 1921 number of day time students in technical education was 22,000 this doubled by 1938 to approximately 44,000.

In 1921 there were 34,591 students in British universities, 1,400,000 students in technical education, 12,256 in JTSs and 362,000 in grant aided secondary schools.

In 1921/22 the Board of Education (BoE) recurrent annual expenditure on education was £51 million and was still £51 million in 1938/39 and varied between £40 and £50 million in the years between.

In 1922 APTI founded initial membership 70.

Between 1922 and 1938 the proportion of science students decreased from 19.2% of the total number of students to 16.2% and the proportion of technology students from 12.5% to 11.3.%

In 1923 Between 1923 /24 Number of houses built 93,000.

In 1923 Out of every 100 insured worker approximately 51 were in manufacturing, 12 in mining, 7 in construction, 20 in distribution/commerce/traffic and 10 in services both in public and private sectors. In 1937 figures were  47, 7, 10, 24 and 12 respectively.

In session 1924/25 number of pupils from grant-earning schools in England and Wales progressing to university: 1,912 (Boys) and 1,330 (Girls).

In 1924 the total population of London Central Schools was 27,179 and in secondary schools (aided and maintained) was 31,282. (London stats. 1929/30.

In 1924 300,000 tons of bottles and jars produced in Britain, 360,000 in 1930.

In 1925 1,573 engineering companies in Britain employed only 26 Apprenticeship Masters.

In 1925 1,500,000 cars in Britain.

In 1925 between 1925 and 1930 71 new chairs were created in Universities – 4 in technology, 15 in science and mathematics and 39 in the arts!

In 1925-26 session there were 211 State Scholarships held by boys and 173 by girls in English Universities.

In 1925-26 session there were 31,039 maintenance grants held at universities, secondary schools and technical schools

In 1926 Unemployment rate was 12.5%.

In 1928 Unemployment rate was 10.8%.

In 1929 7,590,000 tons of pig iron produced in Britain.

In 1929 Unemployment approximately 1,250,000, increased to 2,900,000 in 1931.

In 1930 116,328,000 pairs of boot and shoes made in Britain.

In 1930 About 45% of jute goods exported.

In 1930 Total figure for furniture and cabinet production was £21,666,000.

In the 1930s % of elementary school children going to JTSs was approximately 2.6% (boys) and 1.4% (girls).

In 1931 life expectancy for men 58 and for women 65.

In 1931 there were 37,255 students in British universities , 1,820,991 ? students in technical education, 21,945 in JTSs and 411,000 in grant aided secondary schools.

In 1931 Total exports for metal and engineering industries was £109,507,000.

In 1932+ Number of employees released for study: 1932/33 26,296. 1935/36 32,810. 1937/38 41,539.

In 1932 Unemployment rate was 22.12%.

In 1932 8.25 million pairs of boots and shoes exported.

In 1932 Number in attendance at elementary school 5,634,213, Number leaving elementary school 523,059 and number leaving for employment 416,769.

In 1933 approximately 700,000 cotton looms in use in Britain.

In 1934 Research expenditure: Universities, learning societies and independent foundations – £1,500,000

Government finance: Defence – £2,000,000. Industrial Research – £600,000. Medical Research – £150,000 and Agriculture Research – £200,000.

In 1934 Number of trade ( junior technical) schools 194 with an attendance of 22,158 and an annual output of 10,000.

In 1935 there were 12,336 full-time students in technical, commercial and art colleges in England and Wales this increased to 187,000 in 1965 and part-time day study increased from 67,417 to 681,000 and those in evening institutes from 437,367 to 1,252,518 and those following adult education in all its forms from 50,796 to 218,881.

In 1935 53 day continuation schools in existence – 46 LEA controlled and 9 provided in private firms.

In 1935 Average worker earned approximately 62shillings 50 pence.

In the session 1935/36 the numbers of Advanced Students in Science, Technology and Agriculture:

Mathematics: Full-time-86 (Male). 3  (Female).  Part-time-38  (M), 6 (F). Biology: Full-time-1 (M), 0 (F). Part-time- 0  (M), 1 (F). Botany: Full-time 91 (M), 24 (F).  Part-time- 17 (M), 20 (F).

Chemistry:  Full-time-472 (M), 30 (F).  Part-time-78 (M), 7  (F). Applied Chemistry:  Full-time-46 (M), 0 (F). Part-time-25 (M), 1  (F).  Full-time-Bio-Chemistry: 40 (M), 11 (F). Part-time- 6 (M),  4 (F).  Geology: Full-time-34 (M), 5 (F). Part-time- 6 (M), 1 (F).  Mineralogy: Full-time-5 (M), 0 (F). Part-time: 0 (M), 0 (F).

Physics: Full-time-200 (M), 12 (F).  Part-time-39 (M), 5 (F). Aeronautics: Full-time- 22 (M), 0 (F). Part-time- 1 (M),  0 (F). General Engineering: Full-time-24 (M), 0 (F).  Part-time-2 (M), 0 (F). Chemical Engineering: Full-time-42 (M), 0 (F). Part-time- 1  (M), 0 (F). Civil Engineering: Full-time-43 (M), 0 (F). Part-time- 7 (M),  0(F). Electrical Engineering: 61 (M), 1 (F). Part-time- 10 (M),  0 (F). Mechanical Engineering: 35 (M), 0 (F). Part-time-15  (M), 0 (F). Mining: Full-time- 3 (M),  0 (F). Part-time 3 (M),  0 (F). Fuel Technology: 35 (M), 0 (F). Part-time-15 (M), 0  (F). Glass Technology: 17 (M), 0 (F). Part-time- 4  (M), 0 (F). Metallurgy:  Full-time- 39 (M), 0 (F). Part-time- 12 (M), 0  (F).  Oil Technology: Full-time-6 (M), 0 (F). Part-time-1 (M), 0  (F).

Textiles: Full-time-25 (M), 0 (F). Part-time-4 (M), 0  (F). Agriculture: Full-time-32 (M), 3 (F).  Part-time-2 (M), 0 (F) and Horticulture: Full-time 2 (M), 1 (F).  Part-time-0 (M), 0 (F).

In 1935 number of pupils in elementary schools 5,424,000. Number leaving for employment 380,000.

In 1935 12 Universities increased to 44 by 1965.

In 1935 12 universities with 40,392 students and approximately 3,079 full-time academic staff.

In 1935 19 students per 10.000 of the population in full-time advanced education by 1965 this figure had become 73 per 10,000.

In 1936 over 100,000 evening classes in England and wales with approximately 2.5 million class entries.

Day-Release of Employees between 1932/33 and 1937/38:

1932-33

1935-36

1937-38

26,296

32,810

41,539

(You can see the growth was rather slow over this period).

In 1937 there were just 19,000 pupils in secondary schools at the age of 18 and only 8,000 Higher School Certificates were awarded and approximately 4.000 out of the 663,000 school leavers went on to university whilst 13,000 attended Junior Technical Schools (JTSs) in 1937.

In 1937 29,431 pupils in JTSs compared with 484,000 in grant aided secondary schools.

In 1937 During session 1937/38 number of students in colleges FT- 12,712. PT -49,462 and Evening -1,114,598 giving a grand total of 1,176,772.

In 1937 % unemployment was 21% in Wales, 16% in Northern Ireland and 14.5% in Scotland. Note 7% in Midlands and 6% in Greater London.

In 1937 11% of children attended grammar schools.

In 1937 between 1937 and 1938 and between 1949 and 1950 the number of students in art institutions more than doubled e.g. full-time 6,000 to 15,000 and 62,000 to 129,000 respectively.

In 1937/38 student numbers in grant-aided establishments of FE were 20,000 full-time, 89,000 part-time and approximately 1,094,000 in evening classes.

In 1937/38 only 20% of children leaving elementary school at 14 received any kind of full-time Further Education.

Comparison of Students in Technical Education between 1937/38 and 1954/55:

Mode of attendance

1937-38

1954-55

Full-time

20,000

64,000

Part-time day

89,000

402,000

Evening

1,094,000

1,575,000

Totals:

1.203,000

2,041,000

In 1938 the number of full-time students in FE (excluding art schools) in England and Wales was 42,000 (c.f. 4,000 in 1909) and part-timers was 1,280,000 (c.f. 750,000 in 1909). There were 4,090 f-t teachers in FE (excluding art schools).

In 1938 only 13% of working class 13 year olds were still in school.

In 1938 51,000 day release students and 20,000 F-T.

In 1938/39 only 5,000 students studied applied science out of a possible 50,000 in the UK whereas 20,000 studied humanities.

In 1938  In 1938/39 session 7,661 full-time  students studied pure science, 5,288 technology and 1,043 agriculture and horticulture.

In 1938 444,877 cars manufactured in Britain.

In 1938/39 universities enrolled 6,000 Applied Science students compared with 22,000 Art students.

In 1938/39 41,000 students attended on day released this figure increased to 496,000 in 1964/65 (only included 79,000 female students).

In 1938 % of 14 year olds in secondary schools 38% and for 17 year olds 4%.

In 1938 In session 1938/39 number of degrees awarded in science 2,167and 1,048 in engineering.

In 1938-1939 session there were 41,000 day release students in England and Wales.

In 1938/39 the number of f-t students in technology at graduate level was 5,288 this increased to 10,933 by 1949/50 and the corresponding figures for post-graduate students were 662 and 1,539.

In 1939 there were 9,100 students in technical education over the age of 17 and 1,600 over 21 years of age- mostly part-time and the wastage was very high at 50%!

In 1939 there were 10,278 students of science and technology courses as opposed to 9,852 in 1922 – again reflecting the lack of interest in these subjects.

In 1939 number of part-time day release students was 42,000 increasing to 241,487 in 1949 and 0ver 300,000 in 1953.

In 1939 Gross Public Expenditure on Education, Arts and Science was £65,300,000.

In 1939 number of university students in science and technology was 12,949 increased to 27,759 by session 1950/51.

In 1943 number of graduates from universities in applied science was 1,051 first degree and 65 higher degrees.

In 1943 university output was 1,051 first degree and 65 higher degrees in applied science and its maximum was reckoned to be 1,600 per annum (1,354 excluding Polytechnics and external degrees) whereas the country need at least 3,000 per annum.

In 1944 the tripartite system of secondary school education introduced in England and Wales ceased in early 1970s whilst in Northern Ireland existed from 1947 to 2009. Three types of institutions namely Grammar – taught academic curriculum, Secondary Technical Schools (see biography on this website) designed to train pupils adept in mechanical and technical subjects aimed at producing scientists, engineers and technicians. Secondary Modern Schools (called Secondary Intermediate Schools in N.I.) trained pupils in practical skills and prepared them for less skilled jobs. System was meant to have parity of esteem but in reality did  because of inadequate resources – I attended a secondary modern school and was aware of the differences between the schools within the tripartite system – teachers were great but not supported by government or LEAs.

Number of Students (x000s) Released by Major Industries between 1946 and 1957:

Year

Eng./related

industries

Chemicals

Mining

Building

Public

Service

Misc.

Total

Pre-war

1937-38

13.2

3.9

0.6

4.2

3.3

16.4

41.5

1946-47

69.5

11.8

11.1

27.2

12.7

35.2

167.4

1948-49

87.6

14.6

17.8

34.2

21.1

48.8

224.1

1950-51

98.7

18.0

19.1

38.3

35.2

54.8

264.0

1952-53

111.2

10.5

29.7

39.2

33.3

81.4

309.3

1954-55

139.4

12.6

30.1

44.4

38.2

90.3

355.0

1956-57

160.4

15.4

33.4

49.3

60.1

98.3

417.0

In 1945 from 1945 to 1952 teachers’ certificates awarded:

Dressmaking – 1,149. Needlework – 401. Tailoring – 8. Millinery – 25 and Cookery 532.

In 1946/47 159,000 students received instruction in 400 colleges and technical institutes.

In 1947 the following Regional Advisory Councils for FE had been established:

London and Home Counties, Southern, Western, West Midlands *, East Midlands, East Anglia. Yorkshire*, North Western*, Northern and Wales and Monmouthshire*.

  • Already in existence under this title or another.
In 1947 Number of evening institutions 5,076 with 826,000 students.
In 1947 680 establishments provided full-and part-time courses – twice the number in 1938. Student numbers increased from13,727 (1938) to 31,512 (1947)
1947 Between 1947 and 1957 number of students in technical education doubled from 600,000 to 1,200,000 majority studied part-time and evening. During this period building funded increased from £5 million to  £15 million.

In 1948 number of pupils in elementary schools 4,281.  Number leaving for employment approximately 300,000.

In 1948 manufacturing contribution to national economy was 41%

In 1949 in1949/50 session there were 2.4 million students attending grant aided FE institutions.

In 1949/50 7.7% of central government revenue spent on education.

In 1950 30% of 15 year olds, 14% 16 year olds and 7% 17 year olds were in full-time education in schools or colleges in England and Wales.

In 1950 approximate percentages within the tripartite system of secondary education was: 20% in Grammar Schools, 5% in Secondary Technical Schools and 75% in Secondary Modern Schools.

In 1950 nuber of scientists needed 70,000 only 55,000 available – deficiency 15,000. Barlow Committee Report).

Between 1947 and 1957 the numbers of students in technical education went from approximately 600,000 to nearly 1,200,000.

In 1951 population of UK 50.287 million.

In 1951 within a total workforce of 23.912 million there were 60,930 scientists and 80,770 engineers.

In 1951 The Emergency Training Scheme (Teacher training programme introduced after the WW2) ended having trained more than 23,000 males and approximately 12,000 females.

In 1951 The work force comprised the following statistics : Young workers 15-44 – 43.1%. Older workers 45-59-  21.0%. Total workers 64,1%. Children <15 22.4% while older workers 13.5% (For Men 65+ and for Women 60+). Note in 1971 the figures were: 40.3%, 22.3%, 62.6%, 19.7% and 17.7& respectively.

In 1952 During session 1952/53 number of pupils in: Secondary Technical Schools 97,000. Secondary Grammar Schools 686,000 and Secondary Modern Schools 1,440,000.

In 1952 during session 1952/53 out of 2,061,718 students in all grant aided establishments 1,061,038 were women.

In 1952 Size of companies with 11 to 24 workers – 17,177. 25 to 99 workers – 25,103. 100 to 499 workers – 11,600. 500 to 999 workers – 1,481. 1,000 workers – 634. and 2.000+ – 352.

In 1952 during session 1952/53 entries in classes in domestic and women’s subjects: Full-time – 1,198. Part-Time – 19,113 and Evening 555,072.

In 1952/53 2,700 students were successful in taking the HNC Mechanical Engineering course.

In 1952 During session 1952/53 number of students in colleges FT -57,182. PT -353,o49 and Evening – 1,829,185. Giving a grand total of 2,239,416.

In 1952 during session 1952/53 7,188 students attended part-time catering courses in the evening.

In 1953 70 industries formally had adopted national agreed training schemes – what take up was very patchy with local implementation and knowledge of the schemes weak.

In 1953/54 APTI membership 230.

In 1953/54 ATTI membership 5,500 FT and 500 PT.

In 1953 up to 1953 76,000 women had taken examinations in various women subjects  staged by CGLI and 8,800 held the teachers certificate.

IN 1953 Number of evening institutions 9,483 with 1,037,000 students.

In 1953 there were 1.9 million people (7.8%) of the UK workforce employed in engineering and related activities.

In 1954 The Parliamentary and Scientific Committee reported that 40,000 Britain engineers were required each year when only 25,000 were being produced.

In 1954 Membership of ATI 240.

In 1953 In 1953/54 number of degrees awards in science 5,160 and 2,337 in engineering

In 1954 there were 34,400 students in Public Sector Higher Education (AFE).

In 1954 of the 400,000 school 15-17 year olds entering insurable employment more than 80% did so at the age of 15 and with no formal qualifications.

In 1954 Royal Institute of Chemistry had 13,651 corporate members. Institute of Physics had 2.806 corporate members.

In 1955 only 1.2% of secondary modern school pupils stayed on after 15.

In 1955 Number of qualified scientists in Britain 60,930 and engineers 80,770 out of a total workforce of 23,912,000.

In 1955 Number of non-qualified engineers in Britain 30,148 .

In 1955 number of scientists needed 90,000 only 68,000 available – deficiency of 26,000 (Barlow Committee Report).

In 1955 institute of Biology had 1,150 full members, 299 probationers and 299 student members.

In 1956 between 1956 and 1962 the number of schools leavers increased for around half a million to nearly three quarters of a million after 1963 figure declined.

In 1956 In 1956/57 38,747 full-time students studied pure science, 12,496 technology and 1,914 agriculture and horticulture.

In 1956 the White Paper Technical Education defined technical workers as:

1. Technologists. Possessed the qualifications and experience required for membership of a professional institution. These consisted of at least HNC plus ‘endorsement’ subjects plus practical experience in the field.

2. Technicians. These would have undergone specialist training with practical work and would require a good understanding of mathematics and science. Hey would normally work under the supervision of a technologist.

3. Craftsmen. These represented the skilled labour of industry. They were required to know not only ‘how’ but also ‘why’.

Also the Paper described the four main categories of award namely:

  1. University degrees.
  2. Technical college diplomas.
  3. National Diplomas and Certificates:

OND – 2 years full-time.

HND – 3 years full-time (OND+HND =5 years in all).

ONC – 3 years part-time.

HNC – 2 years part-time (ONC+HNC= 5 years in all).

  1. City and Guilds:

Intermediate Certificates -2/3 years part-time.

Final Certificates – 1/2 years part-time.

Full Technological Certificates – consisted of tests on the original technology plus ancillary subjects e.g. management.

In 1956 Number of qualified scientists in Britain comprising 20,692 chemists, 11,482 maths. 10,482 physicists, 4,838 biologists, 894 geologists and 2,838 others.

In 1956 96% of factories in manufacturing employed less than 500 people.

In 1956 only 0.6% of workforce in Britain were qualified scientists and engineers.

In 1957 there were 28 direct-grant FE establishments with a total of 2,500 full-time and 6,000 part-time day/evening students. These direct-grant establishments for FE were not analogous to the direct-grant secondary schools being more under the control of the MoE than LEAs.

In 1957 In 1957/58 number of degrees awarded in science 5,345 and 2,658 in engineering.

In 1958 there were 15,369 full-time teachers and 50,000 part-time teachers in technical colleges, art and evening institutions.

In 1958 number of 18-20 year olds released 69,483 and 21+years old 36,918.

Total number released of all ages 309,255.

In 1958 number of adult students studying in adult centres increased from 0.8 million in the late 1950s to approximately 1.9 million in 1978 after which the numbers declined to approximately 750,000 in 2010/2011.

In 1958 the Crowther Report recorded that 683,000 pupils in grammar schools and >1.5 million in secondary modern schools and just 95,000 in secondary technical schools.

In 1958/59 approximately 200,000 students enrolled on craft courses.

In 1958 Number of evening institutions 8,299 with 977,000 students.

In 1958/59 Students enrolled on ONCs was 140,000 and 40,000 on HNCs which had an industrial character.

In 1958 16,288 students followed full-time courses of acceptable standard in colleges of technology and were in receipt of major awards.

In 1958/59 approximately 450,000 students in FE were studying industrial programmes for technicians, craftsmen and operatives – 14,000 were on full-time or sandwich courses, 283,00 were attending part-time/block-release and 152,000 evening only courses.

In 1958/59 Students enrolled on ONDs was 1,600 and 3,100 on HNDs which had an industrial character.

In 1959 20% of students attending advanced courses were from Secondary Modern Schools i.e. they had failed the 11+ examination – I was one of them!

Employment by Sector in UK in 1961 and 1978:

Sector

Number in 1961

(x000s)

Number in 1978

(000s)

% change 1961to 1978

Total employed :

24,457

24,928

1.93

H.M. Forces

474

318

-32.91

Civilian employment

23,8983

24,610

2.61

Agriculture, forestry and fishing

1,098

653

-40.53

Mining and quarrying

728

344

-52.75

Manufacturing

8,636

7,423

-14.05

Construction

1,658

1,658

0.0

Gas, electricity, water

389

349

-10.28

Transport and Communications

1,724

1,527

-11.43

Other services

9,749

12,547

28.70

Total central government

1,773

2,309

30.23

National health

575

1,175

104,35

Total local authorities

1,870

3,012

61.12

Education

785

1,566

99.49

Health and social services

170

334

96.47

Total Central and Local government (excl Forces)

3,169

5,004

57.91

Public corporations

2,200

2,061

-6.32

Total public sector (excl. Forces)

5,369

7,065

31.59

Total public sector (incl. Forces)

5,843

7,383

26.36

Source: ‘Employment in the Public and Private Sectors’. Semple. M. Economic Trends 313, November 1979 pp 90-108.

Interesting to note the changes across the employment sectors during this period!

In 1960 there were 264 Secondary Technical Schools in existence. 145 admitted students at age 11, 14 admitted students at 12 and 101 at age 13.

In the 1960s approximately 3% of British manufacturers employees were apprentices compared with 5% for Germany.

In 1961 220,128 students still attended ‘all age schools’ by 1965 this figure had declined to 9,376.

In 1961 only 34% of boys and 7% girls leaving school entered apprenticeships or learnerships in skilled occupations (Ministry of Labour figures).

In 1961/62 Universities enrolled 28% of students reading Humanities, 4% Education, 11% Social Studies, 25% Pure Science, 15% Technology, 2% Agriculture and 15% Medical Subjects.

In 1962 7.2% of women enrolled in full-time HE courses compared with 9.8% of men – the figures for part-time HE were even starker 22% for men and 8% for women.

In 1962 % of 14 year olds in secondary schools 100% and for 17 year olds was 15%.

In 1962-1963 session 31 universities enrolled 118,000 full-time students.

In 1962 113,000 students qualified for university entry (14.5% of age group) and only 30,000 enrolled for university study (4% of age group).

1962 between 1962 and 1970 first degree graduate output increased from 22,000 to 47,600. In 1975 1st degrees were 70.000 and by 1980 had increased to 102,000. Because of demographic decline the figure grew more slowly so in 1987 in was 127,000.

In 1963 33% grammar schools in Wales, only approximately 22% in England and over 70% in secondary modern schools.

In1963-1964 session  University of London awarded 1,302 internal and external degrees to students.

In 1963-1964 session 164 higher degrees awarded in science and technology in colleges in England and Wales.

In 1964 College of Technologists (CoT) accepted 137 applications for registrations – 12 awarded in 1964. CoT merged with CNNA.

In 1964-1965 session number of non-advanced courses i.e. for craftspeople, operatives and technicians for industry was 840,000 with approximately 83% working towards recognised qualifications.

In 1964-1965 session 148,000 students studied GCE subjects in colleges.

In 1964-1965 session number of students at FE colleges enrolled in courses to recognised qualifications in England and Wales was males 836.000 and for females 161,600 giving a grand total of 998,200 DES stats 1965.

In 1964-1965 session there were 1,900 students in colleges in England and Wales taking higher degrees and other research postgraduate qualifications.

In 1964-1965 session there were 496,000 day release students in England and Wales.

In 1964-1965 session 16,000 students of the total 20,000 were on advanced sandwich courses at colleges in England and Wales taking Dip. Tech or HND in a proportion of 5:3.

In 1964-1965 session approximately 33% of advanced students were attending on evening only basis.

In 1965 41% of boys and 6% of girls leaving school entered apprenticeships or learnerships in skilled occupations.

In 1965 240,000 apprentices this declined to 53,000 in 1990.

In 1965 8,500 adults in Government Training Centres which were run by the Ministry of Labour – 2,700 were disabled.

In 1965 there were 622,000 technicians and other technical supply staff of which 400,00 were employed in manufacturing industries, 72,000 in the public sector of industry, 46,000 in construction and 89,000 in central and local government.

In 1965 65 LEAs proposed plans to abolish the tripartite system and create comprehensive schools.

In 1965 8,070,000 employees – 663,000 were in manufacturing factories with less than 50 employees, 1,748,000 in firms with less than 100 and 4,011,000 in firms with less than 500 employees.

In 1965 602,000 students of all ages in receipt of part-time release in England and Wales.. 51,000 in Scotland and Northern Ireland. 17,000 on sandwich courses and 33,000 on ‘block release’.

In 1965 467.000 people employed in agriculture spread over 399,603 holdings – 61% less than 50 acres and 78% less than 100 acres.

In 1965 of the total number of technical staff employed in the country 17% held a degree/HND/HNC, 14% an OND/ONC and 9% the Technical Certificate of CGLI the remaining 60% had other qualifications, in-house training or no formal training qualification which had been assessed by an examination.

In 1965 number of students receiving part-time release in England and Wales was 602,000. The numbers for Scotland and Northern Ireland contributed another 51,000 17,000 were on sandwich courses and 33,000 on block-release.

In 1966 the normal minimum requirement for initial enrolment for courses in colleges was set at: 25 for full-time (including sandwich programmes), 15 for courses involving a large % of practical/workshop work and 20 for all other part-time courses. (Circular 11/66).

In 1966 there were 13 ITBs representing 7.5 million workers in various industries.

In the 1950s/1960s the courses offered in the major FE colleges could be listed as:

Advanced – Post-graduate research, post-graduate courses including then the MCT, Dip Tech, Final university degree courses, Final examinations for professional institutions, HNDs and HNCs.

Senior Courses – ONDs, ONCs, CGLI final examinations, CGLI intermediate examinations, Intermediate degree examinations and GCE Advanced level examinations.

Junior Courses – GCE ordinary level examinations, General education courses, Adult education courses and Recreational courses.

Enrolments in these courses for 1954/55:

Mode of attendance

Advanced courses

Senior Courses

Junior Courses

Full-time

10,954

21,991

8,783

Part-time (own time)

2,121

31,989

2,960

Part-time (released)

30,006

248,269

82,388

Total

43,081

302,249

94,131

In 1968 the minimum specified time for technician courses was 180 hours per year, 220 for part-time students and 280 hours for students attending 1 day and evening. All ONC schemes required 240 hours for vocational subjects plus 90 hours for general studies. HNC schemes required 240 hours for vocational subjects and 60 to 90 hours for general studies.

In 1968/69 24 colleges in England and Wales received a 75% grant towards for delivering number of advanced courses.

In 1968 644,000 day release students and 244,000 F-T and sandwich courses.

In 1969 between 1969 and 1975 linked courses between colleges and schools expanded rapidly to approximately 140,000.

In 1969 in 1969/70 there were 326,000 teachers in England and Wales of whom 52,268 (16%) were trained graduates, 20,898 (6.4%) untrained graduates, 159,548 (48.9%) non-graduates (1-2 year training), 79,771 (24.5%) non-graduate (3 year training).

In 1969 Number of Public Sector Higher Education students (AFE) 190,200.

In 1969 approximately 40,000 part-time teachers and approximately 9,000 full-time teachers in technical colleges.

In 1970 % of 17 year olds in secondary schools was 26%.

In the early 1970s employers recruited >100,000 apprentices this declined to 40,000 by 1983/84.

In the 1970s % of 18 year olds in non-higher technical vocational education: In Germany- 51.8% (1979). Denmark-30.3% (1977). France-6.7% (1979) and Britain- 5.7% (1976).

In 1970/71 the number of institutions providing vocational art and design courses was 309 comprising 58 art colleges, 20 polytechnics (designated or proposed), 10 specialist colleges and 221 other FE establishments – total number of students 9,844 full-time and 8,742 part-time (included block-release students). In addition approximately 5,000 students on vocational art and design courses in a range of establishments by evening study.

In 1971 population of UK 55.928 million.

In 1972 TOPS introduced expanded very rapidly and in March 1978 approximately 95,000 people enrolled including 22,000 under 19 years of age.

In 1972 between 1972 and 1978 the proportion of women on TOPS programmes rose from 8% to 44%.

In 1974 6,500 subject entries for the CEE.

In 1974 Number of Public Sector Higher Education students (AFE) 210,200.

In 1975 20,000 out of the 60,000 TOPs trainees completed courses in engineering and construction.

In 1975/76 adult educational centres provided for approximately 1,797,257 students.

In 1976 number of students on all modes of attendance in:

Polytechnics-192,697, Other maintained major institutions-1,693,230, Direct grant, including voluntary colleges-36,047 and Adult Education Centres- 1,797,257 giving a grand total of 3,719,231.

In 1976 number of full-time students in FE colleges in England and Wales was 76,403 (61,068 males and 15,335 females).

In 1976 Number of NAFE students FT-287,000 and 682,000 0n evening courses. Note approximately 16% on GCE courses.

In 1976 there were 76,403 FT teachers in FE colleges. 14,000 teachers in Polytechnics, 57,867 teachers in other maintained major institutions, 3,808 in direct grant establishments and 719 FT or divided service in adult education centres..

In 1976 there were 287,000 students enrolled on full-time day NAFE courses and 682,000 on NAFE evening courses.

In session 1977/78 3 FE Colleges were offering the International Bacc with approximately 100 students most of whom were overseas.

In 1978 there were 149,989 full-time equivalent students in polytechnics and 41,914 full-time equivalent students studying advanced programmes in other institutions.

In 1979 there were 26,000 employees in Jobcentres and Employment Offices and another 9,ooo in Skillcentres and approximately 1,400 civil servants employed at MSC. There were 600 Jobcentres.

In 1979 approximately 40% of the 700,000 school leavers who found employment received no training and only 20% received 8 weeks or less training.

In 1979 1 in 8 people entered HE – in the 1960s it was 1 in 17 and by 1994 it was 1 in 3.

In 1980 some 90,000 young people began apprenticeships-10% fewer than in 1979.

In 1980 there were approximately 73,000 members of NATFHE, Approximately 1,000 of Association of Agricultural Staffs (AAS),  500 for Association of College Principals and Approximately 2,600 for Association for Adult and Continuing Education (AACE).

In the 1980s participation rate of 17 year olds in education and training were: West Germany full-time 50% and part-time 47%, Japan full-time 90% part-time 0%, France full-time 63% and part-time 12% and in UK full-time 33% and part-time 35%.

In 1980 manufacturing share of economy was 26%.

1980s Since the early 1980s 28 major pieces of legislation related to vocational, FE and skills training enacted with little or no impact or improvement.

In 1980 there were approximately 140,000 students on link courses (links between schools and colleges).

In 1981 unemployment rate was 6.3% with 35% of all unemployed under 25.

In 1982 500 companies involved in Young Enterprise(YE) – YE enabled young people to set up an company, sell shares and market a product to mirror real business practice.

In 1984 in Britain approximately 9% of workers benefited from job-related training and by 1990 this had risen to about 15% but these increased were from a relatively low base. (HMSO Training Statistics 1991).

In 1985 expenditure per FT equivalent student in Universities £5,170. Polytechnics £ 3,150 and Voluntary and Direct Grant Colleges £ 2,950. 

In 1986 the staying on rate for post-16 year olds in England was approximately 46%.

Staying-on Rates in Various Countries in the 1980s:

Full-time education and training

16-yr olds

%

17-yr olds

%

18-yr olds

%

16-18-yr olds

UK (1988)

50

35

20

35

W. Germany (1987)

69

43

33

47

France (1986)

78

68

52

66

USA (1986)

94

87

55

79

Japan (1988)

92

89

50

77

Source: Statistical. Bulletin 1990.

In 1985 over 50% of British companies did not offer any formal provision for management training.

In 1985 700,000 youth school leavers had entered the YTS – 4,000 managing agents involved and approximately 160 Information Technology Centres (ITECs) had provided 6,000 places.

In 1985/86 approximately 50,000 people had benefitted from support of the Open Tech.

In session 1985-86 expenditure per FTE student in universities was £5,170, £3,150 in Polytechnic and £2,950 in voluntary/direct grant colleges . (Note in maintained schools net recurrent institutional expenditure per pupil was £1.040). DES Bull 14/87. 

In 1986/89 52% of the work-force received no training in Britain (Training Agency 1989). In Britain about 36% of workers possessed some form of vocational qualifications the figure in Germany was 67%.

In 1986 about 20% of British managers held degrees or professional qualifications in Germany the figure was 63% and in America 85%.

In 1987 Participation rates of F-T education in Britain 50% (16 year olds) and 35% (16-18 year olds)

In 1987 only 30% of companies in Britain possessed a training plan and only 19% of those establishments made any assessment of the benefits of training and only £5 attempted to gauge the benefits against cost. (Training Agency 1989).

In 1987 approximately 100,000 (about 20%) of British school-leavers entered jobs that offered no training. By contrast 93% of West German school leavers entered apprenticeships, further schooling or university.

In 1987/88 Number of HE women students in Polytechnics 148,000 FT and 84,000 PT and in Universities 133,000 and 59,000 respectively.

In 1987/88 Number of HE men students in Polytechnics 157,000 FT and 151,000 PT and in Universities 188,000 and 73,000 respectively.

In 1987 52% of the workforce received no formal training. (CBI).

In 1988 45.6% of entrants to universities and polytechnics were female.

In 1988 the staying on rates in UK were: 50% for 16 year olds, 35% for 17 year olds and 20% for 18 year olds. Giving 35% for 16 to 18 year olds. c.f. these figures with those of Japan namely 92%, 89%, 50% and 77%. Also compare with France 78%, 68%, 52% and 66%. (DES 1990).

In session 1989/90 full-time participation rate at 18 for Scotland was 25% (i.e. entry to HE) compared with 17% for the whole of the UK.

In 1989 school leavers highest qualification with 2 or more GCE ‘A’ level 15%, 1 GCE ‘A’ level or equivalent  40%, Low level below O level 35% and no qualification 10%.

In 1990 only 1 in 200 school leavers became graduate engineers and just 3% of school leavers had GCE ‘A’ Mathematics and Physics.

In1992 20% 0f people employed in UK were over 50 years of age.

In 1995 43% of 16 year olds in education and training were in FECs and 6th form colleges (approximately 450 colleges).  14% of 16 year olds in education and training were on work-based provision.

1995 there were180 NTOs/Lead Bodies/Occupational Standards Councils.

In 1996/97 enrolments in Wales was 191,000 with approximately 50% studying ‘A’ or ‘AS’ levels comprising Full-time 17,625 (Male) and 20,569 (Female), Part-time and Block release 17.566 (M) and 28,785 (F), Part-time evening and other 17,029 (M) and 31,716 (F). (FEFCW 1996/97).

In 1996 approximately 70% of full-time teachers of engineering possessed a teaching qualification.

IN 1996 GNVQ registrations exceeded 180,000 with achievement rate of approx. 55% compared with 70% for BTEC National and ‘A’ level.

In 1996 approximately of engineering teaching delivered by part-timers.

In 1996/97 there were 75,600 students on AMAs in England and Wales -these increased to 87,700 in 1997/98.

In 1997 manufacturing contribution to national economy was  approximately 20%.

In 1997/98FEFC returns showed a 3% decrease in numbers between sessions 1997/98 and 1998/99.

In 1997 Number of Employees by Occupation:

Occupation

Number (x000)

%

Managers and administrators

4,243

16.5

Professional occupations

2,408

9.4

Associate Professional and Technical

2,565

10.0

Clerical and secretarial

4,133

16.1

Craft and related

3,190

12.4

Personal and Protective

2,554

9.9

Sales and related

1,958

7,6

Plant and Machine Operatives

2,578

10.0

Other occupations

2,111

7.8

Total:

25,740

100

Source: Business Strategies Ltd 1997 in Labour and Skill Trends 1998/99.

In 1998 there were 82,000 MAs started.

In 1998 14 million people held an NVQ level qualification.

In 1998 the year activity survey showed an increase of 0.6% stay on in f-t education at 68.5% and was 82.1 moved to some form of learning after completion of compulsory education and an increase of 7.8% of young people in employment with a planned programme of on and off job training.

In 1998 by the end of 1998 65 NTOs had been established.

In 1998 RDAs went live. (On 1st April).

In 1999 there were 81 approved sectors for AMAs and 50 for FMAs.

1999 51 frameworks for National Traineeships were approved and recruited 54,900 trainees.

In 1999 5% of degree entries held BTEC ONC/OND qualifications this increased to 9% in 2009 (HESA 2010).

In 1999 there had been 223,000 students (January) but 101,000 (43% had left New Deal.

In 2000 enrolments in Welsh Colleges post-16 were: 25% on full-time, 40% on block-release and 3.5% on open and distance learning. 60% of the students were female and 25% under 19. (FEFCW).

In 2000 participation rates were: Full-time education 70.7% (Age 16) and 58.1% (Age 17), Government supported training 8.2% (Age16) and 11.1% (Age17),

Employer funded training 3.1% (Age 16) and 5.6% (Age17), Other education and training 4.8% (Age16) and 5.6% (Age17). Totals 86% and 79.9% respectively.

Note at 18 the figure was 60.2% (36.8% full-time).

In 2000 by the end of August number on New Deal were on the following options: 77,800 young people in f-t education and training. 35,800 on the voluntary sector option and 34,100 on the environmental task force option. (DfEE).

In 2000 NTOs represented companies with a workforce size as follows: Over 1 million employees – 5 NTOs. Between 750,000 and 1 million – 2 NTOs. Between 500,000 and 750,000 – 3 NTOs. Between 200,000 and 500,000 – 16 NTOs. Between 50,000 and 200,000 – 27 NTOs and <50.000 – 15 NTOs.

In 2000 enrolments in FE sector (1/11/2000) was 2,334,800 compared with 2,424,400 in 1999 (1/11/1999).

In 2000 between 2000 and 2002 HE expenditure increased from £5.4 billion to £5.8 billion.

In 2000 level 1 and entry level to FE up 81.9% since 1994 – and represented over 26% of the total provision (17.3% in 1994). Level 2 up 29.1% since 1994 and represents 31.3% of total provision (29.3% in 1994), Level 3 up 3.7% since 1994 and represents 39% of total provision (a decline from 46.2% in 1994) and levels 4,5 and HE down 50.3% and represented only 2.9% of total provision (7.2% in 1994).

In 2000 there were 3,722,610 businesses in UK – of these 70% (>2.6 million) were sole traders. <7,000 were large companies (250+ employees) , 25,000 were medium sized companies (50-249 employees) and the rest were small enterprises. Large company providers provided 25% of private sector employment and 49% of turnover.

In 2000/01 number of FE colleges was 491.  Number of 6th Form Colleges 104. Number of Universities 109 and other HE Institutions 57.

In 2001 there were 1,007 Jobcentres in the UK.

In 2001 it was estimated that the workforce would require a level 3 qualification – this is yet to be achieved. (In 2001 only 43% held level 3 qualifications).

2001 figures for HE comprising 33% were mature students (i.e. over 30 years) and 25% new entrants were entering with non-traditional entry qualifications e.g. GNVQs and BTECs.

In 2001 between 2001/2 and 2003/04 funding for Adult Basic Skills increased from £253 million to £403 million.

In 2001 there were approximately Union Learning Unions representing 66 different unions.

In 2001 population of UK 59.618 million.

In 2001 there were several thousand learning centres and 2,500 private sector training organisations, 600 – 1000 learning material developers/publishers, 600 awarding bodies, 70+ NTOs and over 400 colleges in England.

In session 2004/05 there 25 FE institutions in Wales employing 14,695 staff.

In 2005 in 2005/06 number of apprenticeships were 99,500 (<19). 75,200 (19-24) and 300 (>25) – 122,800 at level 2 and 52,100 at levels 3/4.

In 2006 over 25% of the workforce were over 50 years of age.

In session 2007/08 there were 4,360,700 FTE numbers of  students in FE in England.  Corresponding figures for Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland were 223,500, 386,600 and 131,800 respectively.

In Session 2008/09 number of students in FE Institutions was 5.6million.

In 2008/09 Student numbers in Science, Engineering and Technology Apprenticeships in England were composed as follows:

Science and related subjects 2,636 (level2) 3% and 4,131 (level3) 5%.

Technology and related subjects 9,000 (level2) 12% and 6,425 (level3) 8%.

Engineering and related subjects 65,436 (84%) and 72,000 (level3) 87%.

Mathematics and related subjects 4,890 (level2) 6% and 5,309 (Level3) 6%.

2009 Learning and Development survey highlighted issues associated with skills namely:

61% employers said new employees from schools/colleges/universities lacked business skills and commercial awareness.

60% employers said employees were weak in communication skills.

55% employers said employees generally lacked work ethic among new employees and

43% lacked customer service skills.

In 2009 in 2009/10 number of apprenticeships were 116,800(<19). 113,800 (19-24) and 49,100 (>25)  – 190,600 at level 2 and 89,200 at levels 3/4.

In 2009 in 2009/10 3.4 million achieved a government funded FE qualification – 1.3 million at level 2 and 674,600at level 3.

In 2009/10 % of employers reporting skill shortages/gaps – hotels/catering 11%, manufacturing 9%, construction 7% and utilities 9%.

In 2010 88% of 16 year olds and 76% of 17 year olds in England were in full-time education.

In 2010 in England 8% 0f employers offered apprenticeships.

In 2010 fewer than 20% of students in England, Wales and Northern Ireland studied any kind of mathematics after taking the GCSE qualification.

In 2010 overall 13% taking ‘A’ mathematics in England Wales and Northern Ireland the figure in Scotland was 23%.

In 2010/11 13.3% of central government revenue spent on education.

In 2011 Between 2011 and 2015 employment increased by 20% in the creative industry/economy.

In 2012 there were 1.07 million 16 to 24 year olds classified as NEETs. 5700,000 unemployed and 502,000 economically inactive.

In 2011/12 there were 402 FE Colleges. Number of 6th Form Colleges 95. Number of Universities 126 and number of other HE Institutions 36.

In 2011 in session 2010/11 there were 4.9 million learners who enrolled for publically funded FE courses in the UK.

In session 2012/13  there were 44,216,600 FTE numbers of students in FE in England. Corresponding figures for Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland were 211,300, 256,590 and 141,700 respectively.

In session 2012/13 £86.6 billion spent on education – £13.6 b on tertiary and £36.5 b on secondary.

In 2013 Minimum wage for apprentices increased by 3p per hour to £2.68. (October).

In 2013 60% of young people are not prepared for the workforce. CGLI

In 2013 It was expected that Traineeships can last between 6 weeks and 6 months and would include work preparation, English and mathematics and work experience placement with an employer.

In 2013 employers stated that 59% of young people do not have the correct attitudes for he workplace.

In 2013 1 in 6 young people are not in education, employment or training (NEETs).

In 2013 the SFA funded over 1,000 colleges , schools and training providers with a budget of £4 billion per year.

In 2013 just 11 in every 1,000 employees in England were apprentices compared with 39 in Australia and 40 in Germany.

In 2013 it is expected (hoped?) that approximately 15% of apprentices will progress onto Higher Education.

In 2013 Between 2013 and 2022 apprenticeships are estimated to contribute £3.4 billion of net productivity to the UK economy.

In 2013/14 the UK spent £2.5 billion a year on out-of-work benefits for the under 25 year olds. Also 14% of young people were classified as NEETS. Number of students in session 2013/14 FE Institutions 4.5 million – a decrease from 5.6million in session 2008/09

In 2014 estimated that over 1 million new science, engineering and technology professionals will be required in the UK by 2020.

In 2014/15 there were 670,000 apprentices

In 2014 Number of FE students studying P-T work based programmes or college study (aged <19 years olds) – 1,200,000 (England). 63,000 (Wales). 79,000 (NI) and 11,000 (Scotland).

In 2015 26 million people employed in manufacturing in Britain compared with 6.6 million in 1980.

In 2015 54% of British exports came from manufacturing

In 2015 20,000 unfilled graduate positions in IT industries in spite of 30,500 studying computer sciences in universities. 16.4 % increase in engineering graduates since 2005 – but still to low to satisfy demand. European Statistical Office projected that by 2060 there will be only 2 people of working age (15-64) in the EU for every person over 65. 25% of people in employment in UK over 50 years of age. 683,000 young people (16-24) unemployed – June/August figures. 187 standards established for the Trailbrazer Apprenticeship programmes.  A number of surveys identified that for every 1£ spent on apprenticeships there was an economic return of £26-£28. Since 1995 amount that British companies spent on training has fallen year by year. 19% of university graduates are working in non-graduate jobs – a figure that is predicted to rise further. CIPD survey showed that in the UK 22% of jobs required no more than a compulsory – level school – second in the OECD.  SMES employed 60 of people in private sector companies.

In 2015 UK trade deficit in manufacturing goods approximately £120 billion.

In 2015 1,300 qualifications offered in Britain – crazy in spite of many reviews to reduce the number.

In 2015 OECD ranks Britain 28th in 33th in countries in terms of developing intermediate skills.

In 2015 Royal Academy of Engineering reported that Britain would need an additional 800.000 graduates in science, technology, engineering and mathematics by 2020.

In 2015 manufacturing share of economy was 10% a figure continuing to decline. Proportion of exports from manufacturing for Britain 44%. 61% of parents preferred their children to undertake high quality degree apprenticeship programmes. University students receive £6,000 more funding per year than vocational students – namely £8,400 compared to £2,150. In UK manufacturing represents approximately 11% compared with 21% in Germany.

In 2016 2.6 million people employed in manufacturing a figure continuing to decline (20,000 per  quarter). UK needs 69,000 new engineers per year to meet demands of industry (IET). Companies with a payroll>£3 million will be required to pay 0.5% of their wage bill to fund the national  Apprenticeships programmes with a minus £15,000 allowance. 46% of all UK employers will require high level skills and also 70% of all newly created jobs will require high skills. More than £450 billion of UK GDP relies from engineering/manufacturing. Surveys show 59% more people required in people management/production-related technical skills, 53% in craft and technician, 52% in sales and marketing and 47% in IT and software skills over the next three years. Government statistics identify 150,000 shortage of carpenters and 75,000 project managers along with other key  trades in construction industry.

Hard to find vacancies for manufacturing was 35% compared with 30% in 2011. This figure has remained approximately the same for the past few years.

2017 Recent survey again highlights the poor standard of teaching in the key subjects because of teacher shortages. Only 33.3% of physics teachers have a degree in that subject and 20% of mathematics teachers. Productivity levels declined again and now the country occupies 25th place in the international league table of developed nations – reasons given lack of investment in Research and Development by employers (R and D) and in vocational and technical training. Two depressing examples of the inability of this country to address yet alone resolve these long standing problems!

In 2017 Construction provides 7% of the UK  economy’s GVA and 6% jobs.

In 2017 Productivity rate lags , on average, 18 points behind the other G7 nations.

In 2017 Number of applicants to study languages continues to decline. UCAS figures showed that number of applications declined from 19,620 in 2012 to 15,140 in June 2017 who wanted to study European languages.

In 2017 A CBI survey of teenagers regarding their view of the importance of social/key skills gave the following results:

Strong work ethic 14%, Communication skills 12%. Team working 6%, Self-confidence 6%, Social skills 4%, Leadership 4%, Problem Solving 3% and Creativity 3%.

A depressing set of figures.

The survey also highlighted the importance of work experience was rated at just 20%

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